Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Rice Husk Biochar and Calcium Amendment on Remediation of Saline Soil from Rice-shrimp Cropping System in Vietnamese Mekong Delta

Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong, Chau Minh Khoi, Nguyen Van Sinh, Nguyen Huu Chiem, Koki Toyota

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i230327

In a rice-shrimp cropping system in Vietnamese Mekong Delta, more effective techniques are required to remediate the saline soils for lowing salinity to secure rice growth and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reclamation potential of biochar and calcium in laboratory experiments using a saline soil sample from the rice-shrimp system. Our hypothesis was that the addition of biochar might improve the infiltration rate, so remove salts more effectively, in particular sodium, from the saline soil. The experiment was set up with two kinds of rice husk biochar at rates of 0 and 50 g kg-1 combining with three levels of CaO (0, 0.5 and 2 g kg-1 soil, equivalent to 0, 0.5 and 2 Mg ha-1, respectively). Results indicated that biochar enhanced significantly drainage speed by 4 times compared to the control without biochar application. After leaching, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) in the soils was significantly lower in biochar treatments than in the control. Some other chemical indicators (K:Na and Ca:Na ratios) were also higher in biochar treatments. Although both biochars effectively removed salts from the saline soil, biochar with a lower Na+ adsorption capacity, a lower surface area and a higher amount of salts performed better in removing Na+ from soil. Combined application of biochar and CaO at low dose was more effective in improving soil properties related to Na+ leaching and ESP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wheat Grain Losses in Highway Transportation

Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira, Aloisio Bianchini, Carlos Caneppele, Antônio Renan Berchol da Silva, Dryelle Sifuentes Pallaoro, Thalles Alexandre Xavier Pereira, Fabrício César de Moraes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i230328

Road transport is highlighted by its efficiency providing door-to-door services. It can be considered that 62.70% of the entire Brazilian cargo is handled by land transportation. In this context the transportation of wheat grains is very important. Wheat is an important cereal crop in Brazil and one of the main sources of carbohydrates for baking. The country produced approximately 5.42 million tons of wheat grains in the 2018 harvest. The objective of this study is to establish a percentage loss index, as well as to assess these quantitative losses during the transportation of grains of wheat in bulk. The work was developed through a partnership between the National Supply Company and the Nucleus of Storage Technology at the Federal University of Mato Grosso. It was established the evaluation of losses related to the transportation of grain wheat in bulk in the main waterways, and the research was carried out in BR-277/376 in the State of Paraná. After the choice of the highways evaluated, we performed research on the data of documents of the transport of wheat in bulk. The obtained data, through the documents, provided weight of origin, weight of destination, place of origin and place of destination, in this way, by difference was obtained the quantity of grains lost in the transport and the mileage traveled in each route. By means of these data it was possible to obtain three indices of losses, one in Kg/Km (kilogram per kilometer wheeled), another one in Kg / t (kilograms per tons transported), and also determined an index of loss in percentage of grains transported. With the indication of the indices it was possible to evaluate the losses. The Bitrem truck (7 axles) was used as the basis for calculating the losses, since during the interviews this was the type that had the most occurrences in BRs evaluated, with 39%. Based on the questionnaire, the load weight of 38,000 kg was adopted. For the study of losses of wheat grains in road transport, 10,279 data were analyzed for routs, 1,053,851 km, with an average of 102.52 km round trip. The amount of wheat grain transported was 222,494,228 kg. The total losses were 505,736 kg, averaging 49.20 kg of loss per trip. The loss per km was on average 0.479 kg. The percentage loss index for wheat (0.1708%) was determined. This percentage is lower than the adopted one that is of 0.25%, nevertheless, represent considerable losses for the economy. Based on the data obtained in the present study, it can be stated that it is possible to adopt, by the carriers, percentage loss indexes lower than 0.25% in the contracts. It is recommended to adopt the percentages of grain loss in road transport of 0.17% for wheat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Resistance of Malpighia emarginata DC. Genotypes to Meloidogyne enterolobii Parasitism

Allan Deyws Francisco da Silva, Rosimar dos Santos Musser, Luiza Suely Semen Martins, Flavio Carrazzone de Carvalho Silva, Mateus Bernard Bovet, Rômulo Maciel de Moraes Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i230329

Aims: Considering the inexistence of M. emarginata cultivars resistant to M. enterolobii available for cultivation, and the scarcity of information about the severity of its parasitism in M. emarginata, the present study investigated the response of genotypes from the active germplasm bank of Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco to M. enterolobii parasitism, aiming the selection of resistant genotypes for use as rootstocks for commercial varieties.

Study Design: The experimental design was completely randomized, with 21 genotypes and one independent matrix (control), with six replicates each. The experimental unit was represented by one plant per plot.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco – UFRPE - Brazil between June 2013 and July 2014.

