Open Access Minireview Article

Genetic Manipulation and Product Shelf Life: Is There a Connection? A Developing World Perspective

Michael T. Masarirambi, Kwanele A. Nxumalo, Diana M. Earnshaw, Patricia J. Musi, Bonginkhosi E. Dlamini

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i230394

Genetic manipulation of plants is the science where there is deliberate modification of the genetic make up of plants. Such plants are referred to as genetically modified (GM) organisms. The practice of genetic manipulation of organisms has been practiced since ancient times, it is only that nowadays there is use of advanced technologies. However there are critics of GM technologies which include organic farmers, religious groups, environmentalists, trade protectionists, some politicians, some naturalists and African traditionalists. Some of the fears pertain to potential toxicity, allergenicity, possible antibiotic resistance, carcinogenicity and possible genetic contamination of other crops and wild flora. Other concerns include possible creation of new viruses, restriction of seed availability and fear of the unknown. On the other hand there are benefits which may outweigh the disadvantages of GM technology. Benefits include improvement of shelf life of fruits and vegetables and their nutritional content. The aim of this study (review) was to explore the link between genetic manipulation and product shelf life of fruits and vegetables in a developing world perspective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emergence and Initial Development of Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) BRS Alegria at Different Depths of Seeding and Water Availability

Ana Lucia da Silva, Aloísio Bianchini, Matheus Azevedo dos Santos, Patrícia Monique Crivelari da Costa, Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i230393

The depth of seeding and the availability of water influence the seed germination process. Amaranth has small seeds from 1.0 to 1.5 mm and limited nutrient reserves and, after emergence, slow growth. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the emergence and formation of amaranth seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a vegetation house at the Federal University of Mato Grosso - Brazil, between October and November 2018. The factor "A" refers to two seeding depths (10 and 20 mm) and the factor "B" to four of water availability (100%, 80%, 60% and 40% of retention capacity). The emergency, first count and emergency speed index were evaluated. Height, diameter, root length, number of leaves, mass of fresh and dry matter were also evaluated. The emergence of the seedlings, independently of the seeding depth, was greater in water availability of 100 and 80%. There was interaction of factors for the first count and emergency velocity index. The first emergency count was higher in water availability of 100%. At a seeding depth of 10 mm, the first count of emerging seedlings was similar in water availability of 100, 80 and 40%. While, at a depth of 20 mm, the first count was higher at water availability of 60%. The emergency speed index was higher for 100% water availability at 10 mm seeding depth, while at 20 mm depth the water availability had no effect on the emergency speed index. The water availability of 60 and 40% of the retention capacity reduces the height of the plant, the diameter of the stem, the length of the root, the number of leaves, the mass of fresh and dry matter. Increased seeding depth reduces height, number of leaves and production of fresh and dry amaranth matter.

Open Access Original Research Article

Method of Area Frame Sampling Using Probability Proportional to Size Sampling Technique for Crops’ Surveys: A Case Study in Pakistan

Abdul Qayyum, H. M. Muddasar Jamil Shera

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i230395

The Crops’ estimates have been greatly concerned by the Government of Punjab (Pakistan) all the times. Crop Reporting Service (CRS), Agriculture Department, Punjab, as a unique and the largest statistical organization in Punjab, has been working on agricultural statistics using the sampling technique, List Frame Sampling (LFS), for conducting surveys to gather information regarding crops acreage, cost of production, crops yield and other agricultural items since 1978. The development of the rural economy in Pakistan brings new problems and challenges to the methods of agricultural statistics. The back bone of agricultural statistics is the sampling technique, LFS, in which primary sampling unit is a village and an enumerator has to survey the whole village whatever the size of the village causing an increase in non-sampling error. In spite of the sufficient area coverage, representation of population in the sample is not satisfactory. The solution is Area Frame Sampling Technique in which primary sampling unit is a Segment of a specific acreage covering maximum dimensions of the population land. In this paper a method of Area Frame Sampling (AFS) has been proposed. As most of the research papers focus on the method of AFS through Geographical Information System (GIS) technique. But in this paper two-stage statistical sampling technique has been used to achieve the same objective in an efficient and economical way. In the first stage Probability Proportional to Size Sampling (PPS) has been used. Here size is cropped area of a Union Council (UC), the smallest geographical cluster in Punjab, Pakistan. In the second stage Simple Random Sampling (SRS) has been used. Here Primary Sampling Units are Segments of land of a village. The results show that the problem of non-representation of agricultural land is minimized and, consequently, getting better estimates in terms of precision using less amount of land data. It is recommended that this method can be extended for multiple stages of sampling and for multiple measures of sizes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Responses of Curry Plant (Murraya koenigii) to Plant Row Spacing in an Utisol

