Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Heritability among Sugarcane Genotypes in Plant Crop for Some Agronomic Traits under Tropical Dry Climate of Ferké, Ivory Coast

M. Y. Béhou, C. B. Péné

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i130288

Aims: The study aimed to determine the best performing cane genotypes among 29 clones tested under sprinkler irrigation, in comparison with a check variety (R579).

Study Design: The experimental design used was a randomized complete block (RCB) with 30 cane genotypes in three replications. Every plot consisted of two dual rows of five meters with 0.5 and 1.90 m of inter-row spacing, i.e. 19 m² per plot and about 600 m² for the whole experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: It was carried out on a commercial sugarcane plantation of Ferké 2 located in the northern part of the country, over 10 months as a late season crop from late May 2018 to late March 2019.

Methodology: Over each micro-plot, data were collected at harvest from both dual rows consisted of millable stalk number/ha, cane yield, juice quality traits (sucrose, purity, and recoverable sucrose), fiber content, and damaged internodes by stem borer Eldana saccharina.

Results: Based on sugar yields, seven cane genotypes were equivalent to the check variety R579 which gave 17.6 t/ha. Their yield performances ranged from 12.2 to 15.4 t of sugar/ha and from 134.2 to 160.8 t of cane/ha compared to 176.0 t/ha for the check. Higher heritability values ranging from 52 to 85% were observed in traits like sugar yield, juice purity, juice sucrose, recoverable sucrose, sucrose percent, fiber content and stem borer infestations. Differences between PCV and GCV for most traits were small, indicating high prospects for genetic progress through selection under conditions of this study.

Conclusions: Findings obtained need to be confirmed over the 2019-20 cropping season in first ratoon crop to determine promising cane genotypes for the advanced selection stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Elephant Grass Genotypes to Bioenergy Production

Henrique Guimarães de Favare, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu, Livia Vieira de Barros, Felipe Gomes da Silva, Luis Miguel Mendes Ferreira, Marco Antônio Aparecido Barelli, Inácio Martins da Silva Neto, Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral, Wender Mateus Peixoto, Francisco Ildefonso da Silva Campos, Francisco José da Silva Ledo, Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva, Larah Drielly Santos Herrera

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i130289

The study aimed to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) genotypes on energy production in the combustion form. A randomized block design with 3 repetitions was used. The treatments were arranged in subdivided plots scheme, considering as a plot the genotypes and as subplots, the harvest season. The agronomic characteristics plant height (H), leaf length (LL), leaf blade width (LBW), stem diameter (SD), tillers number (TN), stem percentage (SP), dry matter yield (DMY) were evaluated. The rainy season provided greater H to elephant grass genotypes with height above 3.5 m. The average SP obtained by the genotypes was 68.21% and 67.21% to the first and second year of cultivation, respectively, which gives the biomass good quality of burning. The rainy season provided greater DMY comparing to the dry season. In the first year of cultivation there were genotypes with annual dry matter yield (ADMY) above 50 ton ha-1 year-1, however, the non-maintenance of soil fertility promoted the reduction of 39.17% and 39.05% in the DMY and ADMY, respectively. Analyzing the agronomic characteristics, we conclude that the promising genotypes of elephant grass to produce energy in the form of direct combustion are CNPGL 91-25-1, Cubano Pinda, BRS Canará, Porto Rico and Mercker.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison between Planting and Sowing as Forms of Amaranthus (Amaranthus spp.) Propagation and Investigation of Different Seeding Depths

Matheus Azevedo dos Santos, Aloisio Bianchini, Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira, Rodrigo Fernandes Daros, Matheus Santos de Deus, Vitor Sthevan Mendes da Silva, Carlos Augusto Queiroz Gurka, Patrícia Monique Crivelari da Costa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i130290

