Open Access Original Research Article

Control of Some Phytopathogenic Fungi Using Clove Essential Oil (Syzygium aromaticum L.)

Tiago Silva Lima, Kevison Romulo da Silva França, Plinio Tércio Medeiros de Azevedo, Yaroslávia Ferreira Paiva, José Carlos Santos Silva, Kaique Oliveira Silva, Alex Béu Santos, José Antônio Almeida de Sousa Galdino, Antônio Francisco de Mendonça Júnior, Tiago Augusto Lima Cardoso

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i330332

Aims: This study evaluates the inhibitory potential of the clove essential oil (Syzygium aromaticum L.) on phytopathogenic fungi in vitro and on maize seeds.

Study Design: The experiments comprised completely randomized designs: Seven treatments with five replicates on in vitro test; and four treatments with five replicates each, on in vivo test.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out at the Center for Agrifood Science and Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Pombal, Brazil, from April to May 2018.

Methodology: In the in vitro test, the essential oil was incorporated into the PDA (Potato-Dextrose-Agar) culture medium. The treatments comprised five concentrations of the oil (0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2%), a negative control (0.0%), and a positive control (Tiram). Plates were inoculated with the tested fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Macrophomina pseudophaseolina, then incubated for seven days at 27±2°C. The percentage of mycelial growth inhibition (PGI) and mycelial growth rate index (MGRI) were estimated. In the in vivo test, maize seeds (AG1051 hybrid) were treated with the essential oil on concentrations equal or superior to the minimum inhibitory concentration found in the in vitro test, besides the negative and positive controls. The artificial inoculation was carried out in fungi colonies for 32 hours and the seed sanity test was performed. The percentage of seeds infected by the fungus was evaluated after seven days.

Results: In vitro conditions, clove oil totally inhibited the mycelial growth of F. verticillioides, M. phaseolina and M. pseudophaseolina at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.1%, respectively. At 0.2% concentration significantly reduced the incidence of colonies of fungi M. phaseolina and M. pseudophaseolina in hybrid corn seeds AG 1051.

Conclusion: The clove essential oil had a fungitoxic effect on the phytopathogens evaluated, under in vitro and in the treatment of maize seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fruit Thinning and Main Stem Pruning in Melon Crops

Gleyce Lacerda da Silva, Roberto Cleiton Fernandes Queiroga, Francisco Hevilásio Freire Pereira, Francimalba Francilda de Sousa, Zaqueu Lopes da Silva, Rayana Pereira Ferreira, Odair Honorato de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i330333

Objective: This study aimed to assess the productivity and quality of a melon crop treated with fruit thinning and main stem pruning under field conditions.

Experimental Design: The treatments comprised the amount of fruit thinning in the plant (one, two and without thinning) and the period of main stem pruning (35, 40, 45 and 50 days after transplanting - DAT). The crop was set up in a randomized block design factorial of type 3x4, with five replications.

Location and Duration of the Study: The experiment carried out at the Center for Agrifood Science and Technology (CCTA) of the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Campus Pombal - PB, Brazil, from December 2016 to February 2017.

Methodology: The Hopey King hybrid of the Cantaloupe group was cultivated at a spacing of 2.0 x 0.4 m.

Results: The plants without thinning of fruits provided lower values ​​of leaf area and fruits of lower mass. However, due to their higher quantity per hectare, the crop total productivity was high. On the other hand, plants with fewer fruits had the highest values ​​of soluble solids, total and non-reducing soluble sugars. The leaf area, fruit mass, total productivity, and the concentration of reducing and non-reducing soluble sugars were higher when the plants were pruned at 35 DAT.

Conclusion: The fruit thinning and main stem pruning affected the production and quality of melon fruits significantly. For more demanding markets, we recommend to treat the plants with one or two fruits and prune at 35 days after transplantation, aiming to enhance the quality variables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Soil Preparation and Layers on the Weighted Mean Diameter and Geometric Mean Diameter of a Red Distroferric Latosol

Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira, Aloisio Bianchini, Márcio William Roque, Antônio Renan Berchol da Silva, Fábio Kempim Pittelkow, Wininton Mendes da Silva, Thalles Alexandre Xavier Pereira, Dryelle Sifuentes Pallaoro, Matheus Azevedo dos Santos, Patrícia Monique Crivelari da Costa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i330334

The objective of this work was to study the influence of three management systems on the physical attributes and productivity of irrigated wheat, cultivar BRS-254, in the city of Tangara da Serra, MT.  The soil physical attributes were: weighted mean diameter (DMP) and geometric mean diameter (DMG).  The experimental design was in randomized blocks. The treatments for weighted average diameter (WMD) and geometric mean diameter (DMG) were arranged in a subdivided plot scheme, with eight replications. The tilting preparations obtained the highest DMPs compared to SD both in the 0-10 cm layer and in the 10-20 cm layer, a result possibly related to the incorporation of residues during the soil preparation associated with higher mucilage production promoted by higher activity of the root system of the crop, which found better soil physical conditions for its development. The PC presented a reduction in DMP when comparing the value in the 0-10 cm layer with the value in the 10-20 cm layer. The significant effect of soil preparation on DMG can also be a result of the incorporation of residues during the preparation, associated to the effect of higher root volume promoted by the higher root growth of the crop in these preparations, which, in turn, guarantee greater production of mucilages promoting greater soil aggregation and higher DMG. The use of the disk grid in the PC and PM interferes with the soil attributes. Soil inversion provided higher WMD and DMG.

