Open Access Original Research Article

Nitrogen Fertilization and Inoculation of Seeds with Rhizobium tropici on the Agronomic Performance of Common Beans

Darlan Capelesso, Antonio Carlos Torres da Costa, José Barbosa Duarte Júnior

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i130354

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of nitrogen fertilization and inoculation of seeds with Rhizobium tropici on the agronomic performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

Study Design: The experimental design consisted of a randomized block in a 4x2 factorial layout, with 4 replicates, the first factor referring to inoculant doses (0, 50, 100 and 200 mL for each 25 kg of seed), while the second refers to nitrogen fertilization (0 and 40 kg ha of N).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted to the field in a no-till system area, in the southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. The soil is classified as a Purple Latosol, with a clayey texture.

Methodology: The adopted spacing was 0.45 m between rows, and the seeding density used was 12 seeds per furrow meter. The inoculants NITRO 1000 Rhizobium tropici SEMIA 4077 and SEMIA 4088 were applied, varied according to the treatments. The cultivar used was IPR – Tangará.

Results: As for grain yield, it was observed that nitrogen fertilization did not contribute to the increase in grain yield, and higher productivity was obtained in the absence of N. This was probably due to the high content of organic matter present in the soil.

Conclusion: Nitrogen fertilization at sowing and seed inoculation with Rhizobium tropici did not influence the plant population and the 1000-grain mass. In the absence of nitrogen fertilization at sowing, pods with a longer length and higher grain yield were obtained. Inoculation of the seeds with Rhizobium tropici exerts a positive influence on plant height, number of nodes of the main stem, number of pods per plant, and number of beans per pod, the dose recommended by the manufacturer (100 mL) being efficient, with the possibility of applying a dose of 50 mL, to satisfactory results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Selected Landrace and Improved Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes under Stressed and Non-stressed Conditions

D. Oppong-Sekyere, B. B. Yintii, L. A. Akolgo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i130355

Drought is one of the most essential and critical abiotic restraints to groundnut production and yields in the Northern Region of Ghana. A field experiment was conducted to assess selected landrace and improved groundnut genotypes for agronomic performance in the 2017 and 2018 minor seasons. Groundnut genotypes were treated under normal irrigation (W/W) and water-stressed (W/S) conditions. A Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was adopted. Total experimental area was 23.4m x 2.4 m with a planting distance of 40 cm x 20 cm for both environments. Data collected include; days to 50% emergence and flowering, plant height at maturity (cm), growth appearance, days to maturity, number of pods/plot, number of seeds/plot, pod weight (g), seed weight (g), fresh and dry biomass weights (g), SPAD chlorophyll meter reading at 60 and 80 days after planting, harvest index (HI) and drought tolerance index (DTI). The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GenStat, version 12.0, Exploratory Analysis, descriptive Statistics (mean comparison of plant characteristics by varieties at 5% level using Tukey’s groups) was conducted; Correlation Analysis and Multivariate Analyses were performed using the Wilk’s Lambda to test for significant difference at 5% and 1% levels respectively. Means were separated using S.E.D. of means at 95% confidence level. Results from the growth features indicated a higher percentage of the groundnut varieties sprouted earlier under well-watered conditions. There was no significant difference among the groundnuts regarding the numbers of days to flowering. The groundnuts took approximately 104 days after planting to mature under both water conditions. Chlorophyll content and distribution in the groundnut leaves was high the well-watered plants. The chlorophyll content among the groundnut crops showed no significant difference between the chlorophyll content at 60-days after planting and 80-days after planting under the water-stressed condition. However, chlorophyll content of leaves at the 60-days after planting was 2.94 lower than that under 80 days after planting. Maturity and flowering (0.768), as well as plant height and seed yield (0.501) were highly significantly and highly positively correlated. The seed characteristics were also highly, significantly and positively correlated with the pod characteristics of the crop. The biomass measure also correlated with the pod and seed traits. Groundnuts genotypes under well-watered environment generally performed better in terms of yield than those under water-stressed environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amaranth Response to Water Stress

Josilaine Gonçalves da Silva, Aloisio Bianchini, Patrícia M. Crivelari Costa, Francisco de Almeida Lobo, Jean Pierre Moreira de Almeida, Milton Ferreira de Moraes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i130356

