Open Access Short Research Article

Comparisons of Four Methods for Thinning Eucalyptus Hybrid Coppice Shoots in Brazil

Nilton Cesar Fiedler, Ricardo Pinheiro Cabral, Adriano Ribeiro de Mendonça, Weslen Pintor Canzian, Antonio Henrique Cordeiro Ramalho, Denise Ransolin Soranso

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630434

Both manual and semi-mechanized systems are used for operations involved in coppice remodeling. Thus, there is a paradigm about the higher yield of semi-mechanized operations compared to manual operations. However, the small volume of research on this subject does not present data which is capable of confirming this hypothesis. Thus, the present study aimed to perform a technical analysis of costs, quality and productivity of different methods for conducting regrowth in Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid plantations under coppice regeneration in areas of forest fostering. The experiment was conducted under a completely randomized design with four treatments (sprouting methods) and four replications in plots of 360m² each. The methods used were: brushcutter, sickle, machete and hand digger. An F-test (p <0.05) was performed to verify the differentiation between treatments for a given characteristic after verifying the normal distribution of data and homogeneity of variances. The means were compared by analysis of variance at the 5% significance level to analyze if there was significant difference between the operating times in the analyzed methods. An estimate of the costs per hectare was subsequently obtained in each offspring method and the quality of the operation was evaluated by observing the frequency of damage to the remaining trunk. The mean operation time of the methods did not differ significantly (p> 0.05). The brushcutter presented the highest cost per hectare (US$ 40,06/ha-1) and the excavator presented the lowest (US$ 18,65/ha-1). Spreading with the brushcutter presented the lowest percentage of mechanical damage (6.88%) and the sickle obtained the highest (20.63%). It was concluded that the operation with brushcutter was the method that provided the highest productivity, but has the highest operational cost, making the method with brushcutter, advantageous for its low cost, associated with a satisfactory productivity.

Open Access Short Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Alcoholic Extracts of Medicinal Plants against Phytopathogenic Fungi

Clenilda Tolentino Bento da Silva, Alessandra Keiko Nakasone, Walkymário de Paulo Lemos, Osmar Alves Lameira, Luana Cardoso de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630438

Aims: This work aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of 14 alcoholic extracts of medicinal plants on the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. passiflorae, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. Those are fungi that cause diseases in Passiflora edulis.

Study Design: With the obtained data the mycelial growth rate index (MGRI) was calculated, afterwards the analysis of variance was performed and the means were compared by the Scott-Knott test at 5% probability.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant Pathology Laboratory, Embrapa Eastern Amazon, Belém, Pará, Brazil, between May 2014 and April 2015.

Methodology: The extracts were prepared with 1.0 g of powdered plant material and 10 mL of commercial ethyl alcohol 92.8º (0.1 g mL-1) under constant agitation in an orbital shaker at 200 rpm for 20 minutes. They were then kept in the refrigerator for 24 hours at rest. The extracts were centrifuged and filtered on Millipore membranes with 0.22 µm porosity. The tests with the phytopathogenic fungi were carried out in vitro with the alcoholic extracts at 1% concentration. The experimental design was completely randomized with 15 treatments and 5 replicates.

Results: All the extracts reduced the growth of the fungi C. gloeosporioides. The extracts the Eucalyptus angulosa, Lippia alba, Zingiber officinale, Cymbopagon citratus, Azadirachta indica, Plectranthus barbathus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Aloe vera, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Mansoa alliacea and Chenopodium ambrosioides reduced the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. passiflorae. Only the extract of E. angulosa presented reduction in the growth of F. solani. Meanwhile the extracts of E. angulosa, Z. officinale, L. alba, M. alliacea and P. barbathus reduced the mycelial growth of R. solani.

Conclusion: All extracts presented antimicrobial potential, being that the extract of E. angulosa reduced the mycelial growth of all the evaluated fungi.

Open Access Opinion Article

Financial Evaluation, Under Conditions of Risk, in a Family Dairy Production System

César Otaviano Penna Júnior, Rogério Figueiredo Daher, Paulo Marcelo de Souza, Niraldo José Ponciano, Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior, Ismail Ramalho Haddade, Ivan Jannotti Wendling, Wanessa Francesconi Stida, Kesia Faria Vidal, Rafael Souza Freitas

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630435

Aims: This study analyzed, in comparative terms, the competitive potential of family farming using an intensive milk production system based on the intermittent stocking in irrigated tropical pasture; it also evaluated the financial results before and after the implementation of an appropriate technology in the intensification process.

Study Design: The article is based on an opinion about a subject of major interest aimed at generating discussion. 

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted based on data collected from a family farming property located at the municipality of Alegre, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, between 2011 and 2013.

