Open Access Original Research Article

Structure and Successional Classification of the Shrub-Arboreal Component in a Remnant of Atlantic Forest, Northeastern Brazil

Nelio Domingos da Silva, Luiz Carlos Marangon, Ana Lícia Patriota Feliciano Marangon, José Antônio Aleixo da Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i530375

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the structure and successional classification of component shrub-arboreal in the edge and interior environments in a remnant of Tropical Forest in Pernambuco, Brazil.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in a remnant of the Lowland Ombrophilous Dense Forest categorized as Urban Forest Reserve named Mata of Manassu, with an area approximately 264.24 ha and located in Jaboatao dos Guararapes, Pernambuco. The data were registered between March 2017 and September 2017.

Methodology: The data were collected in 40 100 m2 plots, 20 plots in each environment: edge and forest interior. The ‘‘edge’’ was considered to comprise a 100-m strip at the border of the forest and the ‘‘interior’’ at least 300 m in from this strip. In all plots, were cataloged, identified and measured the circumferences at height of the base at 30 cm from the soil of all shrub-arboreal individuals whose height were equal or greater than 1.0 meter and circumference at breast height at 1.30 m of soil, less than 15.0 cm. For the communities on the edge and forest interior were estimated: total density (TD), absolute density (AD), relative density (RD), total frequency (TF), absolute frequency (AF), relative frequency (RF), total dominance (TDo), absolute dominance (ADo), relative dominance (RDo), relative natural regeneration by height class (RNRij), total natural regeneration by height class (TNR), importance value index (IVI) and was performed the distribution analysis of individuals in three height classes using the Chi-square test with 95% significance. The sampled individuals were classified into family, genus, and species, and the species classified for the successional group (pioneers, initial secondary, late secondary or uncharacterized).

Results: The environment of the edge showed the highest absolute density (10.240 ind.haˉ¹) to the forest interior (9.805 ind.haˉ¹). In both environments, it was found the high representativity of initial and late secondary species. The structural distributions of individuals by height class at the edge and interior environments showed curves shaped as inverted "J" indicating "dynamic balance" of the forest.

Conclusion: The higher representativity of initial and late secondary species probably is due to the forest being in an advanced successional stage, having a structure with well-defined stratum. Among the shrub-arboreal species sampled which presented higher total natural regeneration per height class to both in the edge and forest interior and that can be used for the enrichment of areas in the recovery process of Atlantic Forest are Miconia prasina e Eschweilera ovata.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficient Microorganisms Applied to the Soil and in Cover on the Quinoa Crop

Amanda Cecato Favorito, Edleusa Pereira Seidel, Daniela da Rocha Herrmann, Patrícia Aparecida Favorito, Renan Pan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i530376

The present study had as objective to know the effects of the natural fertilizer, from a biological compound of Efficient Microorganisms (EM-4), applied to the soil and in cover of quinoa, over its phytotechnics properties and its production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a totally randomized block design, in a factorial scheme 4x2+1 with three replicates. The first factor constituted of four doses of EM (3, 6, 9 and 12%) applied to the soil before sowing, the second factor was the application or not of the compound via foliar. The additional treatment was considered a control treatment without any application of EM. It was evaluated plant height, inflorescence height, stem diameter, inflorescence diameter, root length, root volume, root dry mass and production. The results indicate that the use of Efficient Microorganisms (EMs) increases the production in 40% independent of the dose applied, when compared to the control. The foliar or soil application of EM-4 did not influence in the production components and in the production of quinoa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lifecycle Evaluation of the Nutritional Benefits and Biosafety of Snail (Archachatina marginata)

