Open Access Original Research Article

Ecological Survey of Pests and Natural Enemies in the Sour Passion Fruit Progenies

Luciana Domiciano Silva Rosado, Claudio Horst Bruckner, Diarly Sebastião dos Reis, Natalia Silva Assunção, Ézio Marques da Silva, Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i630346

Aims: This experiment was to identify the major pests, natural enemies and verify the regarding the incidence of insect pests of progenies of Passiflora edulis to pests.

Study Design: Experimental design was completely randomized blocks with twenty-three progenies and three replicates with four plants per plot.

Place and Duration of Study: Experimental evaluations of the Federal University of Viçosa/Rio Paranaíba University Campus, Rio Paranaíba county, Minas Gerais, Brazil from May to September 2011.

Methodology: The population fluctuation of insects, for characterization of their occurrence and identification of progenies with respect to their degree of resistance.

Results: Among the monitored pests stood out, A. vanillae vanillae, D. juno juno e Dasiops sp. The correlation between the amount of Dione juno juno and the attacked leaf had a higher magnitude of occurrence in relation Agraulis vanillae vanillae.

Conclusion: It was found that there were no differences between the sour passion fruit progenies and resistance to pests, and to verify that ants are important predators of pests of sour passion fruit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Biofertilizers in Cover of and Its Effects on Organic Maize

Amanda Cecato Favorito, Edleusa Pereira Seidel, Taís Regina Kohler, William Ribeiro de Carvalho, Renan Pan, Edmar Soares de Vasconcelos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i630349

The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of two doses of the biofertilizer ‘Supermagro’ applied in cover, in the presence and absence of cured bovine urine in the maize crop, and in the soil penetration resistance, as well as the effect in the application of biofertilizer ‘Fert Bokashi’. The experimental design used was of randomized blocks with four replicates. The treatments constituted of cover application of ‘Supermagro’ in the dose of 6% (recommended dose) (T1); cover application of ‘Supermagro’ in the dose of 12% (T2); cover application of ‘Supermagro’ in the dose of 6% + cured bovine urine 3% (T3); cover application of ‘Supermagro’ in the dose of 12% + cured bovine urine 3% (T4); cover application of cured bovine urine 3% (T5); use of the biofertilizer ‘Fert Bokashi’ in the dose of 0,5% of dilution) (T6); and control (T7). The results obtained were tabulated and submitted to analysis of variance and the comparison of means by the Dunnett test at 5% of probability, with the aid of the statistical analysis software SAS. For the parameters: thousand grain mass, the treatment ‘Fert Bokashi’ alone presented the highest thousand grain mass (375,00 g) being it superior to the control (p<0,05) with 360,94 g. For the yield parameter, the treatments ‘Supermagro’ 12% + urine, bovine urine alone and ‘Fert Bokashi’ presented the highest averages, (5961 kg ha-1, 5512 kg ha-1 and 5808 kg ha-1, respectively) which differed statistically from the control (5500 kg ha-1) (p<0,05). The biofertilizers are an alternative to increase the yield of maize in the organic system with an average increase of 20% in the maize production in relation to the area without application. The biofertilizer ‘Fer Bokashi’ is an alternative to increase maize yield in the organic production system. The application of biofertilizers did not influence in the soil penetration resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Performance of Wheat Cultivars under Different Sowing Densities in Southern Brazil

Magaiver Gindri Pinheiro, Clovis Arruda Souza, Samuel Luiz Fioreze, João Francisco Costa Carneiro Junior, Maira Maier Bisato

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i630350

Sowing density is one of the management techniques that most influence wheat crops. This management practice may affect the plant productive behavior, leading to changes in tillers growth, and also interferes with the plant architecture by influencing solar radiation uptake by the plant canopy, the production components and grain yield. This work aimed to assess the agronomic performance of two wheat cultivars (low tillering and high tillering) under influence of four sowing densities. The experiment was conducted in field conditions from July to November 2017. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with split-plots and five replicates. The factors consisted of two wheat cultivars in main plot (TBIO Sossego and TBIO Toruk), subjected to four different sowing densities as sub-plots (208; 312; 416 and 500 viable seeds m-2). Morphological  characteristics, relative chlorophyll content, NDVI, production components and grain yield were evaluated. Among the assessed traits, only the stem diameter was affected by sowing density. The highest plant height, peduncle length and flag leaf length were found in cultivar Sossego, whereas the largest stem diameter was observed in cultivar Toruk. Relative chlorophyll content and NDVI were higher in cultivar Sossego. The agronomic performance of the cultivar Sossego was higher and exceeded the grain yield of Toruk at 673 kg ha-1. Suboptimal sowing densities promote a decrease in the productive performance of wheat and under conditions of rainfall limitation and genetic potential of reduced tillering while sowing densities above the recommended ones are more efficient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Elephant Grass Genotypes Following Some Agro-marphological Traits Related to Biomass Production in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

Ana Kesia Faria Vidal, Rogério Figueiredo Daher, Rafael Souza Freitas, Wanessa Francesconi Stida, Flávio Dessaune Tardin, Erina Vitório Rodrigues, Verônica Brito da Silva, Raiane Mariani Santos, Paulo Ricardo dos Santos, Tamara Rebecca Albuquerque de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i630352

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the behavior per se of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Shum) hybrids for energy purposes by means of morpho-agronomic traits in four evaluation sections. An experiment in randomized block design with three replicates was applied to evaluate the hybrids. The plot consisted of a 15-m row with 1.50-m row spacing, and 1.50-m spacing between plants. The usable area was composed of the five central plants. It was evaluated Number of tillers per clump; Stem diameter; Plant height; Plant dry matter yield; and Percentage of dry matter. Computational resources from the GENES Program were used to analyze the results. In both cuts, the H7, H11, and H14 hybrids was superior to the others in the four evaluation cuts for all evaluated characteristics, proving to be a potential genotype to be used for energy biomass production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Maize Silage is Possible in Integrated Systems with Arboreal Component

Roberta Aparecida Carnevalli, Emanuelle Beatriz Cruz e Santos, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu, Larissa Fernanda Garcia, Admar Junior Coletti, Carolina Della Giustina, Wender Mateus Peixoto, Larah Dryelle Santos Herrera, Janderson Aguiar Rodrigues

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v39i630353

Distribution of the intercropped plants determines the production but it is highly dependent on the machinery of the property. Producers, who harvest silage row by row, depend on plantings with greater spacing. This study was aimed to evaluate the maize intercropped for cultivated silage in 0.90 m between rows, with grass under the shade and full sunlight conditions. Maize with brachiaria grass was tested in four sowing densities (0, 2, 4 and 6 kg of pure and viable seeds per hectare). The factorial treatments (2x2x4) were distributed in a split-plot design with four repetitions. The maize agronomic characteristics and the silage quality were evaluated. There was a high level of competition when associated with maize, piatã and eucalyptus. Aggressive piatã grass growth, with light restriction by trees, have affected strongly the maize forage mass-produced, and consequently, reduced silage production. Regarding grain yield, the intercrop with ruziziensis grass was superior (210%) to the intercrop with piatã grass. It was mainly influenced by the low yield in the piatã grass intercropped under shade conditions. This pattern was different for ruziziensis because it was a less aggressive grass in terms of growth. For plantations with 0.90 m of spacing, there was a light restriction. The maize intercropped under the shade of trees must be done with lower growth rate grass to reduce competition and maintain the yield.