Methodology: Cash flow spreadsheets were organized, taken into consideration two deterministic scenarios (with and without the implementation of the proper technology), evaluated the net present value (NPV at 6%) and the internal rate of return (IRR). Subsequently, a sensitivity analysis was carried out, and, considering the items with the greatest contribution in the financial indicators, the Monte Carlo Simulation method was used, obtaining the risk in the decision to invest under each situation studied.

Results: The results of NPV6%, estimated according to the opportunity costs of capital, and the IRR would exceed the values of alternative investments with returns of 6% by US$ 1,830.71 and would return the capital by 6.25%, respectively.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the intensive pasture milk production system has potential to be an alternative for income generation for family farming.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fruit and Seed Biometrics and Influence on Germination of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jackfruit)

Uilian do Nascimento Barbosa, Ana Lícia Patriota Feliciano Marangon, Isabelle Maria Jacqueline Meunier, Luiz Carlos Marangon, Anderson Oliveira de Lima, Géssyca Fernanda de Sena Oliveira, Adriano Castelo dos Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630422

This work aimed to characterize the biometry of fruits and seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and to verify its influence on germination. The fruits were collected from the matrices trees in the Jardim Botânico do Recife (JBR), Pernambuco. From 10 pathogen-free A. heterophyllus matrices, 50 fruits (multiple fruits, which in the research were considered as single fruit) and 500 seeds were collected, being measured length, width and thickness, using a tape measure (for fruits ) and digital caliper (precision 0.001 mm) for the seeds, as well as weighing on a precision scale. The seeds were classified by size: Small (≤ 2.5 cm), medium (2.6 to 3 cm) and large (≥ 3.1 cm). The germination test was conducted in a greenhouse of the JBR, with a 50% shading screen. The container used was a 50 x 25 x 5 cm polypropylene tray with holes at the bottom to provide drainage. The obtained results allow inferring that the seed size did not influence the vigor on A. heterophyllus germination in a greenhouse. The variation found in fruit size and number of seeds per fruit, as well as field observations regarding fruit and seed morphology, pulp flavor and consistency, allows us to infer that there is a possibility of several varieties of the species occurring in the studied site.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production Components and Agricultural Productivity of Corn under Nitrogen Doses and Planting Times

Marcelo Augusto da Silva Soares, Samuel Silva, Iêdo Teodoro, Arthur Luan Dias Cantarelli, Gerlan do Nascimento Rodrigues, Jorge Luiz Xavier Lins Cunha, Ana Beatriz de Almeida Moura, Allan Hemerson de Moura, Ana Caroline de Almeida Moura, José Gomes Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630423

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the best time for planting and nitrogen dose during the dry season that provides better yield to corn crop in the Alagoas Coastal Tablelands region.

Study Design: The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in the split plot scheme with four repetitions.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was developed at the Center of Agrarian Sciences of the Federal University of Alagoas in 2016.

Methodology: The plots consisted of 20 lines with seven meters in length and received the four sowing seasons (E1: 28/05/16, E2: 11/06/16, E3: 25/06/16, E4: 22/07/16). The subplots contained 5 lines of 7 meters each and received the nitrogen doses (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg ha-1). The variables analyzed were: Number of grains per ear (NGE), grain mass per ear (GME) and agricultural yield obtained from the weighing of all grains harvested in the useful area of each plot.

Results: The variables agricultural productivity and number of grains per ear of corn adjusted to the quadratic regression model, while for the mass of 1,000 grains the linear was better. Grain mass per cob, number of grains per cob, weight of 1,000 grains and yield are influenced by nitrogen rates. The E1 season was the one that provided the highest grain mass per turn (235 g), number of grains per ear (675) and agricultural yield (9.6 t ha-1). For the mass of 1,000 grains, season E2 obtained the highest result (263 g).

Conclusion: Maximum corn yield can be achieved by applying 209 kg ha-1 of N, which corresponds to a yield of 9.55 t ha-1 if planted until 06/11/16.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Anaerobic Co-Digestion Effects of Maize Cob and Poultry Manure on Biogas Yields and Their Digestate Characteristics

M. S. Chomini, V. I. Joshua

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630424

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of anaerobic co-digestion of maize cob and poultry manure on biogas yields and their digestate characteristics.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos between March and April, 2018.

Methodology: Slurries of five co-substrate treatment ratios viz 0:1(T1), 1:3(T2), 1:1(T3), 3:1(T4) and 1:0(T5) of these wastes (in three replicates) were separately fed to 13.6L locally made batch-digesters. The anaerobic reactors were monitored for a 56 day retention period. Weekly biogas yields and some digestate characteristics were measured by standard methods.

