Open Access Original Research Article

Usage and Characterization of Plant Species in the Composition of Urban Hedgerowsin Brazil

Paullyne Charllotte Gonçalves Celestino, Lúcia de Fatima de Carvalho Chaves, André Luiz Alves de Lima Galdino, Jéssica de Oliveira Souza, Uaine Maria Félix dos Santos, Djailson Silva da Costa Júnior, Luciana Cassimiro Bezerra de Lima, Anália Carmem Silva de Almeida, Carlos Roberto de Lima

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i630381

The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative and quantitative survey of hedgerows in a study area in the Imbiribeira neighborhood, Recife-PE, Brazil. After the delimitation of the study area, the number of properties with hedgerows was registered. The application of the questionnaire was directed to people residing, working or owning real estate that contained hedgerows with the following functions: embellishment, privacy, delimitation and coating. The number of blocks sampled, blocks with hedgerows, sampled hedgerows, hedgerows by block, properties with hedgerows, hedgerows by property and private companies and residences with hedgerows were noted. The interviewee was questioned about reasons for implantation and difficulties faced, presence of animals, reasons of plant selection, composition of plant species and phytosanitary conditions. In the study area 30 blocks were sampled, the presence of hedgerows was observed in 18 of them. Of these 18 blocks 73 hedgerows were surveyed, with an average of 2.43 hedgerows per block. The presence of hedgerows in 27 properties was verified. Landscape beautification is one of the main reasons for implantation and maintenance of the hedgerows. Of those interviewed, 30.77% stated that the work required for implantation and maintenance was a negative aspect of planting hedgerows. The presence of arthropods was verified in all studied hedgerows. General aesthetics was the reason most interviewees chose their particular plant species. Seventeen plant species and 11 families were observed. The species Ixora coccinea L. var. compacta Hort. was the most commonly found species. Hedgerows for the purpose of embellishment represent 83.56% of the hedges found. The phytosanitary status and the presence of flaws in the hedgerows in the study area presented a certain relation. Although hedgerows are widely used in urban and rural areas, studies on their composition, structure, ecological importance and relevance to biodiversity conservation are scarce.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Susceptibility of Some Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) to Stem Borers in Far North Region of Cameroon: A Case of Off Season Local Varieties

Jacques Djodda, Elias Nukenine Nchiwan, Pierre Ngassam, Bouba Djilé

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i630382

Introduction: Among cereals, Sorghum is the most consumed as food in the Far North of Cameroon. Muskuwari, which is an off season sorghum, plays a key role in the regulation of its availability. On the other hand, stem borers (Sesamia cretica Lederer) constitute a major constraint, compromise its yield and reduce cereal supply. Despite this fact, ecological control measures to reduce losses are still little known.

Objective: The present research aimed at evaluating the susceptibility of ten local varieties of Muskuwari against Lepidoptera stem borers in natural conditions.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted during the 2012 and 2013 agricultural campaign at Ngassa, a locality of Maroua.

Methodology: Experimentation was carried out in a Completely Randomized Block design with tree replications. Ten local varieties were then under natural infestations. Degrees of infestation were estimated by visual observation and destructive methods. Each year, Seed losses in term of percentage of total harvest loosed, were estimated from 30 ears per variety randomly selected from infested and uninfected plants.

Results: The results showed a large variation in agronomic performance depending on the parameters considered. Mandouéri, Bourgouri, Tchangalari and Soukatari with infestation rates ranging from 4% to 11% and seed losses ranging from 0.96% to 23.42% are more tolerant or less susceptible than other varieties while Safra’s varieties are always the most susceptible to stem borers with over to 40% seed loss.

Conclusion: The study showed there are resistant or tolerant varieties of Muskuwari able to cope with the attacks of stem borers not exploited to mitigate damages. Degree of infestation, seed loss, number of caterpillars and gallery length per plant are suitable parameters for varietal screening of stem borer resistance. Since varietal resistance is an ecological and easily adoptable option, investigations that could lead to Muskuwari varietal improvement could boost cereal supplly in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conductions Diagnosis of Seed Storage by Family Farmers in the Municipality of Lagoa de Itaenga-PE

Abraão Rodrigues de Almeida, Denise de Santana Silva, Jane Clésia Silva dos Santos, Alciele da Silva Leite, Elielma Josefa de Moura, Madson Rafael Barbalho da Silva, Pablo Radamés Cabral de França, José Carlos da Costa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i630383

