Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Poultry Manure on the Growth and Yield of Basil Plant (Ocimun gratissimum) in a Tropical Utilsol Soil

O. A. Agba

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i330300

Ocimum gratissimum commonly called Basil plant or scent leaf   is one of the less known, neglected vegetable with high economic value as food, medicinal and industrial uses. Studies were therefore conducted to determine the effects of poultry manure on the growth and yield of Ocimum   gratissimum in the Teaching   and research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cross River  University of Technology, Obubra , Cross River State, Nigeria. The experiment has nine (9) rates of poultry manure: 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 6.5 t/ha laid out in a randomized  complete  block design with three  replications. The application of poultry manure at 3- 4t/ha was more beneficial than higher rates. Results showed that poultry manure significantly (p>0.05) increased number of leaves, branches per plant and plant height. The highest Leaf index value plant height, leaves   and branches per plant was obtained at 16weeks after planting with 6.5 t/ha. Poultry manure.  While 4t/ha poultry manure gave the highest growth rate, Leaf fresh yield, dry matter of leaf, stem and seed yield per plant and per hectare. Farmers  are advise  to   apply 3-4t/ha of poultry manure to cultivate  Ocimum gratissimum  for optimum  growth and  seed yield  under  the utilsol  conditions .

Open Access Original Research Article

Geometric, Physical and Mechanical Properties of the Fruit-rachilla of the Macauba Palm (Acrocomia aculeata) Considering Different Sampling Sites in the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil

Jéssica Pontes Rangel, Daniel Marçal de Queiroz, Francisco de Assis de Carvalho Pinto, Fábio Lúcio Santos, Domingos Sárvio Magalhães Valente

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i330301

This study aimed to determine the geometric, physical and mechanical properties of the fruit-rachilla system of the macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata) from three different locations in the state of Minas Gerais. Three different sampling site wee assemble in the mature and green maturation stages. The replicates of the experiment were established, use 20 samples from four different plants for each sampling site, at different stages of maturation. For the experiment, the dimensions in three directions were determined, the mass, volume and density of the fruits and the rachilla. The modulus od elasticity and Poisson’s ratio were determined using a universal test machine. The mean values ​​of the diameter and density for the fruits were 40 mm and 1.20 g cm-3, approximately. The mean valeus of the density of the rachillae obtained ​​of 0.55 g cm-3. The dimensions and the density of the fruits and the rachillae presented significant in relation to the study of the interaction of the factors. The values of modulus of elasticity green maturation stage are higher than values for mature maturation stage in two sampling sites studied. The values of the Poisson’s ratio of the rachillae were 0.37 m m-1 and were not different with respect to none of the factors studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Ecophysiological Needs of Plums and Their Impact on Ecological Production of Plum in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Ahmed Salkić, Besim Salkić, Azra Dorić, Ensar Salkić, Emir Imširović

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i330302

Organic farming takes up more and more areas in agricultural production. It is based on the principles of preserving human and animal health and maintaining the balance in agrobiocenosis and therefore prohibits the use of a majority of water-soluble mineral fertilizers and phytopharmaceuticals of chemical origin (except those from the list of allowed products). In ecological farming of plums, optimization of fertilization is very important, which must comply with ecological principles and regulations which included fertilization with a relatively narrow range of allowed organic fertilizers (manure, compost, manure, slurry, peat, guano, sawdust) and mineral additives (calcium carbonate, crude phosphates, basic slag, raw potassium salt, potassium sulphate, gypsum, wood ash, calcium chloride, sodium chloride, etc.).

Nutrition methods in organic plum production are different from nutrition in conventional production, primarily due to a limited selection of available fertilizers, and the most important difference is the inability to use water-soluble individual and complex fertilizers. It is precisely for this reason that in organic agriculture, the emphasis on maintaining humidity, optimum pH and soil moisture is considerably more important than necessary prerequisites for sufficient availability of nutrients in the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Character Association for Oil Yield and Its Components in Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.)

A. C. Odiyi, E. F. Alegbeleye

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i330303

The need to find suitable alternative to fossil fuel necessitated the search for non-food oil crops like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Improvement of the crop requires adequate knowledge of extent of genetic variability present. Therefore, a study was carried out to determine genetic variability and character association among forty local and exotic accessions of physic nut. The accessions were evaluated in two years in randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated highly significant variation among the accessions for all characters studied except plant height and number of seeds per fruit. High estimates of heritability were observed in number of leaves (84.10%) and seed oil (94.97%) while heritability was low in number of seeds (11.30%) and plant height (13.36%), other characters had moderate heritability. High heritability estimates were accompanied by relatively low genetic advance in all the traits except kernel oil, an indication that the character has high selection value with less environmental influence. Correlation analysis showed that tall plants produced bigger seeds because of the positive association between plant height and seed weight. Therefore, seed weight can be used as selection index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Herbicide Formulation, Spray Nozzle Design, and Operating Pressure Affects the Droplet Size Spectra of Agricultural Sprays

Joshua A. McGinty, Gaylon D. Morgan, Peter A. Dotray, Paul A. Baumann

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i330304

Aims: Determine the droplet size spectra of agricultural sprays as affected by herbicide formulations, spray nozzle designs, and operating pressures.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in April 2014 at the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Aerial Application Technology Research Unit Facility in College Station, Texas.

Methodology: The spray droplet size spectra of six herbicide formulations as well as water alone and water with nonionic surfactant were evaluated in a low-speed wind tunnel. These spray solutions were conducted with five different flat-fan spray nozzle designs, producing a wide range of spray droplet sizes. The wind tunnel was equipped with a laser diffraction sensor to analyze spray droplet size. All combinations of spray solution and nozzle were operated at 207 and 414 kPa and replicated three times.

Results: Many differences in droplet size spectra were detected among the spray solutions, nozzle designs, and pressures tested. Solutions of Liberty 280 SL exhibited the smallest median droplet size and the greatest proportion of spray volume contained in droplets 100 µm or less in size.  Solutions of Enlist Duo resulted in smaller median droplet size than many of the solutions tested, but also exhibited some of the smallest production of fine spray droplets. Median droplet size was found to vary greatly among nozzle designs, with the greatest droplet size and smallest drift-prone fine droplet production observed with air-inclusion designs utilizing a pre-orifice. Increasing the operating pressure from 207 to 414 kPa resulted in a decrease in median droplet size and an increase in the production of droplets 100 µm or less in size.

Conclusion: Herbicide formulations and spray nozzle designs tested varied widely in droplet size spectra and thus the potential for spray drift. Increasing operating pressure resulted in decreased droplet size and an increase in the production of drift-prone droplets. Additionally, median droplet size alone should not be used to compare spray drift potential among spray solutions but should include relative span and V100 values to better predict the potential for spray drift due to drift-prone spray droplets.