Results: The cumulative biogas yields was in the order of T3(2481.3 mL/kg) >TI(2197.9 mL/kg) > T4(2163.0 mL/kg) > T2(2116.3 mL/kg) >T5(1713.2 mL/kg), in favor of the mixed substrates. While the percentage C:N reductions ranged from (12.94% - 81.80%), with T5 and T1 recording the highest and lowest values respectively. The chemical oxygen demand removal was in the order of T3(80.70%) > T4(58.00%) >T5(46.81%) >T1(34.15%) >T2(13.16%). The anaerobic digestion (AD) effected reductions in Mg, C, Ca, P, Mn, Zn, Fe, Pb and increase in Cu contents of the digestates across treatments. While the K contents increased in T2(36.72%), T3(229.79%) and T4(220.51%); %N in T3(9.94%), T4(113.19%) and T5(291.84%) and Na increased only in T4(4.55%). The Cu contents indicated % increase in the order of T5(487.5%) >T3(270.97%) >T2(268.10%) >T4(43.66%) >T1(35.82%).

Conclusion: The anaerobic co-digestion of these organic wastes had unlocked the alternative energy potentials, enhanced the bioremediation tendency, while promoting sustainable public health and environmental management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Processed Cassava Peel Meal on Blood Chemistry Characteristics of Pullets

Christian Okechukwu Ezihe, Chukwuka Nwaocha Uchendu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630425

A 37-week feeding trial was conducted using 108 Dominant black strain of pullets to evaluate the effect of feeding diets containing retted cassava peel meal (RCPM) on their blood chemistry characteristics. The research was carried using a completely randomized design, from June 2009 to May 2010 at a private farm in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. The RCPM used in this study was prepared and included at rates of 0%, 10% and 20% to replace maize of the control diet. The birds were randomly allotted to the three dietary groups. On 12th week, the birds in group T2 and T3 had a significant decline (P =.05) in total protein values when compared to the birds on the control diet. In the 24thweek, the cholesterol values increased significantly (P =.05) with increasing RCPM inclusions, also at the 24th week, the serum Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values at 20% (T3) RCPM inclusion was significantly (P =.05) higher than values recorded in diets T1 and T2; but at the 37th week, values at the 10% (T2) inclusion rate was significantly lower (P =.05) than values recorded at the 0% (T1) and 20% (T3)RCPM inclusions respectively. The serum albumin values in the 37th week significantly increased (P =.05) in the treatment diets (T1 and T2) compared to the control diet (T1). The RCPM inclusions led to a significant decline (P =.05) in Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values in the 24th week. It can be concluded that up to 20% RCPM can be used in pullet diets to replace maize without adverse effect on the blood chemistry characteristics of the birds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vegetative Development of Radish Seedlings in Different Organic Substrates

Mario Euclides Pechara da Costa Jaeggi, Rogério Rangel Rodrigues, Israel Martins Pereira, Magno do Carmo Parajara, Richardson Sales Rocha, Derivaldo Pureza da Cruz, Edevaldo de Castro Monteiro, Wallace Luis de Lima, Carolina de Oliveira Bernardes, Geraldo de Amaral Gravina, Samuel Ferreira da Silva, Samyra de Araújo Capetini

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630427

The objective of this work was to evaluate the vegetative development of radish seedlings in different organic substrates with seeds from two types of commercial packing. The completely randomized design was used in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, consisting of four substrates (commercial, tanned bovine manure, mixed organic compound and vermicompost) and two seed packings (aluminized envelope and can), with eight replications, totalizing 64 seedlings. The biometric evaluations of the seedlings were carried out on the 14th day after sowing, and the following phytotechnical parameters were evaluated: leaf number, total fresh mass; fresh mass from aerial part and fresh mass from the root. According to the results, the commercial, vermicompost and mixed organic substrates provided the best results for the variables evaluated when the can was used.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Impact of Five Bio-insecticides of Plant Origin and a Chemical Insecticide on the Survival of Imagos of the Parasitoid Aphidius colemani under Laboratory Conditions

Fahad Kaoutar, Brhadda Najiba, Ziri Rabea, Benssallem El Hassane, Gmira Najib

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630428

Aims: The present study aims to evaluate the control pests without the harms of chemical pesticides as well as ensure the safety of bio-insecticides of plant origin vis a vis females of the parasitoid Aphidius colemani, important auxiliary in biological control.

Study Design: Experimental device was in a complete random block with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Bio-insecticidal Entomology and Laboratory of weed science of Regional Center of Agricultural Research, Kenitra, INRA-Morocco and Laboratory of Nutrition, Health and Environment. Biodiversity and agro resources team Ibn Tofail University, Faculty of Sciences Kenitra Morocco. The experiment was conducted between the fall of 2018 (from September to December 2018) and the winter of 2019 (January-February 2019).

