Open Access Original Research Article

Control of Alternaria alternata Using Melaleuca Essential Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia)

Flávia Mota de Figuerêdo Alves, Kevison Romulo da Silva França, Ionaly Gomes de Araújo, Lídia Pinheiro da Nóbrega, Alda Leaby dos Santos Xavier, Tiago Silva Lima, Ana Paula Medeiros dos Santos Rodrigues, Antônio Francisco de Mendonça Júnior, Tiago Augusto Lima Cardoso

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i330364

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the fungitoxic potential of melaleuca essential oil on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata under in vitro condition and the treatment of cowpea beans.

Study Design: The experiments comprised completely randomized designs: Eleven treatments with five replicates on in vitro test; and six treatments with five replicates on in vivo test.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out at the Center for Agrifood Science and Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Pombal, Brazil, since February 2018 to February 2019.

Methodology: In the in vitro experiment, the essential oil was incorporated into the culture medium and poured into Petri dishes. The treatments consisted of different concentrations of the essential oil (0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0%), a negative control (0.0%), and a positive control (Thiram). Discs of culture medium with fungal mycelia were inoculated in the center of the plates and incubated for seven days at 27±2ºC. The percentage of mycelial growth inhibition (PGI) and the index of mycelial growth speed (IMGS) was calculated to verify the difference between treatments. In the in vivo experiment, the bean seeds were treated with different concentrations of EO (0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0%), a negative control (0.0%), and positive control (Thiram). Seeds were inoculated with colonies of the fungus for 48 hours, and after that, we performed the seed sanity test.

Results: Under in vitro conditions, all concentrations of melaleuca essential oil reduced the mycelial growth of A. alternata. The oil reached complete inhibition of fungal growth from 0.2% concentration and above. In the cowpea treatment, the essential oil had no significant control over the percentage of infected seeds.

Conclusion: The melaleuca essential oil had a fungitoxic effect on the A. alternata under in vitro conditions. However, using the adopted methodology, on the cowpea bean seed treatment, the essential oil did not reduce the incidence of A. alternata.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Potassium Doses on the Development of Chrysanthemum Plants

Laís Gertrudes Fontana Silva, Jairo Câmara de Souza, Robson Ferreira de Almeida, Evandro Chaves de Oliveira, Marta Cristina Teixeira Leite, Sávio da Silva Berilli

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i330365

Background: The chrysanthemum is one of the main flowers cultivated in the world, comprises the main merchandise of all floriculture. The difficulty in expanding the crop is related to the lack of technical information about its cultivation, mainly on the nutritional needs.

Aims: Evaluate the influence of potassium doses on the development of cutting chrysanthemum plants.

Place and Duration of Study: Horticulture Sector of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo - Campus Itapina, between May 2017 and August 2017.

Methodology: The experimental design was DIC (completely randomized design) with four treatments and twenty four replications considered useful plants within each plot. The treatments consisted of three diferent doses of potassium fertilization and one control: 0 kg.ha-1 of K2O (without any application of potassium); 60 kg.ha-1 of K2O (fertilizer used by producers in the region); 120 kg.ha-1 of K2O (recommended according to the amount of potassium in the soil analysis) and 240 kg.ha-1 of K2O (double the dose recommended by the soil analysis), being used as source potassium chloride.

Results: The height of the plant presented an increasing linear, the results show that the dose of 240 kg.ha-1 of K2O was adequate in order to supply potassium in the ideal amount for the growth of chrysanthemum plants. When the diameter of the stem was evaluated, a quadratic model was generated with a maximum of 7.05 mm diameter of the stem when applied 179 kg.ha-1 of K2O. An increase in the number of leaves per plant was observed, from 27 at 0 kg.ha-1 dose of K2O to 51.75 at 240 kg.ha-1 dose of K2O. When estimating the ideal dose with the equation Ŷ = 277.7146 + 4.1805*x -0.0136*x², the dose of 153.69 kg.ha-1 of K2O provided the largest leaf area, reaching the value of 598.97 cm². The SPAD (Chlorophyll content) the linear model better explained the data with coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.79. The highest volume of fresh matter found was 81.56 grams with the dose of 203.22 kg.ha-1 of K2O. Through the adjusted model was verified that the dose that maximized the dry matter of the plant with 16.17 grams, was the dose of 161.66 kg.ha-1 of K2O.

