Open Access Short Research Article

Analysis of the Production Components in the Soybean Crop in the Last Two Decades in the State of Parana and Brazil

Norma Schlickmann Lazaretti, Patrícia Clemente Abraão, Tatiane Calandrino da Mata, Kerolém Prícila Sousa Cardoso, Noélle Khristinne Cordeiro, Dablieny Hellen Garcia Souza, Daiane Bernardi, Eurides Kuster Macedo Júnior

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i630284

Introduction: Soy is an agricultural crop that has great economic importance. The analysis considering the cultivated area, the production and the yield of grains contributes to research and transfer of technology to the producers.

Aims: To adjust the mathematical model using simple linear regression analysis and correlation between the variables of planted area, production and productivity, in the state of Paraná and Brazil, in the last two decades.

Study Design: Data collection and research of information on the cultivation of soybeans in the state of Paraná and in Brazil on official websites

Place and Duration of Study: State University of Western Paraná, Post-Graduation in Agronomy, between July 2018 and December 2018.

Methodology: Data were obtained from the Portal of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics between 1997 and 2017. Simple linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were used.

Results: By analyzing the results, it is possible to observe significant increases in soybean production in both Paraná and Brazil over this 20-year period. Paraná achieved a 205% increase in planted area, 290% in production and 141% in average yield.

Conclusion: The simple linear regression and correlation analysis showed an adjustment between the cultivated area, the production and the average productivity in the soybean crop in the period from 1997 to 2017.

Open Access Original Research Article

Loss of Wheat Grains in Road Transport

Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira, Aloisio Bianchini, Carlos Caneppele, Antônio Renan Berchol da Silva, Matheus Azevedo dos Santos, Lucas Abrão Nasser Calixto, Dryelle Sifuentes Pallaoro, Thalles Alexandre Xavier Pereira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i630283

Wheat is an important cereal crop in Brazil and one of the major source of carbohaydrates for baking. Grain losses on roads cause losses beyond the economic scope. Grains that fall around the highway are seeds with the potential to germinate, making it a "green bridge" for the transmission of diseases or hybridization between traditional, commercial and transgenic cultivars. The objective of this study was to establish the quantitative losses along the roads during the transportation of wheat grains in Paraná, as well as to verify the influence of short and long distance load on grain losses. The research was developed through a partnership between the National Supply Company (CONAB) and the Nucleus of Storage Technology, at the Federal University of Mato Grosso. at the Federal University of Mato Grosso. A survey of wheat grain losses was carried out in the BR-376, approximately 295 km distance between the Port of São Francisco in Santa Catarina and Ponta Grossa in Paraná between March and April 2018. A total of 26 collection points were established along the highway. At each collection point an area of 1 m2 was measured with the aid of a fixed frame of wood with the same area, at a distance of 1.3 m from the highway margin, in the north-south direction of the highway, which is the direction of the grain flow in BR-376 in the section considered). The grains were collected on the side of the road, along the gutters and near the lawn, with a broom, brush and dustpan. The collected material was placed in plastic bags properly identified and taken to the laboratory for separation and weighing. The experiment was carried out in subdivided plots, 26 plots (collection points), 4 subplots (collection times) and 3 replicates (collection areas at points). Statistical analyzes were performed using Assistat software. Differences among treatments were verified using analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the F test. When significant to the comparison of means for the treatments was performed by the Scott-Knott test. The section of the data referring to the short route that presented the highest loss index was the route in the interior of the city of Ponta Grossa-PR. The Ponta Grossa/Ponta Grossa destination also had the highest total loss, even though it was an average distance of 25 km. The route between the municipalities of Uraí/Ponta Grossa was the destination with the highest losses (122.55 kg of grains per trip). In almost all sections of the route denominated as long losses higher than acceptable in contracts (0.25%). The percentage of wheat grains lost is associated with the quality of the highways and trucks used in transportation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Questionnaire Concerning the State of Conservation of Trucks and Highway BR-163 in the State of Mato Grosso - Brazil

Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira, Aloisio Bianchini, Carlos Caneppele, Antônio Renan Berchol da Silva, Dryelle Sifuentes Pallaoro, Rodrigo Fernandes Daros, Rosana Sifuentes Machado