Methodology: To meet the objective of this work, four endemic plants were collected from the Gharb region of Morocco; these are the leaves of Nerium oleander that are available all year, the roots of Mandragora autumnalis, the fruits of Capsicum frutescens, and those of Melia azedarach these organs are well developed with complete maturity during the fall and winter. The fruits of Melia azedarach have been separated into seeds and pulps. Five concentrations of each aqueous extract were prepared (2; 5; 10; 15 and 20 g / 20 ml). In addition to control without any treatment (blanc) and a chemical insecticide (deltamethrin). All concentrations were administered by contact to females of Aphidius colemani.

Results: Comparing the bio-insecticides tested, the aqueous extract of the seed of Melia azedarach showed an insecticidal action that was the fastest and the most toxic. Thus, following exposure of 20 g/20 ml, the observation after 4 hours showed a minimum mortality rate of 3% and a maximum mortality rate of 50%, 96 hours after. This extract was followed by the aqueous extract of the leaves of Nerium oleander that showed a maximum mortality rate of 43%. However, their harmfulness remains much lower than that of deltamethrin. In addition, the aqueous extract of the roots of Mandragora autumnalis has proved to be safe for females of Aphidius colemani. On the other hand, the aqueous extract of the fruits of Capsicum frutescens and that of the pulp of Melia azedarach are moderately toxic.

Conclusion: By way of conclusion, the aqueous extract of the roots of Mandragora autumnalis could be used as an insecticide in parallel with the release of the parasitoid Aphidius colemani, in a biological control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Treated Wastewater on Soil Recovery in Degraded Semiarid Region

Emanoel Lima Martins, Renato Francisco da Silva Souza, Vânia da Silva Fraga, Salomão de Sousa Medeiros

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630430

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treated wastewater application on soil organic matter and phosphorus recovery in a degraded soil in the semiarid region of Brazil. An experiment was carried out with irrigation of five caatinga forest species, in which three treatments were applied that consisted in the variation of the type and volume of water applied to the soil, being 7 L per week of tap water, 7 and 14 L per week of wastewater. After two years of irrigation, soil samples were taken and analyzed for soil organic matter and phosphorus. The organic matter content in the treatment with 14 L application of wastewater was five times higher than application of tap water in the superficial layer and 8 times higher in the sub-surface, respectively. From the results obtained, it can be considered that the use of wastewater from treated domestic sewage serve as an alternative for the recovery of the productive capacity of the soil by the increase in the organic matter and soil phosphorus contents. Irrigation with treated wastewater can provide a high increase in soil organic matter and phosphorus content up to 30 cm deep.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Biostimulants in Late Seeding of Genotypes of Zea mays L.

Luiz Leonardo Ferreira, Hiago Zanon Barbosa, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Roselaine Lages Fonseca Prado, Carmen Rosa da Silva Curvêlo, Alexandre Igor de Azevedo Pereira, Marilaine de Sá Fernandes, Ariana Bertola Carnevale

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630431

Seed treatment has as its main feature the prevention of pest entry in cultivated areas, besides being of great importance in the development of vigorous and healthy plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of corn genotypes with biostimulant in seed treatment under water stress environment. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 3x3 factorial scheme, corresponding to three corn genotypes (P3707, P30S31 and P30F35) and three seed treatments with the biostimulants (ConrSeeds, Stimulate and Água). The experiment was carried out at Luiz Eduardo de Oliveira Sales Experimental Farm, located in the municipality of Mineiros, Goiás, from March 2018 to August 2018. Plant height, stem diameter, ear insertion height, number of rows per ear, number of grains per row, number of grains per ear and yield were evaluated. The obtained data was submitted to the assumptions of the statistical model, verifying the normality and homogeneity of the residual variances, as well as the additivity of the model, testing univariate and multivariate analyzes. Analysis of variance revealed significance only for the main genotype effect. Seed treatments did not improve yield components of corn genotypes. The genotypes differed, where the variables number of rows per ear, number of grains per row and number of grains per ear directly influenced the grain yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vernonia amygdalina Extracts and Meal on Colour, Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Load of Broiler Meat

Adenike Bilikis Hammed, Azeez Kehinde Tella

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630432

Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the meat colour, physicochemical properties and microbial load of broiler meat fed Vernonia amygdalina extracts and meal.

Study Design: The experiment employed a complete randomized design; all data generated were subjected to analysis of variance, P=0.05.

Place and Duration of Study: The feeding trial of the study was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria while meat quality attributes were evaluated at Animal Products and Processing Laboratory, Department of Animal Science of the same institution between June and September, 2016.

