Open Access Short Research Article

Control of Peduncular Rot in Post-harvest Mango Fruits with Hydrotherapy and Refrigeration

Gerlan do Nascimento Rodrigues, Edna Peixoto da Rocha Amorim, José Gomes Filho, Valdeir Nunes Carvalho, Samuel Silva de Lima, Erisson Marques da Silva, José Alexandre da Silva Filho, Jorge Luiz Xavier de Lins Cunha, Lucas Alceu Rodrigues de Lima, Alessandra da Silva Araújo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i430276

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrotherapy associated with refrigeration on the control of peduncular rot in mango fruits (Mangifera indica) of the Tommy Atkins variety. For this, an experiment was set up in the phytopathology laboratory of the Agrarian Sciences Center of the Federal University of Alagoas - UFAL - Delza Gitaí Campus - Rio Largo - AL, from June to December 2018. Mango fruits, previously inoculated with L. theobromae (106 con.mL-1), were immersed in warm water at temperatures of 40, 45, 50 and 55°C for 1, 5 and 10 minutes and then placed under refrigeration for 5 days, then evaluated for disease severity. The results show that hydrotherapy associated with refrigeration is able to control peduncular rot in mango fruits. The temperatures of 50, 55 and 60ºC in the time of 9 minutes of fruit immersion showed 100% control of the disease, in the time of 1 minute only the temperature of 60ºC presented control superior to 90% of the disease, the temperatures of 45 , 50 and 55 presented control of 74.6, 76.2 and 89%, respectively. In the time of 5 minutes, the temperatures of 55 and 60ºC were the best with control superior to 90% of the disease. In all immersion times, the equation that best fit the data was the 3rd degree polynomial. The temperature of 40ºC, in all evaluated times, was the only one that presented control of the disease inferior to 20%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Percentage of Corn Grain Losses in Roads Transport Based on Weight of Loads

Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira, Aloisio Bianchini, Carlos Caneppele, Antônio Renan Berchol da Silva, Rosana Sifuentes Machado, Dryelle Sifuentes Pallaoro, Fabrício César de Moraes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i430272

Estimates for the 2018/2019 grain crop indicate production in the order of 238.5 million tons, an increase of 4.7% compared to the 2017/2018 harvest. This production, although satisfactory, could still be greater, were it not for the problems faced with the logistics of grain disposal where billions are lost due to the limited investment in infrastructure. The objective of this work is to establish a percentage loss index, as well as to assess these quantitative losses during bulk grain transportation of corn. The research was developed through a partnership between the National Supply Company (CONAB) and the NTA (Nucleus of Storage Technology), at the Federal University of Mato Grosso. It was established the evaluation of losses related to grain transportation in the main waterways, being bulk corn in BR 163/364 in the State of Mato Grosso. After the choice of the highways evaluated, we carried out research on the data of romaneios in the transportation of corn in bulk. The obtained data, through the romaneios, provided weight of origin, weight of destination, place of origin and place of destination, in this way, by difference was obtained the quantity of grains lost in the transport and the mileage traveled in each route. By means of these data it was possible to obtain three indices of losses, one in Kg/Km (kilogram per kilometer wheeled), another one in Kg/t (kilograms per tons transported), and also determined an index of loss in percentage of grains transported. With the indication of the indices it was possible to evaluate the losses. The Bitrem truck (7 axles) was used as the basis for calculating the losses, since during the interviews this was the type that had the most occurrences in BRs evaluated, with 39%. Based on the questionnaire, the load weight of 38,000 kg was therefore adopted. For the study of corn grain losses in road transport, 39,642 data were analyzed for routs, with 24,902,808.50 km rotated, mean of 628,19 km away by route. The amount of corn grain transported was 1,852,437,042 kg. The total losses were 1,808,951 kg, averaging 45.63 kg of loss per trip. The loss per km was on average of 0.072 kg. Transport of corn grains between Nova Ubiratã and Rondonópolis presented the highest frequency of trips (8629 trips), however the losses were 37,710 kg of grains or approximately 628 bags of corn (60 Kg). The index of percentage loss for maize (0.1025%). This percentage is lower than the adopted one that is of 0.25%, nevertheless, represent considerable losses for the economy. Based on the data obtained in the present study, it can be stated that it is possible to adopt percentage loss rates of less than 0.25% in contracts. It is recommended to adopt the percentage rates of grain loss in road transport of 0.10% for maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Melon Plant Grown in Saline Environment

Islan Diego Espindula de Carvalho, Paulo Vanderlei Ferreira, Mariângela Gomes Pereira, João Virginio da Silva Neto, Antônio Barbosa da Silva Júnior, Douglas dos Santos Ferreira, Carla Caroline Alves Pereira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i430273

