Open Access Original Research Article

Sensory Evaluation of Shrimp Flavored Nile Tilapia Mortadella

R. Bernadino Filho, O. S. Silva, A. X. M. Queiroga, S. N. Oliveira, M. N. Oliveira, U. A. A. Vasconcelos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i530310

Objectives: The aim was to develop and evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of a mortadella made from mechanically separated shrimp flavored Nile Tilapia.

Study Design: In the data generated in the acceptance test of the mortadellas, the averages and standard deviations were calculated and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was subsequently performed, the averages were compared by the Tukey test, at the level of 5% significance.

Place and Duration of Study: Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Department of Graduate Studies in Process Engineering, between January 2017 and May 2018.

Methodology: Three mortadellas formulations were developed with varying concentrations of shrimp flavored aromatic extract. In formulation M0.5 0.5% was added, in formulation M0.75, 0.75%, and in formulation M1 1% of aromatic extract. In the microbiological analyses, Staphylococcus coagulase-positive, Salmonella sp. and Coliforms at 45°C were determined. Acceptance and purchase intention tests were performed with 100 untrained judges.

Results: All formulations presented microbiological characteristics within the standards established by the legislation in Brazil. The sensory tests indicated a good acceptance of all mortadellas samples, achieving an acceptability rate of 85.97% for formulation M1, and 84.42% and 80.25% for formulations M0.75 and M0.5 respectively. The addition of higher concentrations of aromatic extract had a positive influence on the acceptance of the products. For the purchase intention test, M0,75 and M1 formulations were statistically equal (p<0.05) and had a better evaluation with averages of 4.32 and 4.38 respectively, corresponding to the term "I would possibly buy".

Conclusion: It can be presumed that the formulations developed are an alternative to add value to the residues from the processing of tilapia filleting, and can be used in the elaboration of mortadella with healthier and more nutritious characteristics and with a possible acceptability for marketing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Germination and Emergence of Digitaria insularis (L.) Fedde Susceptible and Resistant to Glyphosate

Silvio Douglas Ferreira, Jaqueline de Araújo Barbosa, Noélle Khristinne Cordeiro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i530311

To Know the behavior shown in seed germination and emergence of Digitaria insularis (L.) Fedde enables develop strategies to reduce the seed bank in cultivated areas. The aim of this research was to evaluate the germination and emergence of weed biotypes of D. insularis susceptible and resistant to glyphosate in two substrates.

The experiment was divided into two stages (germination test in BOD and emergence in sand box). In both phases of the study, it was used a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (weed biotypes of D. insularis susceptible and resistant to glyphosate) and ten replications.

The work was done in the State University of Western Paraná, Brazil, Post-Graduation in Agronomy, between July 2018 and December 2018.

In the two tests the experimental units consisted of 25 seeds of D. insularis, evenly distributed. In the germination test was evaluated the first count and the index of germination speed. In the same way, for the emergency test was evaluated the first count and the index of emergence speed. It was also calculated the germination and the emergence percentage, total number of germinated seeds, total number of emerged plants.

Differences were observed in the first count, index of germination speed and germination percentage, seeds of D. insularis susceptible and resistant to glyphosate. During the first count, susceptible biotype showed higher germination, with 78% of compared to resistant. Similar behavior was observed for the index of germination speed and for the germination percentage, in which the susceptible biotype surpassed in 80.4% and 47%, respectively, the resistant biotype.

Conclusion: The selection of D. insularis biotypes resistant to glyphosate affects the germination and emergence, the species in relation to the original population of susceptible biotypes. For each 100 seeds of the biotype resistant to glyphosate 53 seeds of them germinate and 32.6 seeds can emerge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structure and Use of a Rocky Cerrado in Northeastern Brazil: Does the Ecological Appearancy Hypothesis Explain this Relationship?