In family agriculture it is common for farmers to store seeds in their own homes, preserving the genetic material of their crops and ensuring their food security, but what has been observed are reductions of this practice in small farms. Thus, the objective of this work was to diagnose how the seeds are being stored by farmers to family farmers in the Municipality of Lagoa de Itaenga, as well as to evaluate the germination potentials of the seeds stored. The work was carried out in the community of Marrecos, in the rural area of Lagoa de Itaenga using a semi-structured questionnaire to collect the data, as well as the collection of accesses for the evaluation of germination potential. The study found that the conservation practices of seeds in the community are being reduced, where most farmers store corn seeds, but also renew their seeds every twelve months, conserving them in a natural environment, in which the Bottle and chilli pepper are the most used for the conservation of the genetic material. Most of the analyzed accesses had good germination percentages.

Open Access Original Research Article

No-till System as an Alternative for Soil Conservation Aiming at Sustainability in Tobacco Production

Felipe Tascheto Bolzan, Camila Bisognin Meneghetti, Cleudson José Michelon, Carlos Arnoldo Streck

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i630384

Aims: Tobacco cultivation is important in the income composition of family farmers. The use of soil cover plants is a practice that plays an important role in keeping the soil covered and reducing the effects of water erosion and improving the physical, chemical and biological conditions of the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using different species for soil covering preceding the production of tobacco in the no-tillage system.

Place and Duration of Study: Two experiments were conducted in Jaguari-RS, in the years 2015 and 2016.

Methodology: The treatments were different species of soil cover crops, preceding the cultivation of tobacco (nicotine tabacum) as described: Black oat (Avena strigosa); Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.); Consortium of Black Oat + vetch and white lupine (Albus L.). For both experiments, the experimental units consisted of plots of 3.5 x 3 m, comprising an area of 10.5 m2. The plant growth, production of the dry mass and decomposition of crop residues, of the cover crops, as well as weed infestation and tobacco yield were evaluated.

Results: Among the winter cover crops, black oats and white lupine stood out, as they showed fast growth and higher dry mass production, resulting in higher tobacco yield. These cover crops showed the most promising, combining the benefits to soil conservation and the sustainability of the production system.

Conclusion: In this study it was observed that the treatments with cover crops that presented the highest dry mass production were the same ones that provided the highest tobacco yield, making it possible to affirm that there is a positive relation between the production of the dry mass of precedent crop with tobacco yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize Meal Sold and Consumed in the Three Main Cities of North-Kivu Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo

Kavugho Muvunga Gloire, Jasper K. Imungi, Lucy Njue

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v40i630385

This study aimed to determine the incidence of aflatoxin contamination of maize meal in the North-Kivu province of D.R.C. The study was conducted in the Beni, Goma and Butembo, the major cities of the North-Kivu province of D.R.C. A multi-stage sampling was applied in all the cities. A total of 30 samples of maize grains were collected.

In each city, five principal open markets were considered and in each, sixteen vendors were chosen randomly. From them, two composite samples of 1.5 kg each of maize grains were collected, there by subdividing randomly the sixteen vendors in two groups of eight vendors. Each composite sample of maize grains collected from eight vendors was milled and then a final composite sample of maize meal of one kilogram was taken for laboratory analysis. 25 samples (10 from Beni, 10 from Goma and 5 from Butembo) where milled raw, while 5 other samples from Butembo where grilled before and then where milled. All the samples were analyzed for total aflatoxins using ELISA Kit method according to the manufacturer. Data were subjected to one way ANOVA using Genstat® Discovery 13thEdition at 95% confidence interval (P≤ 0.05). Variable means for measurements showing significant differences in the ANOVA were compared using the LSD. Values were judged to be significantly different by LSD if P< 0.05.

The mean levels of aflatoxins in all the maize meals collected in the 3 cities are above 10ppb, the acceptable level of aflatoxins in maize meals for human consumption. The means range between 18.34 and 20.98 ppb, the highest level being in samples collected in Goma city. These results confirm the statement that the maize consumers in all the 3 cities (Beni, Goma and Butembo) are exposed to aflatoxin-contamination as the consumed maize meals are contaminated with aflatoxin at levels surpassing the limits. However, Goma city is highly exposed to aflatoxin contamination.