Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Nitrogen Rates on the Forage Yield of Maize Genotypes under Superadhesion

Fernando J. A. Lins, Paulo V. Ferreira, Moisés T. da Silva, Rosa C. Lira, Mayara C. Assunção, Jadson S. Teixeira, Talles J. L. Belém, José M. L. de Azevedo, Jackson da Silva, J. G. da Costa, José P. M. V. Ferreira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i330266

Maize production is directly linked to the genetic potential of the variety and management practices, among them, sowing density and soil fertility. The objective of this work was to analyze the effect of the application of nitrogen doses and its efficiency and use in maize genotypes grown under over - densification conditions, in the city of Rio Largo, Alagoas. The experiment was carried out from November 2015 to March 2016, and a randomized complete block design was used in the 3 x 4 factorial scheme (three maize genotypes: Branca, Viçosense and Nordestino, and four nitrogen doses: 80, 160, 240 and 320 kg ha-¹) with three replications, at seeding density of 167 thousand plants per hectare. The dry matter production of the forage and its qualitative characteristics were evaluated: dry matter, mineral matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and hemicellulose. Under the conditions of over-counting, it is concluded: (a) the corn genotypes Viçosense, Branca and Nordestino, for the productive and qualitative characteristics of the forage, presented similar and satisfactory behavior, except for the variable HC, where the genotype Branca stood out in relation to the others, presenting the highest levels of hemicelluloses, which gives it the highest concentrations of energy and digestibility of its forage; (b) the dose 80 kg ha-¹ of nitrogen was the most satisfactory for the productive and qualitative characteristics of maize fodder, since its effect was similar to increasing nitrogen dosages, in addition to providing a higher percentage of NDF.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Season and Use of C. rotundus Extract for Air Laying Here Propagation of C. quercifolius

Marcelo Soares Pimentel, Eder Ferreira Arriel, Maria José de Holanda Leite, Álvaro Renan Vieira Nunes, William de Sousa Santos, Gabriela Gomes Ramos de Sousa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i330265

Clonal propagation makes greater genetic gains in less time than using seed reproduction for forest species like C. quercifolius. The auxin – based phytoregulators such as Indol Butyric Acid (IBA) and he aqueous extract of Cyperus rotundus L. tubers have been used in plant cloning as rooting promoters an improvement in root quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the efficiency of the cloning technique by air layering in a Caatinga species, Cnidoscolus quercifolius, and replace with specifically to know the best season, the time requirements for rooting and the efficiency of the extract of C. rotundus and IBA. Thus, aqueous extracts of tubers of C. rotundus, at concentrations of 0.0% (Replace with absolute witness), 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% were also evaluate, also the AIB at the concentration of 6.0 g/L (witness 2). The results indicated that the best season for the cloning of Cnidoscolus quercifolius by technique of wintering. In general, the use of natural and synthetic auxins positively influenced all the variables analyzed, surpassing the controls. It should be noted that the IBA was statistically superior to the other treatments for the response variables of the treatments applied (notes) and number of roots. It can be concluded that this species may be an advertisement for this technique, since it presented a higher number of rootes weeds in a shorter time, when compared to other forest species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Composition of Fatty Acids and Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Seed Oil CV. 'Molar'

Ágda Malany Forte de Oliveira, Railene Hérica Carlos Rocha Araújo, Kalinny de Araújo Alves, Elny Alves Onias, Roberlúcia Araújo Candeia, Maíra Felinto Lopes, José Franciraldo de Lima, Luana da Silva Barbosa, George Alves Dias

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i330267

Aims: Pomegranate has been used since ancient times as a universal therapeutic agent due to the presence of biologically active ingredients in different parts of the plant. Pomegranate seed oil is considered a nutraceutical because of its rich composition. Therefore, this work aimed to study the main changes in the composition of fatty acids and antioxidant activity of pomegranate seed oil (cv. Molar) in different stages of fruit development.