Tony C. S. Oliveira, Vanessa F. S. Sousa, Valdemir F. Silva, Ruth R. S. Farias, Ivanilza M. Andrade, Antonio A. J. F. Castro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i530312

The aim of this study was to characterize the vegetation structure of a low-altitude rupestrian Cerrado in the state of Piauí and to evaluate its economic exploitation by the population. The research was developed in the Castelo do Piauí. Vegetation sampling was performed by the Minimum Phytosociological Assessment Protocol (MPAP). The phytosociological parameters were obtained through the Software R. The use of the species was surveyed through interviews with the community, after which the value of use was analyzed and the hypothesis of the ecological appearancy was tested. In all 73.7% of the species found are useful for the community and the timber category was the most prominent. The hypothesis of the ecological appearancy showed a negative relation between the use and some phytosociological parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biostimulant and Micronutrient Applications in the Production of Acacia mangium Seedlings

Nathália Ferreira Alves, Sebastião Ferreira de Lima, Ana Paula Leite de Lima, Catia Aparecida Simon, Pedro Paulo Virgilio Damis

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i530313

Aims: Evaluate the effects of applying biostimulant and micronutrients on Acacia mangium Willd seedlings.

Study Design: A randomized complete block design was used in a 2x5 factorial scheme, with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, at the Chapadão do Sul Campus, MS, with the geographical coordinates 18º46’ 44” S and 52º36’ 49” W, in a nursery area from October 2015 to January 2016.

Methodology: The treatments consisted of a combination of the presence or absence of a solution containing micronutrients and five doses of biostimulant (0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0 mL per L of water). The commercial product Stimulate™ was used as the biostimulant, and the micronutrient solution was prepared at the concentration of 1.0%. The micronutrients in the solution were in the following formulations: ZnS04, H3BO3 and CuS04. The seeds were sown in tubes containing the commercial substrate Carolina Soil do Brasil, together with the use of Osmocote Plus™ fertilizer.

Results: The use of biostimulant associated with micronutrients favored the rate of emergency speed. The doses of 24.8, 14.0 and 26.1 mL L-1 of biostimulant water provided the highest values for leaf area, plant height and total dry mass, respectively, when associated with the use of micronutrients. The height / diameter ratio decreased with increasing doses of biostimulant, while the Dicson quality index increased in the same condition.

Conclusion: The use of micronutrients and biostimulants were favourable for the production of A. mangium seedlings. Only the height/diameter ratio (HDR) reduced for all biostimulant doses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Capacity for Parasitism of Trichogramma spp. in Tomato Fruit Borer under Different Temperatures

Débora Ferreira Melo Fragoso, Dirceu Pratissoli, José Romario de Carvalho, Alixelhe Pacheco Damascena, Luis Moreira de Araujo Junior, Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bueno, Amanda Carlos Túler

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v38i530314

The parasitoid in eggs of Trichogramma genre is the most studied in the world, being bred widely and used for flooding releases. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity for parasitism of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) eggs at different temperatures. The experiment was developed at the Nucleus for Scientific and Technological Development in Phytosanitary Management (NUDEMAFI) in which the daily and accumulated biological parameters were assessed, as well as total parasitized eggs by female, sexual ratio (number of females/number of males + females), viability of the eggs (number of eggs with orifice/number of parasitized eggs x 100) and number of individuals per egg at temperatures 18, 21, 24, 27 and 30ºC. The eggs of the fruit borer were offered daily to each T. galloi female at each temperature until the death of the parasitoid could be verified. The larger number of parasitized eggs was found in the first 24 h, at temperatures 24 and 27ºC with 17 parasitized eggs. The accumulated parasitism in N. elegantalis eggs reached 80% of total parasitized eggs for each thermal range (18, 21, 24, 27 and 30ºC) on the 2nd, 3rd, 3rd, 1st and 2nd days respectively. The ideal parasitism conditions for this lineage vary between 24 and 27°C. Therefore, it is concluded that the studied T. galloi lineage has adequate biological parameters in N. elegantalis eggs, demonstrating promise in phytosanitary management of this pest.