Amaranth is a broad leaf pseudocereal native to South and Central America and can be used as a source of high protein grain, as a leafy vegetable and has the potential to grow as fodder. The objective of this work was to evaluate some characteristics of amaranth agronomic interest (Amaranthus spp), as the best way of propagation of the crop, whether by planting of seedlings or direct seeding, and also to determine the most suitable depth of sowing of amaranth. Three treatments were established to conduct the first experiment, seedling versus no-tillage using the BRS-Alegria variety: the first (T1) was the planting of seedlings with 15 days old, previously produced in a greenhouse, on the day of establishment of the experiment in the beds; the second (T2) was the direct sowing in the soil on the day of establishment of the experiment in the beds; and the third (T3) was the transplanting of surplus seedlings from the first treatment, after two weeks of establishment of the experiment in the beds. The T1 treatment was the one that presented the best performance in the attributes of lap diameter and dry mass of plants, being not different, only, at plant height, in relation to T2 treatment. The treatments T2 and T3 presented the same performance for all attributes studied. The second experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the best sowing depth for the Amaranthus varieties: BRS-Alegria, Diócus, Princes, Verde (Amaranthus cruentus) and Inca (Amaranthus caudatus), under zero millimeters soil), five millimeters, and ten millimeters deep. The BRS - Alegria, Verde and Diócus varieties showed the best results when tested at 0, 5 and 10mm depth, with the average of plants emerged at 15 days after sowing, of 71.4; 65.9 and 61.0 respectively. The worst results were found in the Princes and Inca varieties, with average values of emerged plants of 51.3 and 47.2, respectively. As for the seeding depths, the best were 10 and 5 mm, with plants emerged after 15 days, of 86.9 and 77.9, respectively. The worst result was for the 0mm depth with an average of 13.3 emerged plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity Aqueous Extract of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis) to Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

Anderson Mathias Holtz, José Romário de Carvalho, Mylena da Silva Gomes, Vergilio Borghi Neto, Ana Beatriz Mamedes Piffer, Ronilda Lana Aguiar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i130291

The objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal effect of aqueous extract of castor bean (Ricinus communis) cake for the control of Maconellicoccus hirsutus. The toxicity tests were performed in the laboratory. Subsequently lethal concentrations 50 and 90% (LC50and LC90, respectively) were estimated. Tween80® + distilled water was used as surfactants and solvent respectively. The assay was performed in petri dishes containing a Coffea canephora leaf disc. The spraying was carried out in Torre de Potter spray tower. The extract was toxic to mealybug and the mortality data was adapted to the probit model. Estimates of LC50 and LC90 were 5.32% and 29.30%, respectively. It was concluded that the aqueous extract of R. communis cake is promising for the management of M. hirsutus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Cultural Management on Compaction of a Cerrado Latosol

Matheus Azevedo dos Santos, Aloisio Bianchini, Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira, Rodrigo Fernandes Daros, Matheus Santos de Deus, João Vitor Monteiro Chiapinotto, Giordani Henrique Ferreira da Cruz, Alisson Nadin

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i130293

Soil compaction is a process that negatively affects the availability of water and nutrients to plants. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate alternative practices of cultural management in order to reduce soil compaction. The experimental area is located in the Foundation for Research and Technological Development Rio Verde, where 13 treatments were installed with different systems of cultural management, all rotated with soy. A randomized complete block design (DBC) was used for this experiment, with three blocks (one repetition per block), thirteen treatments and two depths of soil (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). Physical analyzes were soil resistance to penetration, soil density, and soil moisture at the time of collection. The treatment in which the soil was stirred during the fallow period was the one that presented the lowest resistance of the soil to penetration, followed by the treatment where a mixture of cover crops was used in the second harvest, and the treatment where soybean was harvested and brachiaria in the second crop, using corn with brachiaria every two years, was the one that presented lower soil density, followed by the treatment with stirring during fallow season. Planting areas with a greater diversity of rotating plants presented as a good proposal of soil management, as they provide ideal soil conditions for the crop and for the use of rainwater or irrigation.