Open Access Short Research Article

Olfactory Attraction of Rhizome Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Banana Genotypes Inoculated with Entomopathogenic Fungus

Angélica da Silva Salustino, Ivan Sérgio da Silva Oliveira, Marailze Pereira dos Santos, Ana Paula Pereira do Nascimento, Marcos Barros de Medeiros

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i430373

The species: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) stands out as one of the main pests of banana. The damage to the crop is caused by the larvae of this pest, when they feed on the plant tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the olfactory responses of C. sordidus for different varieties and the possible olfactory interference after application of Beauveria bassiana fungus on the crop. The research was conducted at the Phytosanitary Clinic in the Agriculture Sector of the Center for Humanities, Social and Agrarian Sciences of the Federal University of Paraíba, located in Bananeiras - PB, Brazil, from January to July 2017. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments represented by banana varieties (Apple, Silver, Nanica and Pacovan) with 11 replications each. The bioassays were distributed in two stages; the first stage was an evaluation of the attractiveness of banana genotypes and rhizome and pseudostem tissues. In the second, the attractiveness of C. sordidus to the tissues contaminated with the fungus B. bassiana was investigated. The Prata banana plantation was less attractive to C. sordidus, the highest preference was to the Nanica banana plantation. The most attractive tissue was pseudostem. Given the conditions under which the study was conducted, the banana plantation and the plant tissues analyzed present an olfactory influence under Cosmopolites sordidus. The Nanica banana plantation is the most susceptible to insect attack. The application of the fungus Beauveria bassiana on banana baits does not interfere with the odour conditions exerted the nanica banana plantation under C. sordidus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cassava Peel Based Diets on Performance and Meat Quality of Snail (Archachatina marginata Swainson)

Kehinde, Abiodun Solomon, Babatunde, Taiye Oluwasola, Kehinde, Olujide Johnson

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i430368

The effect of cassava peel (CPL) incorporation (0,5, 10 and 15%) in the diets of growing snails  (average initial weight  66.0 ± 0.15 g) on the growth performance, shell morphological changes, digestibility of nutrients, carcass yield and mineral element composition of the meat was investigated. The nutritional trial adopted four T1 (0%), T2 (5%), T3 (10%) and T4 (15%) almost isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Two hundred and forty growing snails were randomly allotted at 60 snails/treatment, while each treatment was replicated three times. The digestibility of nutrients was evaluated at the 12th of the fourteen-week trial. Data collected were analyzed in a complete randomized design using (ANOVA), a significant difference among the means was separated using Duncan's multiple range test. Cassava peel is rich in NFE (70.0%), low in crude protein (3.94%), while the four diets held almost equal proximate composition. Feed intake increased (P<0.05) from T1 to T4 and T1 (control) had the best (P<0.05) carcass yield. Survivability of snails at all levels was 100%. Highest dry matter digestibility (70.01%) was obtained in T1; the digestibility of other nutrients also reduced (P< 0.05) with CPL incorporation. Meat mineral composition was not compromised by the treatments. Cassava peel based diet was favourably utilized at 15% CPL incorporation without any adverse effect on feed intake, growth, meat quality and carcass yield, farmers should adopt it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Basis of Yield Differences in Quality Protein Maize Genotypes of Different Maturity Groups

Olasoji, Julius Oluseyi, Ajayi, Sunday Adesola

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i430370

Yield performance of early maturing maize (Zea mays L.) varieties in the rainforest agroecology of southwest Nigeria, is lower than that of intermediate varieties  and that there was no yield advantage in the late varieties over the intermediate maturing varieties. However, the physiological basis of yield differences is yet to be fully investigated. This study was carried out to investigate the physiological basis underlying yield differences in quality protein maize genotypes of different maturity groups. Field experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates at Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan during 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons. The results indicated that season influenced days to 50% Anthesis (DTA), days to 50% silking (DTS), anthesis silking interval (ASI), plant height (PLHT), ear height (EHT), ear per plant (EPP), ear aspect (EASP), kernel width (KWDT) and grain yield (GYD). Maturity groups also influenced DTA, DTS, PASP, PLHT, EHT, and with no effect on GYD. The overall mean grain yields across seasons were 4.44, 4.16, 3.64 and 3.36 t/ha for season 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.  It was concluded from this study that all the maturity groups used had similar grain yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coprolites Production of Native Earthworms in Braquiaria Fields Under Biofertilization

Murielle Magda Medeiros Dantas, José Flavio Cardoso Zuza, Josinaldo da Silva Henrique, Adailza Guilherme Cavalcante, Joaquim Emanuel Fernandes Gondim, Ana Carolina Bezerra, Manoel Alexandre Diniz Neto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i430371

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the coprolite production of native earthworms in a pasture with Brachiaria, with and without liquid-enriched biofertilization.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out between April of 2014 and August of 2015 at the Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba – UFPB.

Methodology: A randomized complete block experimental design was used, with subdivided plots and four replicates, with a total of 40 plots in a 5x3x2 factorial arrangement, five grass species (Brachiaria brizantha, B. decumbens, B. humidicola, B. ruziziensise e B. brizantha MG5) and three sampling times, with and without liquid-enriched biofertilization. The plot area was composed of 50.0 m2 (10 m x 5 m) with subplots of 0.25 m2 (0.5 m x 0.5 m). Six foliar fertilization were performed in intervals of fifteen days, with three applications in the drought period and three applications in the rainy season. Each application consisted of 5% of biofertilizer (100 mL of biofertilizer diluted in 2 L of water), each plot received 2 L of biofertilizer.

Results: In the dry season there was a significant difference in the means between the fertilization treatments, leading to the absence of fertilization, obtaining a better result, varying of 48, 24% in relation to the treatments that received fertilization, and there was no significant difference between the brachiaria. In the rainy season, it was verified that there was no significant difference in the means between the fertilization treatments, but there was a significant difference between the brachiaria.

Conclusion: The study concludes that earthworm coprolites production is higher under pasture with B. MG5 during the dry season. In the rainy season, production increased under pasture with B. humidicula. Brachiaria fertilized with liquid-enriched biofertilizer provided lower results in the production of biogenic aggregates (earthworm coprolites). Under conditions of the present study, the hypothesis that the effect of the liquid -enriched biofertilizer increases the production of endogeic earthworm coprolites has not been proven.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Substituting Poultry Waste Meal for Corn in the Diet of the African Clariid Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) Juveniles

Bernadine Wuraola Obe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i430372

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry waste meal (PWM) on growth of Clarias gariepinus juveniles The growth response of juveniles of average weight 6.5g fed poultry waste meal (PWM) was studied for 70 days. The poultry waste meal comprised the droppings from the layers pen, some maggots, broken eggs and feeds that fell during the course of feeding. The proximate analysis of PWM had crude protein value of 9.795 %, crude fibre 8.700 %, ash 25.174 %, moisture 10.794%, carbohydrate 44.286% and fat 1.250% respectively. Five diets were formulated; which were Diet A (Control: with 0% inclusion level of poultry waste meal, B (25%), C (50%), D (75%),  and E with 100% inclusion level (total replacement with poultry waste meal). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the control and all other diets in the values recorded for growth and nutrient utilization, even up to 100% substitution of maize with PWM. The cost of feed production decreased with increase in inclusion levels of PWM in the diets. The results of the study showed that the use of PWM could be considered in the diet of C. gariepinus even up to 100% substitution level; considering the huge cost of maize and competition for its use whereas PMW is obtainable at little or no cost.