Open Access Original Research Article

Importance of the Non-wood Products Market for the Socio-economic Development of the Maceió Municipality, Brazil

Ricardo C. Lima, Letícia S. Pereira, Renata G. C. Silva, Isabel T. G. Nepomuceno, Victor A. L. Maranhão, Mayara S. S. Marinho, Maria J. H. Leite, Girlânio H. Silva, Andréa V. F. Pinto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i330335

The scarcity of information on the socioeconomic of non-wood forest products in Maceio acts as an obstacle to forest conservation and also to the development of market. In this way, the aim of this work was to evaluate the non-wood forest products (NWFPs) market in the municipality of Maceió, AL. The study was carried out in NWFP stores in the city of Maceió, AL, Brazil, between September and October 2018. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire containing 9 closed questions and 11 open questions, totaling 20 questions, which were analyzed in a descriptive way and statistics. Among the interviews, there was a predominance of the female gender in the market (78%). In which, the most cited species were cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) with 88.89%; aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius) with 66.67%; followed by barbatimao (Stryphnodendron barbatimam Mart.) cited 66.67%. The boldo (Peumus boldus) was cited 55.56%; followed by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and laurel (Laurus nobilis), which presented 44.44% of the citations. It can be seen that 65% of products fall under the category of medicinal use, 15% in the category of food use and 10% are used as cosmetics. Among the most used parts, it was observed that the majority of the products are leaves (36.9%) and barks (32.6%). When questioned about the origin of their products, 77.7% of those interviewed said they bought them for resale. The other 22.3% claimed that in addition to buying them, they also collect them. This trade has proven very effective, due to its great potential for social inclusion and economic incentive in the municipality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Aptitude and Quality of Vinifera Grapes in a Non-traditional of Culture Region in the Agreste of Pernambuco States

Flávia Gomes da Silva, Rosimar dos Santos Musser, Mairon Moura da Silva, Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão, Jades Vital de Araujo, Jesuito Bernardo de Araújo, Robson da Silva Ramos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i330336

Aim: This study evaluate the agronomic and quality characteristics of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties in a non-traditional region of the Agreste of Pernambuco States.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with five replications and eight plants per plot.

Place and Duration of Study: Was carried out in the municipality of Brejão, PE, at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Institute of the Pernambuco. The vines were implanted on September, 2013, whose pruning was performed on August and harvesting began on December, 2016 to January, 2017.

Methodology: Ten treatments represented by the varieties of European vines: Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot Noir, Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir and Syrah for producing of red wines and Chardonnay, Muscat Petit Grain, Sauvignon Blanc and Viogner for producing of white wines, grafted on the Paulsen 1103 rootstock were evaluated. The vineyard was conducted in espalier vine-tying system in double short pruning type, with spacing 3 m x 1 m. The characterization of the phenological stages was made using as reference the phenological scale. The thermal requirement of the crop per period was estimated. Agronomic characteristics were also evaluated, such as: fertility of gems, budding (%), production, productivity, number of bunches per plant, length and width of bunch, bunch weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, hydrogen ionic potential, SS / TA ratio, volume of 100 berries, yield of must, mass of the husks and seeds. The data were submitted to two selection indices: Classic Index and Distance Genotype-Ideotype Index.

Results: Sprouting varied from 13.68% (Petit Verdot) to 81.6% (Sauvignon Blanc) and the fertility of gems from 0.1 bunch.bud-1 (Chardonnay) to 0.67 bunch.bud-1 (Sauvignon Blanc). The pruning cycle and Day Degrees (DD) cumulated ranged from 133 days and 1,684 DD (Muscat Petit Grain) to 167 days and 2,070 DD (Merlot Noir). The number of bunches ranged from five (Merlot Noir) to 29 bunches.plant-1 (Sauvignon Blanc). Muscat Petit Grain stood out for bunch weight, not differing from Syrah and Malbec. The varieties showed no difference in length and width of bunches. In the volume of 100 berries, Muscat Petit Grain (213.6 ml) and Malbec (216.0 ml) stood out. For the yield of must, Sauvignon Blanc (70.87%) stood out, not differing from Malbec (64.31%), Viognier (69.79%), Muscat Petit Grain (70.22%). Muscat Petit Grain, Sauvignon Blanc and Viognier (white wine), Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot Noir and Syrah obtained acceptable values for soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio and pH. From the selection index analyzes, the Muscat Petit Grain, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah varieties were indicated for the selection by the highest Mulamba and Mock index and by the Genotype-Ideotype distance index.

Conclusion: The cycle of grapevine varieties evaluated in the Garanhuns, PE, Microregion is longer than that observed in the sub Medio of the São Francisco Valley, similar to those in the South Region of Brazil. In the evaluated cycle the varieties produced grapes with characteristics suitable for the production of quality fine wines, showing to be promising for this non-traditional microregion in the production of fine grapes. From the selection index analyzes, the Muscat Petit Grain, Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties were indicated for selection by the highest Mulamba and Mock index and Genotype-Ideotype distance index.