Open Access Short communication

Effects of Gamma Rays on Cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal)

César Augusto Ticona-Benavente, Adria Santos Andrade, Manoel Ronaldo Aguiar Batista, Danilo Fernandes da Silva Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i430306

Harvesting hairy fruits of current cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) is a painful task because the hair is itching. Therefore, growers would be interested in hairless fruit type planting materials. Breeding for this character depends on the amount of genetic variety present within the species. In the case of limited genetic variability occurring naturally, one can be created using mutagenic agents. Gamma rays were used in the course of the present study on cocona seeds of genotype CUB-08 at 100, 150, 200, 300 and 400 Gy. Irradiated seeds were sown in styrofoam seedling trays, then  transplanted in the open field, three months later, following a randomized block design with four replications and seven plants per plot, in the Agricultural experimental station of the National Institute for Amazonian Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia).

The 100 and 150 Gy radiations led to germinating vigor and fruit pilosity variability whereas 200 Gy decreased the germination rate, and 300 and 400 Gy were totally deleterious. Therefore, gamma rays 100-150 Gy could be used to enhance genetic diversity for fruit pilosity and for fruit number as well.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moisture Content and Packaging Condition on the Germination of Amaranth BRS Alegria Seeds

Patrícia Monique Crivelari da Costa, Aloisio Bianchini, Carlos Caneppele, Patrícia Helena Azevedo, Ana Lucia da Silva, Matheus Azevedo dos Santos, Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i430305

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the packaging conditions and the initial moisture content of amaranth BRS Alegria seeds, stored in the period of 13 months (10 months ambient conditions and 3 months in cold chamber). The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme with two initial moisture contents (9.82% and 7.84%), and two packing conditions (sealed and unsealed), with four replications, totaling 16 plots. The germination was in 12 hours photoperiod and 25°C constant temperature, for 7 days. The variables analyzed were percentage of germination (PG), first germination count (FGC), non-germinated seeds (NGS), germination speed index (GSI) and mean germination time (MGT). The sealed 9.82% seed lot presented better results for PG, NGS and GSI (77.5%, 22.5% and 24.88, respectively). The moisture content of 9.82% is adequate for the storage of Amaranthus cruentus BRS Alegria, with no further drying required. It is recommended to seal the packages for the storage of amaranth seeds of BRS Alegria, as it maintains its physiological quality for longer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sugarcane Biochar for Agricultural Use Produced in Different Conditions of Pyrolysis

Juliany Barbosa de Pinho, Aloisio Bianchini, Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira, Letycia Cunha Nunes, Rodrigo Fernandes Daros, Josilaine Gonçalves da Silva, Dione Aparecido Castro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i430307

From the pyrolysis process, biochar is a carbon rich and recalcitrant organic material with potential for long term carbon sequestration because of its aromatic structure. However, the physical and chemical properties of the biochar vary due to the diversity of raw material and the conditions of production. The present study aimed to evaluate the biochar from the sugarcane bagasse at different temperatures and under two conditions of pyrolysis. The biochar was produced at two final temperatures 200°C (1 hour); 250°C (1h) and 250°C (2h), with pyrolysis of an oxidizing and non-oxidizing atmosphere for both. PH, cation exchange capacity (CTC), carbon content (C), Nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), H:C, C:N and ash ratios were evaluated. The contents of C, H, N and the atomic ratios H:C and C:N were higher in Biochar produced in a non-oxidizing atmosphere (BNO). However, the content of ash, pH and CTC were higher in Biochar produced in oxidizing atmospheres (BO). One can conclude the direct influence of the pyrolysis condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating of Corn Yield Based on Agrometeorological Models in the State of Mato Grosso

Dione Aparecido Castro, Bruno Conceição de Veiga, Milton Ferreira de Moraes, Merita Albertini Chagas, Juliany Barbosa de Pinho, Letycia Cunha Nunes, Barbara de Motta Silva, Sulamirtes Suellem de Amorim Magalhães

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i430308

Aims: The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of agrometeorological models for estimating the yield potential of corn in municipalities of the State of Mato Grosso, referring to the 2014/2015 harvest period.

Location and Duration of the Study: Due to their great potential on corn crop cultivation, four cities were chosen within the State of Mato Grosso: Nova Mutum, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso and Sinop. 2014/2015 harvest period.

Methodology: The yield data were obtained by the Farming Economy Institute of Mato Grosso-IMEA. The physiological ripening cycle considered was 120 days and the seeding period 02/02/2015 and harvest 01/06/2015. In order to calculate yield and the water stress, it was necessary to gather data from meteorological stations near the cities where the work was produced, these data were available at the National Institute of Meteorology. The estimated potential yield data were compared among the agrometeorological models, as well as the real yield obtained in the selected municipalities.

Results: The estimated potential yield data were compared among the agrometeorological models, as well as the real yield obtained in the selected municipalities. There were variances between the agrometeorological models studied, on average estimated 5413.68 kg ha-1 at model 1 and 6766.45 kg ha-1  аt the model 2 (Table 3). It was observed that Model 1 estimated greater yield for Nova Mutum, followed by Sinop, Sorriso and Lucas do Rio Verde, and yet the Model 2 estimated greater potential for Lucas do Rio Verde, followed by the municipalities of Sinop, Sorriso and Nova Mutum (Picture 1 and Table 3).   In this regard, the model 2 has characterized the closest potential yield, from the environment yield reality.

Conclusion: The Model 2 has characterized the potential yield closer to the reality of production environment. The difference of all potential yield of corn from all municipalities studied were all directly related to factor interaction which interferes on its growth and development, consequently the difference among these environments. Taking into account the effects of water conditions, the chosen period for seeding can harm the corn yield in the municipality of Lucas do Rio Verde.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Different Kinds of Diseases in Sesame Cultivation in Myanmar and Their Impact to Sesame Yield

Yu Yu Min, Koki Toyota

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i430309

We surveyed diseases of sesame in 10 farmers’ fields at Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar and did interviews 25 farmers for the occurrence of diseases and its impact on yield in Magway, the major sesame growing area in Myanmar. We found phyllody, charcoal rot (root and stem rot), Alternaria leaf blight, powdery mildew, and leaf curl, based on on-site symptoms and their microscopic observation in Nay Pyi Taw. The disease incidence ranged from 5% to 30% in phyllody, from 10% to 30% in charcoal rot (root and stem rot) and 10% to 40% in Alternaria blight, while leaf curl and powdery mildew were not observed abundantly. According to interviews conducted in Magway, 60% of the farmers suffered from phyllody disease symptoms, 80% from charcoal rot, 48% from Cercospora, 28% bacterial leaf spot and 24% diseases with the symptoms of leaf roll. Most farmers (84%) noticed combinations of diseases symptoms either phyllody or charcoal rot/black and stem rot or Cercospora leaf spot and/or bacterial leaf spot. Yield losses ranged from 5 to 50% by phyllody, from 10 to 75% by charcoal rot (root and stem rot), from 5 to 50% by Cercospora leaf spot, and 5% by bacterial leaf spot. Other abnormal symptoms such as discoloring of root, seedling death and leaf yellowing were also observed and the yield losses ranged from 5 to 50%.There were no significance relations between the actual yield and yield losses estimated by each disease. A half of farmers (54%) burnt the crop residues after harvest, while 45% directly buried them in their fields including plant parts infected with diseases. Although there was no difference in sesame yield between these two practices, the average yield was higher by 15% in farmers with the burnt practice. Only a few farmers applied fungicides. Potential constraints to cause yield reduction and necessary actions to increase sesame yield are discussed.