Methodology: Twelve 8 weeks old broiler chickens with an average weight of 2.5±0.2 kg used in this study were obtained from an experimental unit where they were assigned to four treatments. Treatment 1 and treatment 2 were offered Vernonia amygdalina aqueous extract and ethanolic extract in drinking water respectively and leaf meal was added to the feed of treatment 3 in powdered form. Treatment 4 was offered water and feed without Vernonia amygdalina leaf meal or extracts. Meat produced from the carcass was refrigerated before being analyzed.

Results: The result revealed that supplementation of VA extract for T1 and T2 gave better meat physicochemical parameter compared to control. However, pH ranged from 5.51-5.87 and cooking loss (29.84 -37.19) were not significantly (P>0.05) different among the treatments. T2 (ethanolic extract) had the highest extract release volume. T1 (aqueous extract) had the highest meat swelling capacity (227.62) and water holding capacity (70.33). T3 (leaf meal) showed a significantly (P<0.05) lower lightness (L*) and yellowness b* while T1 (Aqueous extract) had higher redness (a*). Total viable count (TVC) of treatment 2 was significantly lower compared to others.

Conclusion: The result of these findings showed that the use of the ethanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina in water was able to inhibit microbial load and improve physicochemical properties of fresh meat compared to aqueous extract and VA leaf meal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity of Cotton as Affected by Tillage Practices, Fertilizer Rates and Intercropping Systems in the Guinea Savannah Agroecology, Ghana

Philip Ghanney, Joseph Xorse Kugbe, Benjamin Kongyeli Badii, Daniel Asomning Odoom

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630433

Extensive areas of bare, compacted, and nutrient-poor soils hinder crop production in the Guinea Savannah Agro-ecological zone of Ghana. Resolving this challenge can be effected by developing sustainable land management strategies that can adequately improve soil nutrient status and enhance crop yield. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the productivity of cotton as affected by tillage practices, fertilizer rates and intercropping systems in the Guinea Savanna agroecology of Ghana, during the 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons. Treatments consisted of 2 tillage practices (ploughing and direct seeding [sole cotton]), 2 fertilizer application rates (54-30-30 kg/ha NPK and 0-0-0 kg/ha NPK) and 3 intercropping systems (sole cotton, cowpea intercrop and soybean intercrop) which were laid in split-split plot design with three replications. The tillage practices, fertilizer rates and the intercropping systems were respectively allocated as the main plot, sub-plot and sub-sub plot treatment respectively. Unlike the three-way interaction effect which did not significantly influence variation in growth, yield and yield components of cotton, the two-way interaction  and the single factors were however influential. The combined impact of the NPK fertilizer application rate at 54-30-30 kg/ha and ploughing resulted in higher seed yield of cotton. Comparatively, seed yield of cotton was 35.78% higher when 54-30-30 kg/ha fertilizer rate (1.29 t/ha) was applied compared with 0-0-0 kg/ha fertilizer rate (0.61 t/ha). It is however recommended that resource-poor farmers in the Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana adopt to the use of 54-30-30 kg/ha fertilizer rate and ploughing for cotton seed yield maximization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Variety and Seedling Number on the Growth and Yield of Boro Rice in Bangladesh

Sushan Chowhan, Md. Imdadul Hoque, Shampa Rani Ghosh, Majharul Islam, Md. Babul Akter

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630436

Rice is the most important human food crop in the world. In Bangladesh rice is cultivated throughout the year as Aus, Aman and Boro. Among them boro rice is generally cultivated in November to March. More than half of the total production (55.5%) is obtained in this season. Generally, farmers use more than the recommended number of seedlings during transplanting. The number of seedlings plays a vital role in the growth, development and yield of rice. The aim of this experiment was to determine the number of seedling(s) during transplanting for boro rice varieties for higher growth and yield. This investigation was carried out at the research field of BINA sub-station under Khagrachari sadar upazila in Bangladesh during December 2017 to May 2018. The experiment tested three seedling numbers; S1 (Single), S2 (double), S3 (triple) and four varieties V1 (BRRI dhan-28), V2 (Binadhan-14), V3 (Heera-1), V4 (Shakti-2) in a factorial RCB design with three replications. Results revealed that significantly highest plant height was obtained with treatment S1´V3 (110.30 cm) and S3´V4 (109.4 cm) while the maximum number of tillers/hill from S3´V1 (16.93) and S2´V1 (16.07). In terms of production, treatment combination S3´V4 gave the highest grain (10.40 t/ha), straw (10.40 t/ha) and biological yield (10.40 t/ha). Harvest index was the highest in treatment S1´V4 (59.48). From the above findings it was observed that single seedling performed better than two and three seedlings per hill in terms of getting optimum yield of boro rice varieties. Hence, the rice growing farmers should avoid the use of extra seedlings during transplanting to save labor, time and money.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing Poultry Manure to Inorganic Fertilizer and Their Combination on the Growth and Yield Performance of Omankwa Maize Variety