O. A. Agba

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i230396

Curry plant (Murraya koenigii) is one of the most important vegetable spices crops use for food, spice, medicinal and industrial purposes in Nigeria. However, curry plant production in commercial scale in Nigeria is highly constrained by several factors: it is not cultivated in regular farming system mainly due to lack of planting materials and improper plant spacing of this crop among others.

Therefore, field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different levels of plant row spacing on growth and yield of Curry plant (Murraya koenigii) in Cross River University of Technology, Teaching and Research farm, Department of Agronomy, Obubra, Cross River state, Nigeria in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. Treatments were nine plant row spacing (70 x 50 cm, 70 x 70 cm, 80 x 40 cm, 80x60 cm, 90 x 30 cm, 100 x 50 cm, 100 x 70 cm, 100 x100 cm and 100 x130 cm) inter and intra row respectively with four replications. Results showed that plant row spacing have significantly affect the growth and yield of Curry plant. Closer plant row spacing of 70 x 50 cm significantly promoted the tallest plant height and highest leaf area inde x values of curry plant. Fresh and dry leaf yield on per hectare basis were significantly higher in closer plant row spacing than wider row spacing. The highest fresh and dry leaves yield per hectare at 20 weeks after planting (WAP) of 0.9742t/ha and 0.9871t/ha were obtained in closer row spacing of 70 x 50 cm in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons respectively .

The number of leaves and branches per plant and their fresh leaf yield and dry matter of plant fractions were higher in wider plant row spacing plots. The wide plant row spacing of 100 x 130 cm produced the highest fresh leaf yield per plant of 88.54 g in 2017 and 83.46 g in 2018 cropping seasons. Based on this result farmers are advised to cultivate Curry plant (Murraya koenigii) using the plant row spacing of 70 x 50 or 80 x 60 cm for optimum growth and yield per hectare of the crop under the utisoil condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Responses of Three Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Varieties against Pepper veinal mottle virus

Léon W. Nitiema, Pierre A. E. D. Sombié

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i230397

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the changes in antioxidant activity and protein content between non-infected and infected leaves of three Capsicum annuum varieties against Pepper veinal mottle virus.

Materials and Methods: Pepper veinal mottle virus isolated from infected pepper plants was inoculated to three healthy varieties of pepper (Pepper Narval, Yolo Wonder and Chili pepper) by gently rubbing on the leaves of 14-day-old seedlings. Control peppers of each variety were treated in the same way with distilled water. The infection of inoculated plants was confirmed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Control and infected leaves were collected 21 days after inoculation (when symptoms manifested) and used for biochemical analyses. Change in different biochemical parameters (catalase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and protein) in infected pepper plant was observed compared to control non-infected ones.

Results: Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were increased in Pepper Narval and Pepper Yolo Wonder infected leaves compared to non-infected, while a significant decrease was observed in infected Chili pepper compared to control. Higher malondialdehyde content was found in Pepper Yolo Wonder and Chili pepper infected leaves (P < 0.05) than control while a non-significant difference was shown between the infected and non-infected of Pepper Narval variety (P > 0.05). Infected Chili pepper showed high protein content compared to control (P < 0.05). An opposite trend was observed in pepper Narval and Yolo Wonder varieties (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that Pepper veinal mottle virus infection induces changes in antioxidant enzymes activities, malondialdehyde and total protein levels. These biochemical components were greatly expressed differentially between Pepper veinal mottle virus infected and non-infected in Pepper Yolo Wonder variety. Further studies with more biochemical parameters may contribute to improve the pepper tolerance mechanism to Pepper veinal mottle virus in a breeding program.