Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of the Sowing Speed on the Distribution Regularity of Maize Seeds

Wesley Nadin, Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira, Onassis Henrique Simon Rondon, Matheus Farinha Afonso, Dryelle Sifuentes Pallaoro, Elisangela Clarete Camili, Antônio Renan Berchol da Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i230259

This work aimed to evaluate the influence of the sowing speed on the regularity of longitudinal distribution of maize seeds through a pneumatic metering seeder. The experimentation of 4 sowing speeds (4, 6, 8 and 10 km h-1) was performed in randomized blocks design with four replicates. The parameters evaluated were the mean distance between plants, coefficient of variation of the distance between plants, percentage of acceptable, flawed and double spacings, precision index, plant stand, initial population, mean seed deposition depth, and coefficient of variation of the seed deposition depth. The increase in the operating speed linearly reduced the percentage of acceptable spacings, plant stand, initial population, and mean seed deposition depth. Conversely, it linearly increased the values of mean distance between plants, coefficient of variation of the distance between plants, percentage of double and flawed spacings, precision index, and coefficient of variation of the deposition depth. Therefore, the increase in the displacement speed of the tractor-seeder set reduced the regularity of the longitudinal distribution of the plants, as well as the sowing quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Varieties of Caupi Bean to Meloidogyne Incognita Parasitism

Gilberto Antonio Torres Júnior, Fernandes Antonio de Almeida, Erik Gomes Sampaio, Francisco Tarcísio Lucena, Maria Lucia Tiburtino Leite, Wéverson Lima Fonseca, Artur Franco Barreto, Francisco de Alcântara Neto, Francisco de Alcântara Neto, Francisco Fernandes Pereira, Rezanio Martins Carvalho, Ancélio Ricardo de Oliveira Gondim, Lucimere Maria da Silva Xavier

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i230260

The culture of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) of wide adaptation of the various edaphoclimatic conditions of Brazil is of fundamental importance for the socioeconomic development of the north and northeast regions, however, the productivity can be limited by pathogenic agents, such as phytonematodes, belonging to the genus Meloidogyne. Due to this condition, the objective was to evaluate the behavior of different varieties of cowpea against the parasitism of M. incognita. The reaction test was performed with inoculation of 5.000 eggs/juveniles in the region of the root. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with a completely randomized design, with 14 varieties (Bastiãozinho; Mosqueado; Maravilha; Balinha; Garanhão; Sempre verde; Canapuzinho; Canapu branco; Paulistinha; Pujante; Canapu da Vagem Roxa; Rajado PE; Costela de Vaca e Setentão) with five replications. 60 Sixty days after inoculation, some agronomic characteristics and parasitism were evaluated. All varieties were susceptible to M. incognita, with RR > 1. However, the Paulistinha variety proved to be moderately resistant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nitrogen Doses and Preculture of Plant Species on Watermelon Culture

Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo, Roberto Dantas de Medeiros, Edmilson Evangelista da Silva, Edvan Alves Chagas, José de Anchieta Alves de Albuquerque, Anderson Carlos de Melo Gonçalves, Edgley Soares da Silva, Roberto Tadashi Sakazaki, Maria Luiza Grigio, Eduardo Medeiros de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i230262

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the best crop succession strategy and nitrogen dose for irrigated watermelon cultivation in the cerrado of Roraima.

Experimental Design: The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, arranged in a split-plot scheme, with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Two experiments were conducted (2014/2015 and 2015/2016 growing seasons), with the ‘Crimsom Sweet’ watermelon cultivar, grown under different N doses in succession to cover crop species, at the experimental field “Água Boa”, belonging to Embrapa Roraima, located in the municipality of Boa Vista, state of Roraima, Brazil.

Methodology: The three plots consisted of cultivating watermelon in succession to: maize intercropped with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), Brachiaria (Urochloa ruziziensis) and control with natural vegetation. The subplots consisted of four doses of nitrogen (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg ha-1 of N) applied in the watermelon culture. The following variables were evaluated: average fruit weight, number of fruits per hectare, number of fruits per hectare with a mass between 5 and 10 kg, number of fruits per hectare with mass greater than 10 kg, productivity, soluble solids content, pH and titratable acidity.

Results: The pigeon pea provided an increase in the number of fruits per hectare with mass ≥ 10 kg and in productivity. Nitrogen doses between 118 and 124 kg ha-1 produced the highest number of fruits, number of fruits with mass ≥ 10 kg and higher soluble solids content.

Conclusion: Fruit quality was influenced by the year of cultivation, predecessor cover crop species and the N doses. Pigeon pea and U. ruziziensis favor the availability of nitrogen in the soil for the following crop in succession.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ripening Stages on Shelf Life and Quality of Pitaya Fruits during Storage

Raquel Rodrigues Soares Sobral, Rayane Carneiro dos Santos, Mariana Oliveira de Jesus, Pablo Fernando Santos Alves, Gisele Polete Mizobutsi, Valtânia Xavier Nunes, Flavia Soares Aguiar, Eliene Almeida Paraizo, Maryelle Cristina Souza Aguiar, Edson Hiydu Mizobutsi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i230263

Aims: The study objective was to determine the harvest point of red pitaya produced in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil, according to physical and chemical changes during refrigerated storage.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted through a completely randomized design in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme composed of three treatments (ripening stages) and five post-harvest assessment days (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20), with four repeats of four fruits per experimental unit.

Study Place and Duration: The experiment was conducted in a cold chamber at the State University of Montes Claros, Brazil, between July and August 2018.

Methodology: The following quality parameters were assessed: fruit fresh mass, length and diameter at harvest point, color, firmness, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing, pH and amide, during storage.

Results: There was no significant difference for fresh mass, length and diameter as a function of ripening stages. Ripening stages 2 and 3 presented higher soluble solid content means.

Conclusion: Considering the conditions of northern Minas Gerais, harvest should happen at stages 2 or 3, when fruits have a brighter red hue, that is, are more attractive and of easier identification by producers. In addition, pitayas at these stages have higher soluble solid contents and reduced pulp acidity during storage in relation to fruits harvested at S1.

Open Access Original Research Article

NTFP Utilization and Its Impact on Poverty Reduction among Rural Women in Ondo State, Nigeria

A. G. Adedayo, O. I. Falade

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i230264

Poverty among rural women in Nigeria is high and widespread. Exploitation of NTFPs possesses great potentials in reducing poverty among rural women in Nigeria. This is because NTFPs provide income that is significant to the income of rural women. This paper therefore examines the impact of NTFP utilization on poverty reduction among rural women in Ondo State, Nigeria. Five local government areas (LGAs) out of 18 LGAs in the study area were purposively selected. Four rural communities were randomly selected from each sampled LGA making a total of 20 villages in the study area. 15 rural women were randomly selected in each sampled community to make a total of 300 respondents. Semi-structured questionnaire were used to get information on the income realized from NTFPs. The results showed that rural women utilize NTFPs for household consumption and to generate income. The results also showed that 22.3% of the respondents earned more than USD278 per annum from the exploitation of NTFPs. Chi- square tests (p< 0.05) shows that age of rural women has a significant association with the income earned from the exploitation of NTFPs. The results further showed that 73% of the respondents earned more than 50% of their income from the exploitation of NTFPs. Rural women are however faced with some problems in the utilization of NTFPs in the study area. These include insect attack, bad weather and poor roads. These problems can be solved through repair of rural roads, improved forestry extension and provision of boots to rural women.