Open Access Short Research Article

Blond Ale Craft Beer Production with Addition of Pineapple Pulp

Patrícia Monique Crivelari da Costa, Indihaoara Lilian Marjorie Lima de Almeida, Aloisio Bianchini, Maria das Graças Assis Bianchini, Rodrigo Esaú Vassoler e Silva, Paulo Afonso Rossignoli

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i230294

The second most consumed beverage worldwide is beer. In Brazil, the brewing market is in full expansion, which allowed the emergence of several microbreweries, which end up attrative a significant portion of the consumers of the large breweries, due to the fact that they provide differentiated products, using high raw materials quality and production methods specific to each style. In this context, the objective of this work was the development of a Blond Ale beer, with addition of pineapple pulp (Ananas comosus L. Merril). The physical and chemical attributes were: original and final gravity, alcohol content, total dry extract, total acidity, maltose reducing sugar, pH, color and degree of fermentation. The OG and FG of the beer produced were, respectively, 1.0455 and 1.0107, and the alcohol content was 5.24%. The results found are within the range allowed for a Blonde Ale style, according to the BJCP 2015 standard. Thus, the quality of the beer produced meets the proposed in the article.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bromatological Composition of Elephant Grass Genotypes for Bioenergy Production

Henrique Guimarães de Favare, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu, Livia Vieira de Barros, Felipe Gomes da Silva, Luis Miguel Mendes Ferreira, Marco Antônio Aparecido Barelli, Inácio Martins da Silva Neto, Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral, Wender Mateus Peixoto, Francisco Ildefonso da Silva Campos, Francisco José da Silva Ledo, Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva, Carlos Alberto Silva Junior

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i230292

Aimed to evaluate the bromatological composition of different genotypes of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) to energy production through combustion. The experimental design was a randomized block with 3 repetition and the treatments arranged in a subdivided plots scheme, considering as a plots the thirteen genotypes and harvests (dry and rainy) as subplots. The genotypes evaluated were Cubano Pinda, Porto Rico, Vrukwona, Piracicaba 241, Cuba 116, Taiwan A-25, Mecker, Napier, Canará, Guaçu, Cameroon, CNPGL 93-41-1 and CNPGL 91-25-1 clones. The experiment lasted two consecutive years with harvests made every 6 months, with a harvest in the dry season (September) and another one in the rainy season (March), totaling 4 harvests. For dry matter content analysis, three tillers were selected at random and dried in an oven at 55ºC until reaching a constant mass. For biomass quality analysis, the samples were ground in Willey type mills with 1 mm sieves, submitted to bromatological analysis to determine the neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, volatile materials, and fixed carbon content. Higher levels of dry matter (greater than 44.4%), acid detergent fiber (greater than 44.8%), volatile matter (greater than 94.3%) and higher calorific value (greater than 3,450 kcal kg-1) occur in the dry period of the year and in genotypes Mercker, Piracicaba 241, Guaçu and BRS Canará genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gas Exchange and Nitrogen Compartmentalization of Eggplant under Nitrogen and Silicon Doses

Ewerton Gonçalves de Abrantes, Josinaldo Lopes Araujo Rocha, Kariolania Fortunato de Paiva, Railene Hérica Carlos Rocha, Alexandre Paiva da Silva, Ancélio Ricardo de Oliveira Gondim, Elidayane da Nóbrega Santos, Rita Magally Oliveira da Silva Marcelino

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i230295

To evaluate the effect of fertilization with N and Si on gaseous exchanges, dry mass, concentrations, accumulations and compartmentalization of nitrogen fractions in eggplant.

The experimental design was a randomized entirely design, in a 5 x 4 factorial arrangement with four replications and one plant per plot, totaling 80 experimental units.