Kehinde, Abiodun Solomon, Babatunde, Taiye Oluwasola, Kehinde, Olujide Johnson

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i530377

Ninety snails Archachatina marginata (Swainson, 1821), which comprised 30 each of adults (325.43 ± 2.03 g), growers (119.05 ± 1.05 g) and snailets (33.05 ± 1.00 g) were used to determine the lifecycle nutritional and bio-safety benefits of consumption of snail meat. This study was aimed to further investigate, the nutrients, heavy metals and bio-safety of snail consumed by Nigerians, due to increasing industrialization, use of agro-chemical mineral exploration, fumes from vehicles and improper disposal of refuse and sewage. Each age group was regarded as a treatment, for the holistic determination of the proximate, macronutrient, heavy metals, lipid profile and carcass yield of the snail meat. The snail was carefully cleaned and dressed for meat samples collection in triplicates for subsequent laboratory determination of the nutritional and bio-safety parameters. The collected samples were processed, using standard procedures. Data were collected for proximate components (Crude protein, crude fibre, Ether Extract, NFE and Ash), macronutrients (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg and Fe) heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr and MN), total cholesterol and lipid profile (HDL, LDL and FFA) and carcass yield. Data collected were subjected to (ANOVA), in a complete randomized design, while significant means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Proximate components such as Crude protein 15.88±1,39% and ether extract 1.24 ± 0.22%, increased (P<0.05) with the age of snail, while NFE reduced with age. Highest (P<0.05) carcass yield (44.23%) was obtained for snailets, with corresponding least (P<0.05) values for total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and FFA, cholesterol levels were significantly varied, in all groups and the contents of macronutrients and heavy metals in snail meat were tolerable in human nutrition and therefore not deleterious.

Open Access Original Research Article

Global Warming Influence on Major Seasonal and Intra-seasonal Rainfall Indicators for Sustainable Cocoa Production in West-central Côte d'Ivoire

Jean-Noël Ehounou, Brou Kouamé, Mathias G. Tahi, Emmanuel K. Kassin, Jacques Alain A. Kotaix, Charles S. Dékoula, Guy F. Yao, Hypolith K. Kouadio, Angelo E. B. N'guessan, Nagnin Soro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i530378

Ivorian cocoa production, which still remains the driving force of the national economy today, despite the increasingly pronounced diversification of the State's resources, has long benefited from relatively favorable climatic conditions. However, since the 1970s, recurrent disruptions in key rainfall indicators for cocoa production have posed significant risks to the yields and incomes of many Ivorians who depend directly or indirectly on the agronomic performance of this speculation. Using a methodological approach based on descriptive statistical analysis, this study provides an understanding of the evolution of the main climatic factors involved in cocoa production in the Central West, which is one of the country's natural cocoa production basins. To carry out this task, daily rainfall data from Divo and Gagnoa, covering the period 1946-2015, were collected and processed. The results of the various statistical analyses indicate that the seasonal and
intra-seasonal rainfall indicators in Gagnoa and Divo are generally declining after the break-up years detected in 1972 in Divo and 1966 in Gagnoa. After the breaks, the Useful Rainy Season (URS) starts later and the ends are earlier than before, which results in a shortening of the length of the URS and a reduction in the intra-seasonal rainfall totals of the two localities. Conversely, the maximum dry sequences during the URS show a slight increase after the break-up dates. The station of Gagnoa was less affected by the rainfall recession than that of Divo where the downward trend in seasonal and intra-seasonal rainfall events is more severe. This makes the Gagnoa region the one with the best rainfall capacities for cocoa production in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occupational Noise and Vibration Assessments in Forest Harvesting Equipment in North-eastern Brazil

Cássio Furtado Lima, Roldão Carlos Andrade Lima, Amaury Paulo de Souza, Luciano José Minette, Stanley Schettino, Marlice Paes Leme Vieira, Glícia Silvania Pedroso Nascimento

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i530379

Occupational hazards arising from physical agents present in wood harvesting equipment may cause irreversible damage to the health of exposed operators. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify the noise and vibration levels emitted by three types of wood harvesting equipment (Feller-buncher, Harvester and Forwarder) in a forestry company in north-eastern Brazil during a workday. Noise measurements were performed with an equivalent noise level meter (audiodosimeter) at the workstation and compared with the limits set in NR-15. To evaluate the vibration was used a full cup gauge, which has a sensor called triaxial accelerometer (directions X, Y and Z), installed on the operator's seat. As a result, the average noise dose of all activities in the operation studied did not exceed the maximum allowable limit of 85 dB (A) for 8 hours of continuous work. The whole body vibration in all equipment was below the exposure level, however, some equipment obtained indexes slightly higher than the alert level, a fact that shows a higher accuracy in the equipment.