The melon plant is one of the plants with agronomic potential adult among the vegetables, for presenting high productivity in a short time. In Brazil the main producing areas are located in the owed semiarid the favourable conditions of climate for the culture, however, that area presents some factors limitations, mainly as the salinity of the soil and of the water, what carts in the decrease in the productivity and in certain cases total loss of the cultivation. The objective of that work was to accomplish a growth analysis in cycles of melon plant selection developed in a saline environment. The experiment was executed from March to May of 2017 in the Federal University of Alagoas. The appraised treatments were six cycles of melon plant (C1, C2, C3, C4, C5a and C5b) selection. The used design was in randomized complete block design in subdivided portions, being the six selection cycles the portions and the six evaluations biometrics in the time the subplots, with four repetitions. The subplots were divided into two stages in agreement with the presence of the characteristic in the vegetative stage of the plant, in that were appraised vegetative and reproductive variables. Variance analysis and test were accomplished from Tukey to 5% of probability, besides the obtaining of the earnings for selection. To determine the variable of larger importance the technique of main components it was used. Among the cycles C1 and C5a there was an increase of 15,89% of the number of leaves, that is due mainly for the small ones won to each election cycle. The selection cycles accomplished in the melon plant population promoted a small reduction in the percentile of matter dries to each selection cycle, not presenting significant difference among the cycles, with averages of 13,92; 13,10; 13.05; 12,62; 11,94 and 12,28%, respectively for the cycles C1, C2, C3, C4, C5a and C5b. NL and NFB explain about 85% of the total variation found among the selection cycles. NL presented the largest importance in the vectors and it presented correlation with several characteristics, like LMS (0.99), LSS (0.90), NBFF (0.80) and % MSPA (0.91). The selection cycles presented genetic progress as the tolerance the salinity. The number of leaves is the characteristic to be selected for obtaining of tolerant superior genotypes the salinity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening Groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) Genotypes for Resistance to Early and Late Leaf Spot Diseases

M. S. Alidu, S. Abukari, M. Abudulai

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i430274

Background for the Study: Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop both in subsistence and commercial agriculture in Ghana. Early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola) and late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personata) are major limiting factors to groundnut productivity in Ghana.

Aim: The objective of the study was to screen groundnut genotypes for resistance to Early and Late leaf spot diseases.

Study Design: The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated three (3) times.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted from May to December 2013 at the Savanna Agricultural Research Institute experimental site at Nyankpala in the Northern Region. The site lies between latitude 9°25´141 North and longitude 0°58’142 West and an altitude of 183 m.

Methodology: The land was done using a tractor and field divided into plots of 2 m x 5 m with 1 m interval between plots. Sowing was done on 3rd June 2013. One seed was planted per hole at a depth of approximately 4 cm. Early and late leaf spot ratings were recorded at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting, using a ten-point scale. At pod maturity, plants from the middle two rows of each plot were hand-harvested and weights of the above ground foliage and underground pods were oven-dried to obtain dry haulm weight and pod yield respectively. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance using Genstat statistical package (12th edition). Means were separated using the least significant difference at 5%.

Results: The were significant differences (P < .001) among the groundnut genotypes in terms of severity for both early and late leaf spot diseases. F-Mix, NC 7, PC 79-79, F-Mix × SINK 24 and NKATIE-SARI had lowest score for both early and late leaf spot diseases. Among the 21 groundnut genotypes, F-Mix recorded the highest pods yield of 1100kg/ha and haulm weight of 5867 kg/ha followed by NC 7 with total pods yield of 900 kg/ha and haulm weight of 5373 kg/ha. PC 79-79 had a total pods yield of 666.7 kg/ha and haulm weight of 4867kg/ha. The pods yield of F-Mix × SINK 24 was 533.3 kg/ha and haulm weight of 4600 kg/ha. NKATIE-SARI recorded pods yield of 500 kg/ha and haulm weight of 4633 kg/ha.

Conclusions: From the study, the genotypes F-Mix, NC 7, PC 79-79, F-Mix × SINK 24 and NKATIE-SARI were found to be resistance to both early and late leaf spot disease whereas Chinese, Doumbala, GM 120, GM 324 and ICGV 86015 were susceptible to both diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Phytonematodes in Integrated Crop-livestock Systems of Tropical Regions

Anne Caroline Dallabrida Avelino, Dayana Aparecida de Faria, Lucas Dias de Oliveira, Bruno Giuseppe Terzi, Alexandre Secco Contreras Filho, Matheus Farinha Afonso, Onassis Henrique Simon Rondon, Giovani Oliveira de Arieira, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu, Wender Mateus Peixoto, Mariana Rossi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i430275

The integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) is a model of sustainable cultivation that allows the recovery of degraded pastures and the intensification in pasture and grain production. However, the presence of pathogens in the production fields has hampered the employment of these systems. In order to minimize or eradicate the phytonematodes in the production fields and the seeds used in CLIS, it is necessary to know the nematofauna. Based on this, this work aimed to perform a literature review describing the main forages and agricultural crops used in integrated crop-livestock systems in tropical regions, the major phytonematodes associated with these crops and their control measures. This work was based on a literature review from the Scielo, Scopus and Google Scholar databases, with data from 1999 to 2019. The initially used keywords were "tropical weeds"; "Agricultural crops"; and "ICLS" and their respective terms in the Portuguese language. From the initial results, we used the keywords "Brachiaria syn. Urochloa sp. "; "Phytonematodes"; "Millet"; "Maize"; "Panicum sp."; "Soy"; "Sorghum", and "ICLS" and their respective terms in the Portuguese language. Publications that did not meet the criteria of this study (analyzed by titles and abstract) were considered as exclusion criteria, as well as repeated works in the databases. Based on the literature, the cultivation of forages belonging to the genera Brachiaria syn. Urochloa sp. and Panicum sp., along with and soybean, maize, sorghum and millet are predominant in the ICL system of tropical regions. The phytonematodes Meloidogyne sp., Pratylenchus brachyurus, Heterodera glycines, Rotylenculus reniformis, Aphelenchoides sp., Ditylenchus sp. and Filenchus sp. cause greater severity of damage to the main cultures used in ICL. No control method can eradicate the phytonematodes. The most effective control for the studied phytonematodes is through integrated pest and disease management.