The experiment was conducted in a protected environment at Center of Sciences and Agri-Food Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus of Pombal, Paraiba, Brazil, between July and September 2016. The nitrogen doses applied was 25, 125, 250, 350 and 500 mg dm-3 and four silicon doses was 0, 75, 150 and 200 mg dm-3 both supplied by root. In pre-flowering stage were evaluated growth components; gas exchange, which are: photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and intercellular CO2 concentration; levels and accumulation of fractions of nitrogen (NO3-, NH4+, and total), and the silicon concentration in the leaves. There was no significant interaction (p >0.05) between the factors nitrogen and silicon doses for any of the evaluated variables. Nitrogen and silicon doses influenced the variables evaluated only independently each other. The nitrogen doses promoted increases in the photosynthetic rate and associated variables, dry matter yield of stem leaves and roots and in the concentration and accumulations of nitric, ammoniacal and total nitrogen in leaf, stem e roots and decrease the concentration of silicon in leaves. The silicon doses increased the leaf area index, the nitrate levels and accumulation in the roots and the silicon content in the leaves. In conclusion, the nitrogen supply increased the photosynthetic rate, dry mass and nitrogen accumulation and decreased the concentrations of silicon in leaf. Silicon did not interfered with growth of eggplant, however increased leaf area index, decreased nitrate levels and accumulations in the roots at lower doses of this element.

Open Access Original Research Article

Main Obstacles in the Production of Citrus Seedlings in Santa Luzia do Induá, Capitão Poço/Pa-Brazil

Letícia do Socorro Cunha, Luane Laíse Oliveira Ribeiro, Lucila Elizabeth Fragoso Monfort, Wanderson Cunha Pereira, Francisca das Chagas Bezerra de Araújo, Mayra Taniely Ribeiro Abade

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i230296

The objective of the study was to identify the main obstacles faced by nurserymen in the production of citrus seedlings in Santa Luzia do Induá, municipality of Capitão Poço / PA. The research was developed based on the application of semistructured questionnaires, where 50 active seedling producers were interviewed on a random basis, out of a total of 100 nurseries. Finally, the information obtained was analyzed. The producers had difficulty in accepting the importance of applying one of the items of normative instruction No 48, which deals with the need of protected environment for the production of the Basic Plant, Matrix, Certified Bubble and Certified Mute, considered essential for obtaining material seedlings and certified seedlings. Stated that the way of acquiring the seeds for the production of the rootstock acquired from his property and bought in the trade. According to nurserymen, 90% of the seeds come from plants that are not registered with an inspection body and are used for the production of the rootstock (known as a horse). The local producers have little knowledge and understanding of current regulations, thus being one of the main difficulties. In addition, the producers stated that the main obstacles they face in the production and marketing of seedlings are: Lack of technical assistance and public policies; phytosanitary attack and compliance with Normative Instruction No. 48. These factors together cause major limitations in the production system. Thus, among the aforementioned the main problem experienced by the producers, it is worth noting the adequacy to IN 48 that entails in great changes in the way of production of seedlings of the nurserymen.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Pathogenic Fungi Causing Post Harvest Losses of Pineapple Sold at Wudil and Yan Lemo Markets of Kano State

S. M. Yahaya, A. B. Kamalu, M. U. Ali, M. Lawan, Y. S. Ajingi, M. Haruna, L. W. Hayatu, H. Abba, I. Safiyanu, J. Abdullahi, A. Y. Mardiyya, S. B. Sakina, M. I. Hassan, A. I. Sale, A. Bilkisu, M. Umma, T. Aisha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i230297

This research was conducted to determine the fungal pathogens responsible for post harvest losses of pineapple sold at Wudil and Yen lemo markets.  Two samples of pineapples were purchased twice a week from both Wudil and Yanlemo markets for four months. The samples were investigated for the presence of fungal pathogen using standard microbiological methods. The methods involve mounting small portion of pineapple in the plate containing Potato dextrose agar to isolate the fungi. Three fungal pathogens belonging to Aspergillus species were isolated, and Aspergillus niger had the highest frequency of occurrence of (50%). Followed by A. flavus with (27%). The A. fumigatus had the lowest frequency of occurrence of (23%). The differences between the fungal isolates recorded were significantly different (P<0.05) between the two markets, where higher fungal isolates were recorded at Yanlemo market 159 (40.6%) and Wudil 38 (9.71%). The study showed that the post harvest losses of pine apple in the two markets are attributed to fungal infection. Therefore, safe guarding the two markets from debris and dumps of rotten fruits and vegetable may assist in reducing fungal inoculums in the two markets.