Amaranth is a species that has rapid growth, tolerates drought and produces grains of high food value. In this work the potential for dry season cropping in the Brazilian savannah of two amaranth species (Amaranthus caudatus e Amaranthus cruentus) was studied, subjecting them to three different periods of water availability at the beginning of the crop. Weekly data were collected on height, dry matter mass of shoot, panicle and roots, and at the end of the cultivation, yield, harvest index, thousand-grain weight, water-productivity. It was also determined the falling plant estimation. In the dry matter production evaluation, it was observed that the water deficit caused the reduction of the shoot, but significant increase of the root. The A. caudatus Inca did not show a significant productivity difference between the treatments, with a mean of 1,591.0 kg ha-1 and reached harvest point at 63 days. The A. cruentus BRS Alegria had better productivity in the treatment without water restriction, average of 2,008.6 kg ha-1 and reached harvest point at 86 days. Both species have potential for dry season cropping in the Brazilian savannah.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Combine Effect of Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) Manure and NPK Fertilizer on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield of Carrot (Daucus carota)

K. Atakora, K. Agyarko, H. K. Dapaah, E. K. Asiedu, A. J. Baayim, B. Y. Osei, K. Kyere

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i130357

The use of inorganic fertilizer to produce most vegetables in Ghana like carrot is in ascendency in Asante Mampong and its environs and its continuous use has a rippling effect on soil health and productivity and the high cost of these fertilizers is a challenge to most poor resourced farmers in Ghana. A field experiment was conducted during the major raining season in 2010 at the University of Education Winneba, Faculty of Agriculture Education research field at Mampong in the forest-transitional zone of Ghana on the Bediase series. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of grasscutter manure in combination with NPK fertilizer on soil physical and chemical properties, growth and yield of carrot.  The treatments were 300 kgNPK/ha, combination of half rate NPK fertilizer and different rates of grasscutter manure (GM) thus; (5tGM1/ha+150 kgNPK, 7.5tGM2/ha+150 kgNPK and 10tGM3/ha+150 kgNPK/ha) and control (without amendment) and the experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Results indicates that application of grasscutter manure in combination with NPK fertilizer significantly improved the soil physical conditions particularly, soil bulk density, total porosity, and gravimetric moisture content than the NPK alone and the control. Compared with the control, the treatment combinations significantly increased soil organic carbon, N, organic matter concentrations and exchangeable cations. Plant height, number of leaves, tap root length and root yield of treatment combinations were higher than NPK and the control. Also the treatment combinations significantly reduced nematode presence and number of roots deformed. For good soil health, grasscutter manure in combination with NPK would be better than either manure or NPK alone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Nitrogenous Fertilization in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Growth and Production

Edgley Soares da Silva, Jefferson Alves Dias, Diego Almeida Medeiros, Roberto Dantas de Medeiros, Yenara Alves Guedes, José de Anchieta Alves de Albuquerque, João Luiz Lopes Monteiro Neto, Anderson Carlos de Melo Gonçalves, Rafaela Figueiredo de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i130358

Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of different doses of nitrogen (N) applied in part to the growth and production of sesame.

Study Design: The design used was in random blocks, arranged in factor 9 × 3 scheme, with five repetitions and ten plants per experimental unit.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted from June to September 2018 at Experimental Chã-de-Jardim Farm, Center of Agrarian Sciences of the Federal University of Paraíba, municipality of Areia, Paraíba, Brazil.

Methodology: The treatments consisted nine doses of nitrogen (0; 10; 20; 30; 40; 50; 100; 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and three forms of installment (P1 = 50% in foundation and 50% in cover thirty days after sowing (DAS); P2 = 33.3% on foundation, 33.3% for fifteen DAS and 33.3% for coverage; P3 = 25% for foundation, 25% for fifteen DAS, 25% for coverage and 25% for 45 DAS). The parameters were evaluated: plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), sheet number (SN), number of capsules (NC), productivity of grain (PG) and mass of 1000 grains (M1000).

Results: There was an increase in plant height when N was less fragmented, with a maximum height of 137.7 cm at a dose of 92.05 kg ha-1 of N. The diameter of the stem and the number of leaves increased linearly as a result of the increase in N doses. The doses of N applied only on foundation (50%) and coverage (50%) promoted an increase in the number of capsules, with a maximum of 199.7 units referring to the application of 212.75 kg ha-1 of N. Grain productivity was increased with an increase in the application of N, for the three splitting forms, up to a dose of maximum efficiency, followed by a subsequent decrease.

Conclusion: The increase in the portioning of nitrogen fertilization promotes lower growth of sesame plants. The application of 183.5 kg ha-1 of N, 50% on foundation and 50% on coverage, provides higher productivity of sesame grains (1541.3 kg ha-1).