Open Access Original Research Article

GYT Biplot Analysis: A New Approach for Cowpea Line Selection

Tâmara Rebecca Albuquerque de Oliveira, Geraldo de Amaral Gravina, Maurisrael de Moura Rocha, Francisco de Alcântara Neto, Derivaldo Pureza da Cruz, Gustavo Hugo Ferreira de Oliveira, Camila Queiroz da Silva Sanfim de Sant’Anna, Mário Euclides Pechara da Costa Jaeggi, Richardson Sales Rocha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i530408

Cowpea beans is grown under different edaphoclimatic conditions throughout Brazilian regions causing them to perform differently due to the influence that environments have on genotypes. Thus, it is necessary to obtain lines adapted to the specific cultivation environments so that it can present high yield. The objective of this work was to select cowpea lines through the GYT biplot multivariate analysis. The experiment was carried out in Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in the 2016 and 2017 harvests. The randomized block design was performed with four replications and four lines per plot. Variance analyzes and biplot plots were applied for the number of days of flowering, final planting, harvest value, housing, pod yield, length, average number of beans per pod, average grain weight per pod and grain weight. The analysis of variance showed that there is genetic variability among the strains, requiring a detailed study to select those with the best agronomic performance. The first two major components of the biplot chart explained almost all of the variation between strains. All yield characteristics were negatively correlated with the set of productivity combinations with housing and number of days for flowering. Lines 3, 10, 4, 2, 6, 12, 7 and 11 showed better average performance for yield characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Water Regimes and Spacing on Insect Pest Infestation and Efficacy of Control Measures in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

A. A. Oso, G. O. Awe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i530415

Aim: Information on the influence of water availability during different seasons of rainfed or irrigated agriculture as it relates to insect pest population build-up in crops could assist in the development of integrated pest management. A study was therefore conducted to investigate effects of spacing, pest infestation and control on cucumber under rainfed and irrigated conditions.

Place and Duration of Study: At the Teaching and Research Farm, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria during the 2016/2017 rainy and dry seasons.

Methodology: The experiment was laid out using randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a split-plot arrangement in five replications, with spacing (60 x 60 cm, 60 x 90 cm and 60 x 120 cm) as the main plot treatments and the sub-plot treatments were different pest control strategies. The pest control strategies include synthetic insecticide (Lambda-cyhalothrin), botanical insecticide (Anogeissus leiocarpus) and control. Growth parameters and yield attributes were recorded. Insect pest occurrence, their build-up and percentage infestation on cucumber and the efficacy of the management strategies were monitored.

Results: The results showed that yield was enhanced in irrigated system with the widest spacing of 60 x 120 cm botanical treatment interaction. Bemisia tabaci was the most prominent insect pest attacking cucumber under irrigated system.

Conclusion: Other cultural control practices such as the use of trap crops with little or no financial implication should also be added to botanical pesticides as an integrated pest management tactic for effective management and control of the pest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pesticides and Neem Seed Kernel Extract on Blights and Tuta absoluta at Different Phenological Stages of Tomato in Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Eritrea

Syed Danish Yaseen Naqvi, Sethumadhava Rao, Adugna Haile, Belay Teweldemedhin, Aggrey Bernard Nyende

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i530416

Tomato in Eritrea is affected by nearly 30 diseases and insect pests among which blight, leaf curl virus, root-knot nematodes, powdery mildew, Tuta absoluta, Helicoverpa armigera, aphids, whitefly and red spider mites are the most important. In the field, experiments were conducted in Hamelmalo Agricultural College for two consecutive seasons (2015 and 2016) in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments used were pesticides (mancozeb, dimethoate, deltamethrin) and aqueous Neem seed kernel extract and their combinations. Disease incidence (DI), Disease severity (DS) of blights and infestations of Tuta absoluta [Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae] were assessed at different phenological stages of the crop. Mancozeb alone was not so effective to reduce either DI or DS or damage of plants but it causes declining the number of larvae of T. absoluta at flowering stage. T11 showed the highest control of DI, DS and reduced the larval population of T. absoluta per plot and minimized the damage level. Among all the treatments, T11 and T9 were the most effective to reduce the damage of plants and minimizing the larvae of T. absoluta at fruiting stage. Neem extract had the least effect than all treatments.  Mancozeb (T1) and combinations of Mancozeb + Dimethoate + NSE (T11) gave significantly higher marketable yield than other treatments. The overall Cost-Benefit Ratio (CBR) was similar for all treatments during the two crop seasons, but the average CBR was higher for T11 whereas it was least for T3.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cause and Effect Estimates on Corn Yield as a Function of Tractor Planting Speed

Luiz Leonardo Ferreira, Gabriel de Souza Araújo, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Gildomar Alves dos Santos, Marilaine de Sá Fernandes, Ariana Bertola Carnevale, Carmen Rosa da Silva Curvêlo, Alexandre Igor de Azevedo Pereira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i530417

The objective of this work was to explain the cause and effect estimates on corn yield as a function of planting speed. The study was conducted from January 21 to June 15, 2019, at Fazenda Invernadinha, rural area of ​​the municipality of Mineiros, GO, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, corresponding to five tractor planting velocities (4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 km h-1), in 4 replicates, where each plot consisted of 8 300 m long lines spaced at each 0.9 m, for a population of 60.000 plants ha-1. Sowing was carried out in no-till system after soybean harvest. A John Deere tractor and planter assembly were used, models 7715 (182 hp horsepower) and 2115 CCS Vacumeter (8 rows of 0.9 m respectively) with 30-hole 30 mm seed discs. Data were submitted to the assumptions of the statistical model, verifying the normality and homogeneity of the residual variances, as well as the additivity of the model. The analyzes were performed in the Rbio R interface, besides the Genes Software. It was concluded that the plant population is the variable that most influences the cause and effect estimates on corn yield. For high corn yields it is recommended that the tractor planting speed be adjusted to 6 km h-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Properties of Defatted Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seeds Protein and Its Hydrolysates

Fatoumata Tounkara, Issiaka Togola, Lassana Sissoko, Mah Moutaga Fane, Nouhoum Diarra, Nah Traoré

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i530421

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of Roselle seed protein isolates and its hydrolysates.

Place and Duration of Study: The Roselle seeds were collected in Koutiala (Mali), in November 2018. All analysis were conducted in the Faculty of Sciences and Technics, particularly in the Laboratory of Plant and Food Biochemistry and Biotechnology from January to June 2019.  

Methodology: The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the functional properties of Roselle seed protein (RSP) was investigated. Defatted Roselle seed flour was used to extract the protein isolates. The protein was digested for 2 hours and 3 hours using pepsin followed by pancreatin.

Results: The 2 hours and 3 hours Roselle seed protein hydrolysates (RSPH2, RSPH3) compare to RSPI, exhibited a good foaming capacity of 300, 315 and 165% respectively. The water holding capacity (WHC) of the RSPI, RSPH2 and the RSPH3 were 2, 2.5 and 2.2 ml/g respectively. The oil holding capacity ranged from 5.75 to 5.32 ml/g, the emulsifying capacity of the RSPH2 was higher than that of the RSPH3 and the RSPI, 105, 97 and 82 ml/g respectively.

Conclusion: The ability of pepsin and pancreatin hydrolysates to be functional is primarily due to their soluble peptide content. The samples have good functional properties. These results proposed that pepsin and pancreatin hydrolysates could be useful as whole or partial replacement of high-price materials such as egg albumen and casein.