Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Quality of Cowpea Beans (Vigna unguiculata L.) Seeds in the Function of Cultivars and Planting Times

Joabe Freitas Crispim, Jailma Suerda Silva de Lima, Cristiane Wigna dos Santos Rodrigues Fir, Jacqueline Alves de Medeiros Araújo Cost, Antônio Gideilson Correia da Silva, José Elinaldo Alves Bento

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i530244

Germination and vigour evaluation of improved cultivars and creole of cowpea bean seeds as a function of different planting seasons. A completely randomized design in a factorial scheme, with six treatments and two planting periods, with four replications, each repetition with 25 seeds. The treatments consisted of six cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L.) cultivars, and two improved (BRS Tumucumaque, BRS Guariba) and four creoles, (Governor, Passagem, Chico Joaquim and Espírito Santo). The experiment place and timing was carried out under greenhouse on a riparian zone of the Federal Rural Semi-Arid University (UFERSA), located in the municipality of Mossoró-RN, Brazil. The first sowing season comprised the period from April 3 to April 18, 2017, and the second one from January 15 to 30, 2018. The sowing was done in plastic trays. Was used the sand washed and sterilized as a substrate. The trays were kept in a greenhouse at room temperature. Two irrigations were realized daily. In order to avoid the local effect, the trays were changed position each day. The evaluated characteristics were: Germination percentage, emergence speed index, seedling height, leaf number, root length, stem diameter, fresh and dry mass of seedlings. Creole cultivars showed superior quality to those improved in the second season. In the first season, the cultivars BRS Guariba and BRS Tumucumaque were the most outstanding. It was concluded that the physiological quality of cowpea beans is directly influenced by the cultivars and the planting season, as well as by the interaction of these two factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Phenol Production Potential in Maize (Zea mays L.) in Response to Infection Caused by Fusariun verticillioides (Niren.)

I. L. Oriyomi, A. A. Sobowale, A. O. Akanmu, A. C. Odebode

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i530245

This study investigated phenol production in five maize varieties in response to infection caused by Fusarium verticillioides. Pure culture of the pathogen was obtained from Plant Pathology Laboratory of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. The screen house experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design. Dual inoculation was done where soil was infected separately before planting and seedlings were infected separately two weeks after planting with two volumes (10ml and 20ml) containing 1.4×107 spores/ml suspension of F. verticillioides. The maize plants were harvested at 4th, 5th and 6th weeks after inoculation and the maize plants were dried at room temperature before determination of phenol content in each of the varieties. Data gathered on the agronomic parameters and phenol contents were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS 9.1 statistical package.

All the maize varieties recorded more than 70% stalk rot incidence while the severity ranged from 19.01% in variety ART-98-SW1 to 25.21% in ART-98-SW6. ART-98-SW6 showed the most (p<0.05) phenol content (21.28 mg/g). Soil inoculation produced the highest percentage stalk rot severity while seedling inoculation showed significantly higher phenol contents across the period of study. Similarly, disease severity increased with increasing inoculum levels with highest attained using 20 ml (23.99%) while higher phenol content was obtained at inoculum level 10 ml (18.61 mg/g) compared to results using 20 ml (15.63 mg/g) and control (7.88 mg/g). The maize variety; ART-98-SW6 with highest stalk rot severity also produced the highest phenol content. Overall, the rate of phenol production in maize corresponded with the extent of severity F. verticillioides infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Regression and Correlation on Production of Sugarcane in the States of Paraná, São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil

Noélle Khristinne Cordeiro, Dablieny Hellen Garcia Souza, Daiane Bernardi, Kerolém Prícila Sousa Cardoso, Norma Schlickmann Lazaretti, Patrícia Clemente Abraão, Tatiane Calandrino da Mata, Eurides Kuster Macedo Júnior

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i530246

Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. Studies considering the production of a culture in informatic function of time allow to verify the behavior of it in a certain homologated. The aims of this work were to analyze the production of the states of Paraná, São Paulo and Minas Gerais, as well as the national production of sugarcane crops, based on statistical tools of regression analysis, and correlation. Sugar cane production data were collected from the Sugarcane Industry Union (UNICA). The work was done in the State University of Western Paraná, Post-Graduation in Agronomy, between July 2018 and December 2018. The data used were obtained from various institutions and, made available by the Sugarcane Industry Union (UNICA), constituting a historical series of 1980/81 to 2016/17. The regression models that best fit the states of Paraná and São Paulo were the linear model, with correlation equal to 0.9711 and 0.9934 respectively, while for Minas Gerais was the quadratic, with 0.9708 of correlation with the national production. The results obtained showed a greater similarity of the behavior of the production of São Paulo with the national, evidencing its importance in participating in the sugarcane agroindustry sector. Based on the regression and correlation analyses obtained, it was found that the state of Paraná and São Paulo obtained a behavior of sugarcane production like that of the national. In the sugarcane production of the state of Minas Gerais, the growth was observed only from the year 2000. Thus, it is concluded that the productions from the states of São Paulo and Paraná contributed more significantly to the national production of sugarcane in relation to the production of the state of Minas Gerais.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Grain Yield of Two Varieties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Subjected to Four Agricultural Practices in Gùrué District, Mozambique

Germias Horácio António, José Bofana, Francisco Gimo, Sueco Albino Cipriano

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i530247

To evaluate the effect of four agricultural practices on grain yield, two varieties (IT-16 and IT-18) of cowpeas were tested in the agricultural year 2016/2017 an experimental field where the following agricultural practices were tested: tillage, tillage + mulch, zero tillage and zero tillage + mulch. The randomized complete blocks design, a scheme consisting of two factors: agronomic practices and varieties was used. The plant height, number of pods per plant, weight of 100 seeds and grain yield in kg ha-1 were considered as parameters for analysis. From the results, it was concluded that for the yield of grain of different varieties under study, the variety IT-18 subjected to zero tillage + mulch and the variety IT-16 subjected to tillage had better performance achieving 2600.00 kg ha-1 and 1725.00 kg ha-1 respectively; therefore, recommended to the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spore Density and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization in Sunflower Grown in Campo Verde (Brazil)

Dryelle Sifuentes Pallaoro, Dayana Aparecida de Faria, Daniela Tiago Silva Campos, Aluisio Brigido Borba Filho, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu, Elisangela Clarete Camili, Márcia Helena Scabora

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i530248

The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of spores and the mycorrhizal root colonization in a Cerrado soil (Red-Yellow Latosol) cultivated with different sunflower genotypes. The sampling of the rhizospheric soil was performed at three growth stages: Sowing, flowering, and harvest. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with four replications. Three different sunflower hybrids were tested in the 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons. The collected data comprised the total number of spores per 50 g of soil at the three growth stages, along with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization. It was verified that the mycorrhizal colonization was not influenced by the sunflower genotypes, and the mean spore densities were equivalent to 4.94 and 4.64 g soil-1 in 2009 and 2010, respectively. More importantly, AMF colonization was enhanced by lower soil phosphorus levels. The maximum spore production was obtained at flowering, with mycorrhizal colonization rates ranging from 21 to 28% and from 28 to 48% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The number of spores also varied from 153 to 342 and from 147 to 320 in 2009 and 2010, respectively.