C. Afriyie-Debrah, E. Obeng Yeboah, P. Francisco Ribeiro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630437

Aims: Major effect of soil fertility decline is the observed reduced food production in most African countries, including Ghana.  In order to sustain soil and crop productivity, it is necessary to explore alternative soil fertility replenishment strategies, which are effective and affordable to farmers, especially the smallholder farmer.

Study Design: A RCBD in three replications with each block with dimension 4 m × 3 m using spacing of 0.75 m and 0.4 m inter and intra and inter-row.

Place and Duration of Study: The research work was conducted at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Kumasi between April 2016 - December 2016 using Omankwa a released maize variety from CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana.

Methodology: There were six treatments per rep and each rep was randomized. Treatments were as follows; control (no fertilizer or poultry manure); T1 (100% Poultry manure two weeks after planting of maize), T2 (100% (N.P.K) two weeks after planting of maize), T3 (25% Poultry manure and 75% NPK fertilizer), T4 (50% Poultry manure and 50% NPK fertilizer) and T5 (75% Poultry manure and 25% NPK fertilizer). 

Results: Results from the study showed that Omankwa performed better under treatment T1 better than other treatments T4 and T5 even though T4 and T5 perform better in other parameters measure for the experiment but did not results in grain yield for Omankwa.

Conclusion: The use of poultry manure still remains to be the best source as alternative to soil nutrient used for often better yield of crop production but for lack or availability of poultry manure, the poultry manure con be supplemented with NPK a synthetic fertilizer to obtain optimum grain yield in maize production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cloning of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Using Juvenile Cuttings

Álvaro Renan Vieira Nunes, Eder Ferreira Arriel, Marcelo Soares Pimentel, Maria José de Holanda Leite, Samara Paulo dos Santos Fernandes, Erik Alves Bakke, Mellina Nicácio da Luz, Leonardo Castro Arriel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630439

Azadirachta indica A. Juss. of the Meliácea family originates from India. It is considered important in Brazil due to its multiple uses. The plant is usually propagated by sexual reproduction (seeds), however, after harvest the seeds have to be sown as soon as possible because they lose germination viability very quickly. The use of juvenile propagules for A. indica seedlings propagation is a viable option, since there is a high demand in the semi arid regions due to wide use in urban afforestation. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fertilization regimens and environments on obtaining Apical cuttings of juvenile origin and on the quality of cloned seedlings of Azadirachta indica. The research was carried out at the Forest Nursery of UFCG/Patos-PB, Brazil, with vegetative propagules (cuttings) obtained from three environments and two fertilization regimes: Biweekly and monthly, in addition to the control (without fertilization). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design, factorial 3 x 3 (environments of origin of cuttings x fertilization regimes), with six replications, where each plot consisted of a cutting, totaling 54 experimental plots. Results indicated that propagation of Azadirachta indica through cuttings of juvenile origin is feasible, with an average rooting of 95.2%. It is recommended to use the monthly fertilization regimen, since in general it did not differ significantly from the biweekly regime. Fertilization provided better development and quality of the root system and aerial parts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clove Extract (Syzygium aromaticum) in Germination and Sanity of Catingueira Seeds (Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul.) L.P. Queiroz)

Ediglécia Pereira de Almeida, Lenita Gonçalves da Costa, Nathany Alves de Andrade, Gilvan José Campelo dos Santos, Maria José de Holanda Leite

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630440

This research aimed to evaluate the effects of Clove extract (Syzygium aromaticum) on germination and sanity of Catingueira seeds (Poincianella pyramidalis). Five treatments with Clove extract of India were applied at the following concentrations T1 (Control) = 40 mL of sterile H2O, T2= 10 mL extract + 30 mL of sterile H2O, T3= 20 mL extract + 20 mL of sterile H2O, T4= 30 mL extract + 10 mL of sterile H2O and T5= 40 mL of extract. P. pyramidalis seeds were immersed in due concentrations for 30 seconds, then placed in sterilized Petri dishes and taken to isolation chapel. The sanity test lasted seven days, after this period, the associated microorganisms were evaluated in the seeds. For germination tests, the same treatments used for the health test were used. At the end of the experiment the percentage of germinated seeds, the Germination Speed Index (IVG), Mean Germination Time (TMG), Mean Germination Speed (VMG) and the length of part area and root were calculated. Clove extract (Syzygium aromaticum) showed no toxic effect on germination and development of Poincianella pyramidalis. It was indicated the concentration of 25 and 50% of the extract, because it provided a higher germination percentage, IVG, VMG and TMG to seeds of the species Poincianella pyramidalis. Further studies with immersion time of the seeds higher than those of this research are suggested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Characteristics and Productivity and Oil Content of Canola Crop as a Function of Poultry Litter Use