Conclusion: Doses between 150 and 240 kg.ha-1 of K2O provided positive results for the development of the plant, while doses under 150 kg.ha-1 presented unsatisfactory results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydric-stress Tolerance in Cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal)

Edimilson Barbosa Lima, César Augusto Ticona-Benavente, Danilo Fernandes da Silva Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i330366

Aims: The present work aims to assess hydric stress tolerance in cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum).

Study Design: Four cocona genotypes were planted in completely randomized blocks design with three replicates. Each replicate was irrigated with different water volumes, tantamount to 50, 100 and 150% of evapotranspiration (ET) respectively.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was developed in National Institute of Amazonian Research at the agricultural experimental station, which is located on Km 14 AM-10 roadway, from September 2013 to April 2014.

Methodology: The fruits were harvested each 15 days by three months. The assessed characters were plant stand, stem diameter, plant height, fruit yield, number of fruits per plant; fruit mass, length, diameter and length/diameter ratio.

Results: Irrigation treatments, both 50 and 150% ET, reduced height plant, fruit mass and length. Other characters were no affected by the hydric stress.

Conclusion: Cocona is tolerant to both hydric stress, being the major hydric stress effect fruit size and mass decreasing. Other studies must to be performed to determinate the hydric stress threshold which lead to decrease fruit yield and dead plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cassava by Product on Performance and Cost of C Giant Land Snail (Archachatina marginata) Production

Kehinde, Abiodun Solomon, Babatunde, Taiye Oluwasola, Kehinde, Olujide Johnson

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i330367

The present study was aimed to determine the effect of Cassava by Product on Performance and Cost of c Giant land Snail (Archachatina marginata) Production. A twelve-week feeding trial was conducted with (n=225 growing snails) with an average weight of 88.95+ 8.10 g to access their growth response and nutrients digestibility. The snails were fed pawpaw leaf meal (PLM), cassava leaf meal (CLM), cassava peel meal (CPM), cassava sieviate meal (CSM) and cassava chaff meal (CCM) in a complete randomized design at 45 snails per treatment of five treatments, while each treatment was replicated three times. The proximate and fiber fractions of the feedstuffs were also determined and data were analyzed using ANOVA. The proximate evaluation showed highest crude protein in PLM (31.35%) and least in CSM (2.34%). The highest crude fiber was obtained for CPM (16.21%) and least in CCM (3.98%) CSM had the highest NFE (87.41%). Highest neutral detergent fiber (NDF) 59.33%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) 34.24%, acid detergent lignin (ADL) (9.18%), cellulose (25.59%) and hemicelluloses 25.06% was obtained for PLM. Outstanding (PL< 0.05%) weekly weight gain, weekly feed intake, nutrient digestibility and carcass yield were obtained in snails on PLM and CLM followed by CPM. Snails utilized Cassava by-product without any adverse effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Variability and Character Association of Myanmar Local Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Germplasm

Nyo Mar Htwe, Su Latt Phyu, Chan Nyein Thu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i330369

Forty-two Myanmar local rice genotypes were evaluated to estimate the magnitude of genetic variability and relationship of some agronomic traits. Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with three replications was used to design this experiment at the Department of Plant Breeding, Physiology and Ecology, Yezin Agricultural University in Myanmar, 2017 (dry season). STAR (Statistical Tool for Agricultural Research, version 2.0.1) statistical software for analysis of variance and genetic parameter, and SPAR 2 software for path analysis were used to obtain the optimal result in the collected data: plant height, effective tillers hill-1, panicle/straw weight ratio, panicle length, filled grain percent, spikelet panicle-1, 1000 grain weight, harvest index, yield plant-1. Genotypes showed highly significant difference for all the traits studied, meaning that the genotypes constitute a pool of germplasm with adequate genetic variability. Genetic variance was higher than environmental variance and heritability were above 80 % in all characters, which ensures the predominance of the genetic components among genotypes. The slight difference between genotypic coefficient variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) in all characters indicated there is enough genetic variability for the traits to be facilitated selection. High heritability with high genetic advance for spikelet panicle-1 and filled grain percent, their strong and positive correlation and the positive direct effect on yield plant-1 indicated that these are important indicator characters and their manipulation through selection. These characters can be utilized as selection criteria for further breeding programs related to high yielding rice varieties.