Methods: In the experiment, completely randomized design was adopted, with 21 genotypes from the AGB and one as a control for susceptibility. The M. emarginata cuttings were inoculated with 10,000 nematode eggs, and after 150 days, they were evaluated for the following parameters: Egg mass index, gall index, reproduction factor, number of eggs per gram of root, number of eggs per root system.

Results: Twenty out of the twenty-two genotypes analyzed were susceptible. The genotypes 021-CMF and 037-CMF were considered resistant. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of M. emarginata genotypes resistant to M. enterolobii.

Conclusions: These results are of great importance for the breeding and cultivation of the species since these two genotypes can be indicated for use as rootstocks and for breeding programs aimed at transferring resistance to other cultivars with desirable production characteristics that are susceptible to the phytonematode.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Water Stress on the Development of Soybean Crop

Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira, Rodrigo Fernandes Daros, Ana Lucia da Silva, Arnaldo Gonçalves de Campos, Aloisio Bianchini, José Holanda Campelo Júnior, Matheus Azevedo dos Santos, Thalles Alexandre Xavier Pereira, Dryelle Sifuentes Pallaoro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i230330

The present work had the objective of evaluating the effects of the spatial variability of the main meteorological elements on soybean yield, variety M7739 IPRO from Monsoy, with an early cycle of 105 days, with sowing at the beginning of October and harvesting at the beginning of the month in February, in two agricultural years (2013/14 and 2014/15) at Santa Luzia farm, located in the municipality of Campo Verde - MT (15º42'28 ''S, 55º19'59'' W, 736 m). The meteorological data of the region were obtained through the 9th district of meteorology (9th DISME) of the National Institute of Meteorology - INMET. The coefficient of culture (kc) was defined following the development stages of the culture. The estimates of evapotranspiration (potential and crop) were determined by the water balance method and the sensitivity coefficients (ky) of the soybean crop were estimated by the expression Ky=(1-Yr/Ym)/(1-ETr/ETm), in which ky = yield response factor; Yr = actual yield of the crop; Ym = maximum yield of the crop; ETr = actual evapotranspiration e ETm = maximum evapotranspiration. The values of Ky were all lower than 1, both for the crop cycle in the 2013/14 crop year and for the crop cycle 2014/15, indicating that the soybean crop is adaptable to water deficit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Method to Produce Granulated Sugar from the Inflorescences Sap of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Ivory Coast: Case of Hybrid PB113+

J. Okoma. D. Muriel, Konan. K. Jean-Louis, R. Assa. Rebecca, Konan. N. Ysidor

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i230331

Aims: To develop a method for transforming inflorescences sap of coconut into crystalline sugar, with a view to diversifying coconut exploitation in Côte d'Ivoire.

Study Design: The sap was extracted from inflorescences of row 8 of PB113 hybrid and harvested 03 times a day (07h, 12h and 17h). Three processes for transforming sap into crystalline sugar have been gradually tested, taking into account the quality of the sap, the temperature-treatment time combination and the physical constraints applied to the sap.

Place and Duration of Studies: Marc Delorme Station for Coconut Research at the National Centre for Agricultural Research, between May 2015 and July 2016.

Methodology: Six coconuts was selected from those that showed no evidence of a history of disease or pest attack. Then, in their leaf corona, the unopened inflorescences, rank 8, were used for sap extraction [12]. On each coconut tree, the sap was collected in a plastic container previously sanitized with water heated to 100°C in a boiling bath and was collected 03 times a day (07h, 12h and 17h). The collected samples were placed in an isothermal cooler before being sent to the laboratory for processing. The transformation of sap into derived products was carried out by thermal spraying of the raw material. The experiments were performed on an electric hot plate (TRIOMPH) equipped with a temperature and time regulator. Heating the sap also required a frying pan and stainless-steel spatulas. A pH meter, a 0.01 electronic precision balance (METTLER BD 202, made in USA) and a refractometer were also used to measure physico-chemical parameters of the sap before and during its transformation. Three (3) processes were tested in this study for the transformation of inflorescences sap into coconut sugar. In each process, variable time-temperature heating combinations were used.

Results: Both first one’s processes tested did not produce sugar crystals. Their deficiencies were improved in the 3rd process which resulted in the clear crystallization of the sap. With this process, a first vaporization of the sap was carried out with gradually increasing temperatures up to 140°C for 30 min giving a fairly firm coconut syrup. The syrup was sprayed for a second time at 60°C for 30 minutes to obtain a massecuite, which was then destemmed, crumbled and dried at ambient temperature to provide crystalline coconut sugar. This sugar comes in the form of crystals of irregular grain size with a red coloring, similar to brown cane sugar. The results reveal that the production of 1 kg of crystalline coconut sugar requires the treatment of 6.25 L of coconut inflorescences sap.

Conclusion: The extension of the method of production of crystalline coconut sugar must be encouraged and represents an important support for the development of coconut sap in Côte d'Ivoire. However, further studies must be carried out to determine the biochemical characteristics of the coconut sugar produced.