Ana Gabriela Cequinatto Corvalan Daronch, Antonio C. T. da Costa, Maria do Carmo Lana, José B. Duarte Júnior, Jaqueline de Araújo Barbosa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630441

Aims: Poultry litter is an organic residue that can be used as fertilizer for crops such as canola that require high nutrient demand. The objective of this research was to evaluate agronomic characteristics, productivity and oil content of canola crop as a function of poultry litter use.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted in the field in a randomized block design with 4 replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in a property in the city of Serranópolis do Iguaçu, state of Paraná, between May and September, 2016.

Methodology: The treatments were the doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 t ha-1 of poultry litter from 6 lots of broiler chickens production. Hyola 433 hybrid was used. Sowing was performed on May 6 and harvest on September 30, totaling a 145-day-cycle. The row spacing used was 0.5 m, resulting in a density of 400 thousand plants ha-1.

Results: In canola cultivation the poultry manure fertilization does not affected the leaf N and K contents, plant height, number of grains per silica, number of silica per plant and thousand grain mass. The leaf P content increased from the 16 t ha-1 as the doses increase. The highest yield (2.5 t ha-1) and the highest oil content (43.2%) were obtained with the 8 t ha-1 dose.

Conclusion: In conclusion the canola fertilized with poultry litter was significant for some variables and for the productivity and quantity of oil in the treatment of v) 8 t ha-1 and vi) 16 t ha-1 for phosphorus content in leaf tissue.

It is also concluded that high doses of poultry litter doses not provide increase in canola crop variables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Hot Water Exposure Duration, Storage and Hot Water Temperature on Chilling Injury, Incidence and Quality of Keitt Mango (Mangifera indica L.)

Senewa Bobby Pholoma, Vallentino Emongor, Seoleseng Tshwenyane

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630442

Low temperature storage is the most effective method of extending postharvest life and maintain fruit quality because it delays physiological processes such as ethylene production and senescence. Unfortunately, fruit such as mangoes are sensitive to low temperature storage and may be detrimental due to chilling injury, which reduces fruit quality. Effects of storage temperature, hot water at various temperatures and durations on alleviation of mango chilling injury and quality were evaluated on Keitt mango for the growing season in Botswana. The treatments were fruits dipped in distilled water at room temperature (25±2ºC- control), dipped in hot water at 50 and 55ºC for duration of 3, 5 and 10 minutes and storage temperatures at 4, 7, 10, 13 and 25±2ºC, plus 95% RH. The results showed that as storage temperature at below 13ºC, chilling injury incidence and severity significantly (P ≤ 0.0001) increased. Atwater temperature from 25ºC to 50 and 55ºC and duration in which mango fruit was held in hot water, increased from 3 to 5 and 10 minutes, chilling injury incidence and severity significantly (P ≤ 0.0001) decreased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rooting Induction in Allium cepa for the Study of Mitosis in a Hydroponics System

Geovanio Alves da Silva, Eder Ferreira Arriel, Mellina Nicácio da Luz, Valeska Regina Silva Martins, Elisabeth de Oliveira, José Aminthas de Farias Júnior, Maria José de Holanda Leite, Leonardo Castro Arriel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630443

The study of cell division processes is important for the understanding of how genetic information is transmitted from cell to cell and to descendants. To observe the phases of mitosis in meristematic cells of the onion root (Allium cepa), it is necessary to induce the rooting of this bulb that can be influenced by some factors like the type of water and the preparation form of the bulb of the onion for the success of rhizogenesis. In view of the above, the objective was to evaluate the influence of the water source and the opening of holes in the stem of the propagule to induce rooting in a hydroponic system. Two experiments were installed. In the first, one of the treatments was used distilled water and treated water. In the other experiment, three treatments were evaluated (without holes, few holes and a lot of holes in the stem of the bulb). Five days after installation of the first experiment, data were collected on the number of bulbs that gave off roots and this variable was analyzed using the X2 test. In the other test, also at five days, root number and fresh root mass data were obtained and the data were submitted for analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Scott-Knott test. For the induction of rooting in onion bulbs (Allium cepa) in a hydroponic system, water should be used, preferably treated, cleaned and decontaminated. The stem of the onion bulb should receive many perforations to facilitate the absorption of water with the essential nutrients for rooting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Valorization of Agro-industrial Bio-waste from Seed Cotton in the Restoration of Degraded Soils in the District of Korhogo in Northern Côte d'Ivoire

Alui Konan Alphonse, Yao Saraka Didier Martial, Oro Zokou Franck, Yao-Kouamé Albert

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630444

The objective of this study was to restore degraded soils with organic manure from agro-industrial bio-waste (seed cotton) in the Department of Korhogo in Northern Côte d'Ivoire.