Study design: Completely randomized design. The treatments were the ages (60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 days), counted from the beginning of the anthesis. For each harvest a random sampling of five fruits was used for each repetition, and four replications per stage of fruit development were performed totaling 20 fruits per treatment.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out in partnership with the farm Águas de Tamanduá, located in Várzeas de Sousa, PB, (longitude 38°13'41" and latitude 06°45'33").

Methodology: The characterization of the phenological phases of pomegranate (Molar cv.) development was carried out at the beginning of the orchard. Vigorous and healthy adult plants were selected. Hermaphrodite flowers were marked, evenly distributed in the area, with colored tape resistant to high temperature, sunshine, winds and rains. The marking of the flowers occurred in the early hours of the morning, and at the time of the marking, thinning of flowers was carried out on branches that had two or more flowers at the apex, leaving only a single flower on the branch. Seed oil was extracted from a sample of 20 fruits at different stages of development: 60, 70, 80, 90 and, 100 days counted from the start of the anthesis.

Results: The general composition of the oil of pomegranate seeds cv. Molar, regardless of the stage of fruit development, takes the order of PUFA> SFA> MUFA, with a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 3 and 6), and after saturated and monounsaturated, and low concentrations of total Trans Isomers.

Conclusion: The best periods for the consumption of pomegranate seed oil are between 80 and 90 days due to the higher amount of unsaturated acids and punicic acid, and lower concentrations of palmitic acid, as well as a higher concentration of phenolic compounds. The method of DPPH, with methanol extractor identifies the antioxidant activity of pomegranate seed oil, however not efficiently.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Evaluation of Performance of Sesame Varieties in Maize-based Intercropping System in the Southern Guinean Savanna of Nigeria

A. T. Ajibola, G. O. Kolawole

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i330269

Aims: Field experiments were conducted to determine compatibility of sesame varieties for intercropping with maize.

Study Design: The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Teaching and Research Farm, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, southern guinea savanna area of Nigeria during the 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons.

Methodology: The treatments included Sole maize (Oba Super 1 variety), five sole sesame varieties (E-8, O3l, O1m, O2 m, Exotic-Sudan) and their intercrops, making a total of eleven treatments.  Sole maize was planted at a spacing of 75 cm x 25 cm. For intercrops, maize was planted at a spacing of 100 cm x 25  cm and sesame seeds were planted at a spacing of 100 cm x 10 cm such that sesame row alternated maize row. Maize was planted first and sesame was introduced two weeks after.

Results: Intercropping maize with sesame varieties significantly (P = 0.05) reduced number of pods and grain yield of sesame varieties in both years. However, variety O2m produced grain yield in the intercrop similar to the mono crop. Generally, Intercropping sesame with maize significantly reduced the grain yield of maize by 36% compared to the sole crop. Exotic-Sudan varieties caused the highest percentage yield reduction (52%). Sesame varieties O2m and O3l were the only varieties whose yield advantage in intercropping with maize had land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.28 and 1.18 while other varieties had values less than 1 indicating yield advantage of O2m and O3l with maize. The relative crowding coefficient (K) value of maize (4.98) was higher than sesame (0.44) thus indicating its dominance in the mixture.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the prospective sesame farmers could grow varieties O2m and O3l in place of the popular E-8 because intercropping with maize did not affect their performances in both years.

Open Access Review Article

Importance of Crop Wild Relatives and Landraces Genetic Resources in Plant Breeding Programmes

Berk Benlioğlu, M. Sait Adak

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i330268

Plant genetic resources are the biological basis of global food security. Agricultural diversity and genetic resources should be used more effectively to sustain the current level of food production and to solve future problems. The importance of plant genetic resources in the improvement of varieties with new features is indisputably known. The most effective use of plant genetic resources is undoubtedly in plant breeding and improvement of new varieties. In other words, it is used as a genitor. Since the cultivars are often inadequate in many genes, especially biotic and abiotic stress factors (diseases, pests, cold, drought, etc.), breeders constantly search for new sources of genetic materials. This review is based on reports in the landraces (primitive) varieties and crop wild relatives to explain the importance of genetic resources in plant breeding of reviewing scientific literature to pass.