Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Effect on Growth Performance and Leaf Biomass Production of Two Moringa oleifera Lam. Varieties Grown under Sahelian Condition in Burkina Faso

François Wenemi Kagambèga, Abdoul Rasmane Bagagnan, Augustine Ayantunde, Louis Sawadogo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i430403

Aims: An experiment was conducted to compare the growth performance of two varieties of Moringa oleifera (wild variety and PKM-1) under different seasonal period at two locations in northern Burkina Faso, and the potential for improving household nutrition.

Study Design, Place and Duration of Study: Two separate trials corresponding to sowing period (cold and warm) were laid out at each site (Bani and Tougou) in a completely randomized block design with three replicates between December 2017 and September 2018.

Methodology: Each block was subdivided into two plots of 8 m² (separated from each other by 3 m break) intended to receive each variety of Moringa at each sowing period. The seeds were sown with 2 seeds by pit at 2 cm depth with spacing of 0.5 m x 0.5 m in each plot ploughed up to 30 cm. Watering was done daily during the dry season and consisted of applying 24 liters of water in each plot at two times. Vegetative growth measurements (plant height, number of leaves) were done weekly while leaf biomass production was assessed monthly from the 40th day after sowing.

Results: The results showed that seedlings growth parameters and foliar biomass differed significantly (p < 0.001) among the two Moringa oleifera varieties and were influenced by the sowing period and sites. Although the two varieties grew well, Moringa oleifera var PKM-1 grew faster and produced much leaves compared to the wild or local variety. Then, greater growth attributes (height and number of leaves) and foliar biomass were noted for PKM-1.

Conclusion: The warm period (March / April) appear to be the most recommendable period for the growth and biomass accumulation of the two varieties of Moringa oleifera.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Propagation Media and Branch Orientation on Rooting of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Shoots Propagated by Air Layering in a Sub-tropical Environment

Nontsikelelo Mahlambi, Victor D. Shongwe, Michael T. Masarirambi, Kwanele A. Nxumalo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i430404

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit rich in vitamins and beneficial phytochemicals and thus often referred to as a super fruit. Despite the potential nutritional benefits of guava fruit, it has received little research to facilitate its wide-scale production in the Kingdom of Eswatini. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the effects of media and branch orientation on rooting of guava branches propagated by air layering. Media treatments used included vermiculite, compost, top soil, and media mix which was a mixture of top soil, pine sawdust and sand. Branches that were oriented towards the North East to South East and South West to North West directions in relation to the sun were selected for air layering. The experiment was a factorial arrangement laid out in a split plot design where there were 5 replications per treatment. Vermiculite wrapped branches showed the best adventitious root formation in relation to root length, root volume, root mass, rooting percentage and root number in comparison to other media treatments. North East to South East oriented branches produced superior adventitious root development than North West to South West orientated branches. Wrapping branches with vermiculite in combination with the selection of North East to South East oriented branches enhanced adventitious root development in air layered guava branches. It is recommended that farmers who wish to produce guavas of desired quality by air layering may select branches with the greatest exposure to the sun in the North East to South East directions using vermiculite or alternatively compost in the absence of vermiculite as propagation media.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectral Response of Eucalyptus saligna under Water Stress in Southern Brazil

Lorena de Moura Melo, Adriano Castelo dos Santos, Kardelan Arteiro da Silva, Uilian do Nascimento Barbosa, Géssyca Fernanda de Sena Oliveira, Elisiane Alba, Pierre André Bellé, José Jorge Monteiro Junior, Emanuel Araújo Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i430405

The present work aims to assess the effect of water stress on the reflectance emitted by leaves of Eucalyptus saligna individuals. The design was completely randomized and the study comprised 30 subjects who underwent 5 cycles of drought simulation, 45 days each. Five individuals were submitted to water deficit treatment and five were used as controls, remaining in adequate water conditions. The experiment and data collection were performed in the external facilities of the forest management laboratory of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Which it comprised the period from September 2014 to April 2015. Spectral information was collected from 24-month-old tree individuals in adequate water and water stress situations by means of FieldSpec®3 spectroradiometer. Subsequently, the spectral data for the electromagnetic spectrum range from 400 nm to 1700 nm were processed and analyzed. The resulting spectral behavior varied between water stress cycles. In the 450 nm wavelength range, the reflectances ranged from 3.8% to 7.4%, at 550 nm from 7.9% to 14% and at 650 nm from 4.8% to 8.8%. In the near infrared region, in the 900 nm to 1300 nm range, the reflectances ranged from 28% to 62%. The spectral response of E. saligna showed minimal differences when compared to healthy green vegetation, even though it was exposed to water deficit situations. From the information obtained, this research can be used as a parameter for comparative analysis between species belonging to the genus Eucalyptus sp.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphobiometry and Ecophysiology of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm. (Pequi) in Cerrado Areas of Northeast Brazil

Beatriz da Silva Rodrigues, Maria do Amparo Ferreira, Tony César Sousa Oliveira, Maria da Conceição Prado de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i430406

Many studies have reported that native plant species can contribute to ensuring food security in the world. Among the Brazilian species, the Caryocar coriaceum has a high utility value for the communities in Northeast Brazil but it is under threat due to the degradation of the Cerrado savannah. One way to mitigate threats is to produce large-scale seedlings. Thus, it was attempted to evaluate methods to overcome dormancy of C. coriaceum to increase and standardize germination and to analyze its morphobiometric characteristics. The fruits were weighed, measured and subjected to the selected treatments. Tests were performed to overcome dormancy The fruits were planted at a depth of 5 cm. The results showed that the fruits of C. coriaceum presented asymmetric frequency distribution with high variability for the characteristic of weight. However, a marked variation of the literature data was found. About the germination treatments tested in the laboratory, none was effective in overcoming dormancy, which may be due to the presence of inhibitory substances. Concerning seed planting, a germination index of 35% was recorded after 12 months. The conclusions suggest that there is a high phenotypic variability of the genus in the cerrado and probably the presence of germination inhibitors in seeds of this species, which should be addressed to ensure germination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Varieties and Silicon Fertilizer on the Rooting Efficiency and Productivity of Mini-Cuttings and Powdery Mildew Disease of Eucalypt

Karine Fernandes Caiafa, Haroldo Nogueira de Paiva, Laiz de Oliveira Sartori

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i430407

Considering that silicon (Si) is a nutrient that stands out in the control of fungal diseases and in the increase in productivity of several cultures, this study intend to evaluate its influence on the productivity and severity of mildew in mini-stumps, as well as rooting of eucalyptus mini-cuttings. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with four replications in split plot scheme, the first factor related to Silicon doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mmol L-1) and the second factor related to five clones of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrids (I144, I224, 3334, GG100, GG680). The following variables were evaluated: Si content in mini-cuttings, powdery mildew severity and mini-stumps productivity, and rooting of mini-cuttings. The highest absorption of Si was obtained with a dose of 1.22 mmol L-1 (0.14%). There was no influence of the nutrient solution containing Si on the productivity of mini-stumps, powdery mildew severity or rooting of eucalyptus mini-cuttings. Clones GG100 and 3334 presented, respectively, the best and worst results for all evaluated variables.