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i630285

Grain transport losses occur due to road conditions, trucks' state of repair, types of bodies, overload, loading and transport speed. These losses, besides affecting the economy, are also considered waste of food, environmental and social aspects. The objective of this work was to collect information from the drivers, through the application of questionnaires, on the type, age and state of conservation of trucks, car bodies, roof covers and tires, as well as conservation conservation of BR-163 highway in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study was carried out on the BR-163 highway, which is the one with the highest cargo flow for maize in the state of Mato Grosso. Interviews were conducted with approximately 500 truck drivers transporting grain cargoes of maize, in order to obtain information regarding: (a) State of conservation of the highways where they travel; (b) which part of the highways the greatest grain losses occur; (c) which grain is the most lost in road transport; (d) whether the truck driver has received any specific training to avoid grain losses; (e) whether the trucker adopts any procedure to reduce grain losses; among other information relevant to the study in question. It was observed that 59.70% of the trucks are owned by the companies, the other 40.30% are owned by the driver or are not tied to any company. It was observed that 42.90% of the trucks were manufactured between 2011 and 2015, that is, they are less than 8 years old. Of the evaluated trucks 39% of the evaluated trucks are bitrens, 32% rodotrens. The predominant bodies in the transport of grain in bulk are of the bulk type and bucket, with great predominance for grain. The data indicate that 87% of the trucks and 84% of the bodies are in good or excellent condition. The grain that is most lost in transportation, according to the drivers, is corn and soy, which together account for approximately 40% of the losses. It is concluded that grain losses in corn transport are occurring mainly due to poor conservation of BR-163 in the state of Mato Grosso. Holes and trepidation are the main culprits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cassava Starch Coating on the Quality and Shelf Life of Prickly Pear in Refrigerated Storage

Valtânia Xavier Nunes, Núbia Xavier Nunes, Juceliandy Mendes da Silva, Sarah Nadja Araújo Fonsesa, Mariana Oliveira de Jesus, Eliene Almeida Paraizo, Gisele Polete Mizobutsi, Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i630286

In Brazil, the prickly pear has been gaining more and more attention, mainly due to its nutritional health promotion benefits. However, its postharvest conservation is still incipient The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of cassava starch in different concentrations in relation to quality preservation and postharvest shelf life prolongation of prickly pear stored at 10 °C and relative humidity of 95%. Fruit were harvested at maturation stage III, in plants with 8 years of age, in the municipality of Janaúba - MG. Then they were selected, sanitized and immersed in sulutions of cassava starch at 0; 1; 2 and 3% for 1 minute and stored at 10 ± 1 ◦C and relative humidity of 95 ± 5%, for 25 days, and evaluated every five days. The designed trial consisted of a completely randomized trial, in a 4x6 factorial scheme: four concentrations of cassava starch and six periods of evaluations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days), with four replications. Fruit were evaluated for physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics. During storage were observed weight loss, firmness loss, chlorophyll degradation, acidity reduction and ascorbic acid, with increase of soluble solids, total sugars and carotenoids in fruit. The higher the cassava starch concentration, the greater the maintenance of fruit quality. The 3% cassava starch coating was the most efficient at delaying the weight loss, decay, softening and wilting in the fruits, the main characteristics that affect the quality of prickly pear. However, this concentration presented, as an inconvenience, coating peeling at the end of storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ethephon Associated with the Position of Gems on the Aspect of Sugar Cane in the Initial Development of Culture - Part I

Lucas Aparecido Manzani Lisboa, Reginaldo Sciarra Leonezi, Andresa Toledo Chagas, João Paulo Basaglia Freschi, Paulo Alexandre Monteiro de Figueiredo, Edson Lazarini

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v37i630287

The hormones are closely related to the emergence of gemstones contained seedlings of sugarcane, at the time of planting of the stems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the ethephon associated with the position of gemstones in the cane of sugar cane in the initial development of the culture. In March 2014, at the Rio Vermelho Plant, located in Junqueirópolis, State of São Paulo, a cane plant with a sugar cane plant was selected for seedlings with an approximate age of 11 months. Two areas with dimensions of 20x20 meters were demarcated. In one of the areas, ethephon was applied. At 15 days after application, the seedlings containing 1 and 2 buds were collected to compose two independent experiments. From the area where the product was not applied, seedlings were removed for the control and application treatments of Ethephon in the planting groove in pots. The gems were sent to the Faculty of Agrarian and Technological Sciences of the Paulista State University "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" - from Dracena, State of São Paulo. The seedlings came from the apex, middle and base of the canes of sugarcane. In this way, the experimental design was in a 3x3 factorial scheme, that is, the position of the seedlings in the canes of sugarcane and the modes of application of ethephon. The use of ethephon in the plant 15 days before planting together with seedlings from the sugar cane culms showed the best results for the rate of emergence; a number of tillers; dry matter weight of stem and leaves and leaf area.