Open Access Short Research Article
Participatory genetic improvement is a component of the management of genetic diversity, aiming at the systematic inclusion of farmers' knowledge, skills, experiences, practices and preferences. This modality of improvement is based on the knowledge of conventional genetics, physiology and economics, combined with those of anthropology, sociology, knowledge of the producers and with the principles of product development. The development of participatory strategies in the improvement of different crop species in the farmers field involves some fundamental aspects such as: rescue of different species and of different varieties within each species, valorization of local varieties, development of new varieties, valorization of cultural aspects and nutrition, agroecosystem management, agro-ecological crop systems, adaptation to the local environment with increased production from participatory improvement. Initially a search was made for communities in the forest area of Pernambuco, Brazil, which preserve, store and use native varieties. After the identification of the localities contemplated. The seeds were obtained in the municipality of Lagoa de Itaenga. The proposal was submitted to farmers living in the Marrecos community. At the same time, the importance of the conservation of local cultivars, the maintenance of the genetic identity of these genotypes, the importance of the isolation of the cultures, mainly the Creole ones and the practice of the participatory improvement were also treated. In addition, seed samples were collected and stored by the farmers, for later implantation of the germplasm bank (in vivo) at the Federal Institute of Pernambuco. At the time of collection, the forms of storage adopted by farmers were observed, being of great relevance for the guarantee of the genetic reserves of the crops. The experiments were conducted in a phyto-bacteriology laboratory and in a greenhouse of the Department of Agriculture of the Federal Institute of Pernambuco (IFPE) in Vitória de Santo Antão-PE. The plants were cultivated in the field in an organic cultivation system. The results showed that there is genetic divergence, based on agro-morphological markers, among fava varieties studied as a function of germplasm origin. Thus, samples from the Germplasm Collection of IFPE-Camps Vitoria correspond to different materials. The existence of genetic divergence among the varieties indicates the possibility of selection of superior genotypes. The evaluated characteristics present high potential to differentiate the genotypes and should serve as parameters for other studies.
Open Access Original Research Article
The present work aimed to evaluate the correlation of the agronomic characteristics of sunflower genotypes grown for seven years in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, as an aid for the indirect selection of genotypes. The data were obtained from experiments conducted in the period from 2009 to 2017, in the municipality of Campo Verde, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, using different sunflower genotypes. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the following agronomic characteristics: Initial flowering (IF), physiological maturation (PM), plant height (PH), thousand achene weight (TAW), achene yield (AY), oil content (OC) and oil yield (OY). A strong positive correlation (r = 0.75*) was observed between IF and AY, and a moderately strong positive correlation (r = 0.67*) between PM and AY. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.51*) between TAW and OC, as well as between plant height and achene yield (r = -0.32*) and oil yield (r = -0.34*). Late-cycle genotypes showed a positive correlation with achene yield and oil yield. Smaller plants favor productive parameters. Further studies and the anticipation of the crop sowing season in the second crop are suggested due to the local edaphoclimatic conditions.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) provides leaves and branches as raw material for medicinal and infused / tea drinks, generate employment and income for small farmers and plays an important role in the conservation of the Atlantic Forest. Harvesting causes high stress as a result of drastic defoliation. High dilution preparations have been indicated for treatment of illnesses, also, they showed a positive effect on plant growth. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetative recovery of yerba mate by using dynamized high-dilution preparations of Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis and Carbo vegetabilis at 12 and 30CH (centesimal hahnemannian), just after formation pruning.
Place and Duration of Study: The experimental work was conducted in Fraiburgo, SC, Brazil, from July 2015 to August 2016 in agroforestry system.
Study Design: The statistical design was completely randomized with 22 replicates and 7 treatments. Each plant represented an experimental unit and the treatments were applied by spraying.
Methodology: The evaluations started after the first thinning, when number of buds, height and length of regrowth were registered. At 399 days after the first cut, the second cut was performed, and after that, the harvested branches were weighed.
Results: Fresh mass weight was higher in plants treated with Arnica montana 30CH (0.2212 kg/plant) and Calendula officinalis 30CH (0.2185 kg/plant) in comparison to Potable water (0.1136 kg/plant). Final plant height was 32 cm higher on plants treated with Calendula officinalis 30 CH. Carbo vegetabilis showed no effects on the regrowth of yerba mate.
Conclusion: Therefore, Calendula officinalis 30CH has the potential for use in the recovery of yerba mate plants after harvesting their branches.
Open Access Original Research Article
This study aimed to evaluate the bromatological traits of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piatã submitted to different cutting heights and nitrogen (N) rates. A randomized complete block design with sixteen treatments and four replications was used. The treatments arranged in 4x4 factorial arrangement, comprised four cutting heights (8, 16, 24 and 32 cm) and nitrogen rates (0, 100, 200, 300 kg N ha-1). N rates were applied after a standardization cutting. Agronomic traits comprised number of tillers, dry mass, leaf blade pseudocolus ratio and amount of senescent material. Bromatological traits of morphological components leaf blade and pseudostem comprised crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and mineral matter (MM). In the first and second cuttings, maximum yields were obtained at 16 and 32 cm cutting heights combined with N rates of 180.5 and 230.5 kg ha-1, respectively. No interaction was observed between N rates and cutting heights. It was concluded that 16 and 24 cm cutting heights combined with N rates of 200 and 300 kg ha-1 improved agronomic and bromatological traits of Brachiaria with a better efficiency in pasture system.
Open Access Review Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) has functional and nutritional value due to its content of amino acids, antioxidants, vitamins, carbohydrates, starch and oil. It is a crop with a wide geographic distribution in the Andean Region, where the greatest diversity of crop forms, genotypes and wild progenitors is found. It is a short day’s photoperiod plant, with efficient use of water, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. It prefers loam-sandy to clay loam well-drained soils because it is sensitive to excess moisture. It requires from 10 to 18°C with a thermal oscillation of 5 to 7°C. In Ecuador, quinoa grows between 2500 - 3600 masl; however, in Peru and Bolivia quinoa grows from sea level to 4000 masl. The luminosity of 5 to 7 h day-1 is suitable to meet transpiration and photosynthetic processes. Quinoa is a crop that has all the essential amino acids, suitable mineral elements, vitamins and does not contain gluten. Regarding fertilization, quinoa is highly demanding of N, P, K and Ca. The production volume of quinoa in the Andes is approximate of 180000 t y-1 and uses around 191000 ha, with Peru (the leading world producer) reaching the highest production (105000 t, 69000 ha), followed by Bolivia (75000 t, 121000 ha) and Ecuador (12000 t, 7000 ha). The demand for quinoa has increases in USA (60%) and Europe (90%), but those areas have not the agronomic conditions for quinoa´s growth. This opens an international market opportunity for Andean countries. Nevertheless, quinoa´s production faces several challenges.