Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties under Different Soil Amendments

Kwadwo Gyasi Santo, Joseph Sarkodie-Addo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i330398

Studies were carried out at Offinso in the Ashanti Region of Ghana to assess root quality of cassava grown with application of poultry manure and NPK 15-15-15 and NPK 23-10-10 fertilizers. The experimental design was a 2 x 6 factorial, arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments consisted of two cassava varieties in combination with five inorganic and/or organic fertilizer formulations and a control with no fertilizer. The parameters measured were starch content, poundability, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of cassava roots. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance using the Genstat Statistical package. The results of the study indicated that Bankyehemaa produced higher starch content (29.86%) than the Nkabom variety. Fertilizer application increased starch content with the combined application of poultry manure and NPK 23-10-10 treatment recording the highest treatment effect (30.40%). Both the organic and inorganic fertilizers applied increased starch content of cassava roots. Poundability was not also affected by both variety and fertilizer application. However, roots treated with NPK 15-15-15 only and poultry manure alone were very poundable (3.0). Variety significantly affected only nitrogen and phosphorus contents of cassava roots. Bankyehemaa had higher content (0.72%) of nitrogen than Nkabom, while Nkabom recorded higher content (1.05%) of phosphorus than Bankyehemaa. Generally, application of fertilizer significantly affected root contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. However, potassium and phosphorus contents were reduced by the organic fertilizer (poultry manure). The NPK 15-15-15 treatment produced higher potassium (9.37%) and phosphorus (1.36%) contents of roots than the other treatments. The highest nitrogen content of roots (0.78%) was observed in the combined application of poultry manure and NPK 23-10-10 treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematology and Serum Biochemical Constituents of Finisher Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Water Soaked Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Peel Meal at Varying Durations

A. O. Amaga, O. I. A. Oluremi, C. D. Tuleun, F. G. Kaankuka

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i330400

A four week feeding trial was conducted using 180 5-week old Arbor acre broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding various duration of water soaked sweet orange peels on haematology and serum biochemical indices with a view to determining the potential of soaked sweet orange peels as an alternative to maize. Six broiler finisher diets were formulated and fed to the chickens in groups of 30 birds per diet, subdivided into 3 replicates of 10 chickens each in a completely randomized design. Diet 1 (control) was maize-based, diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, sweet orange peels replaced maize at various duration of water soaked 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively, and incorporated at 30% inclusion. White blood cell, red blood cell and mean corpuscular volume was depressed (p<0.05) by various duration of water soaked sweet orange peels, packed cell volume did not indicate anaemic tendency among treatment and white blood cell count did not indicate infection due to treatments. Serum protein was adequate and liver and kidney function were not compromised. Health status and nutrient absorption of birds were not compromised by replacing maize with various duration of water soaked sweet orange peels in broiler chickens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Path Coefficient Analysis of Some Prominent Agronomic Traits in Castor (Ricinus communis L.) Germplasm

Destaw Mullualem Atinafu, Shiferaw Alemu Alayachew, Zerihun Jida

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i330401

Background and Objective: Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is a diploid plant with chromosome number of 2n=20 which belongs to family of Euphorbiaceous and genus Ricinus.  Correlation alone is not efficient for variability studies. So, it should be in conjugation with Path co- efficient analysis to know the direct and indirect effects. This study was conducted to assess the role of evaluating path coefficient analysis in castor.

Materials and Methods: A Field experiment was carried out to determine direct and indirect effects of yield and its components in castor accessions at Melkassa, central rift valley of Ethiopia under irrigation in 2014. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and a total of 48 castor accessions were evaluated.

Results: Number of capsules per plant, number of primary branches per plant, length of inter node and hundred seed weight had exerted positive direct effect for both at phenotypic and genotypic path analysis.Phenotypic and genotypic path analysis showed that the number of capsules per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, length of inter node, days to 50% second flowering and seed yield exhibited positive direct effect on oil content. 

Conclusion: Thus, traits like number of capsules per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, length of inter nod and days to 50% second flowering should be given emphasis in improving seed yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trait Association and Path Coefficient Analysis for Yield Traits in Myanmar Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Germplasm

Myint Aye, Nyo Mar Htwe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i330402

The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications during the dry season, 2014 at Yezin Agricultural University, Myanmar to determine the extent of genetic variability for important yield attributes and to determine interrelationship among the traits and their direct and indirect effects on yield of forty Myanmar sesame germplasm. All genotypes were phenotyped for ten agronomic traits. All basic statistical parameters and phenotypic correlation were generated using STAR v2.0.1 and PBTools v1.4. Genotypic correlation and path analysis between yield and yield components were evaluated by SPAR 2.0 and R software package. Wide variations were observed for all traits studied in all germplasm. Primary branches, capsules and seed yield per plant showed high genotypic and phenotypic variances, PCV and GCV estimates that are enough scope for selection. Progeny selection will be effective to improve plant height and number of capsules per plant indicating high heritability with high genetic advance. In both genotypic and phenotypic correlation analysis, main seed yield contributing traits in sesame production were days to first and 50% flowering, plant height, primary branches, capsules per plant and capsule length. According to path analysis, positive direct effect on seed yield was contributed by days to first flowering followed by 1000 seed weight, capsules per plant, no. of primary branches per plant and capsule length. Therefore, days to first flowering, 1000 seed weight, capsules per plant, primary branches and capsule length may be good selection criteria for further sesame breeding programs related to high yielding varieties.

Open Access Review Article

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Potential of Mesquite Grains Flour in Hamburger Meat Product

Atacy Maciel de Melo Cavalcante, Osvaldo Soares da Silva, Genésio José da Silva Neto, Anely Maciel de Melo, Neila Lidiany Ribeiro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i330399

Aims: The objective is to approach the use of the flour of the mesquite grains in restructured hamburger meat product formulations.

Introduction: The mesquite seed is a by product of great nutritional value and little use in large scale for food purposes, being considered, also, discarding raw material in the processing of the mesquite pod. The seeds represent an agroindustrial byproduct with broad technological and nutritional potential, with some applications already tested and widespread in the food and environmental sector. The high sugar content associated with the high levels of nitrogen in the mesquite tree pods favours the biochemical processes and enables the production technology of alcohol, spirits, liquor, wine, honey, enzymes, acids, gums, vinegar, sugars and even a substitute drink for coffee. In some Andean countries, other beverages such as lodge, chicha, etole and algarobina (a type of stomach and aphrodisiac fortifier), flour, biscuit and cookies are made. The physicochemical characteristics of the hamburger should contain a maximum fat content of 23.0%, a minimum of 15% protein, 3% total carbohydrates and calcium content (maximum dry basis) 0,1% in raw hamburger and 0.45% cooked hamburger.

Conclusion: The use of resources to reduce the disadvantages related to the addition of fibre in meat products should be studied in order to obtain the benefits of this addition without compromising the acceptability and quality of the final product, besides allowing a greater addition of mesquite seed in order to achieve the requirements for a functional product.