The research plots were set up in a Fisher block experimental design with four treatments, namely T0 (control soil), T1 (bio-waste at 1 month of biodegradation), T2 (bio-waste at 3 months of degradation) and T3 (bio-waste at 6 months of degradation).

On each of the treatments, bio-waste was applied using spreading technique and the variety F8128 of corn was sown to evaluate the agronomic performance of bio-waste. Four agronomic parameters were measured: Plant height, collar diameter, ear weight and grain yield. Likewise, the physical, physico-chemical and chemical analyses of the soil were performed before sowing and after corn harvesting.

The work was carried out from 2018 to 2019 in the district of Korhogo in Northern Côte d'Ivoire.

Our study shows significant increase in corn grain yield in each of the treatments (T1 = 2.26 T/ha; T2 = 1.98 T/ha and T3 = 1.48 T/ha) compared to the control (T0 = 1 T/ha). Laboratory analyses of the soil and bio-waste indicate a very low level of organic matter (MO varies from 0.55 to 0.77 in the soil of the experimental plot and good mineralization of the organic matter in the bio-waste regardless of the decomposition time (C/N varies from 12 to 13). After application of the bio-waste, the organic matter content (T3 = 10.28; T1 = 23.61 and T2 = 23.63 and nitrogen content (T3 = 0.69; T1 = 1.16 and T2 = 1.21 of the various treatments significantly increased compared to the control soil (MO = 0.66 and N = 0.013 The pH level increased where the organic manure was applied becoming slightly acidic (5.7 to 6.4) compared to the control that had strong acidic reaction (4.8 to 5.1). 

Based on our study, it is evident that organic fertilizer has positive effect on corn yield. The seed cotton bio-waste has had an improving effect on the degraded soil of in Northern Côte d’Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal and Soil Moisture Amplitude of Intercropped Crops

João Danilo Barbieri, Paulo Sérgio Lourenço de Freitas, Rivanildo Dallacort, Cornélio Alberto Zolin, Diego Fernando Daniel, William Fenner, Ana Claudia Sossai Souza

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630445

Conservation systems of production are promoting yields and profitability, intercropping systems aim at sustainable maximization of soil and water use, and have become an alternative for regions characterized by relatively short rainy periods and high temperatures. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the intercropping system between maize (Zea mays L.) and C. juncea (Crotalaria juncea L.) on soil temperature and humidity for the municipality of Tangará da Serra in Brazil. The treatments consisted of the single crop of maize and crotalaria, as well as their intercrop cultivation, the soil temperature was evaluated at depths of 0.10, 0.20, 0.30 and 0.40 m and soil moisture at depths of 0.20 and 0.40 m. The components of grain production and yield of maize were also evaluated, for crotalaria, height, diameter and dry mass of the plants were evaluated. The highest soil temperature occurred at 14 h with an average of 21°C for all three treatments. The intercropping of maize with crotalaria gave the soil a lower amplitude of the soil temperature and kept the soil moisture high with values of 0.3 m3 m-3 in the depth of 0.20 m. The development stage presented the lowest mean thermal amplitude and higher humidity for the intercrop system. The yield of maize in an intercrop was reduced by 42.7% compared to a single crop.

Open Access Review Article

Climate Hazards and the Changing World of Coffee Pests and Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa

B. A. Ogundeji, M. A. Olalekan-Adeniran, O. A. Orimogunje, S. O. Awoyemi, B. A. Yekini, G. A. Adewoye, I. A. Bankole

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630429

Coffee has over the years remained of great importance to the global economy. Although the crop originated from Africa, its production is presently dominated by Brazil and Vietnam, which now respectively account for 34 and 13% of global production. Ethiopia and Uganda which are at the fore-front of production within sub-Saharan Africa account for 62% of the region’s coffee output. Out of the many species of coffee that exist, C. arabica (Arabica coffee) and C. canephora (Robusta coffee) are of outstanding economic importance. While the former does well on high altitudes (1000-2000 m above sea level), average temperature ranges of between 15 and 24°C, and 2000 mm rainfall per annum, the latter, which can thrive under hotter, drier conditions can be grown on altitudes of about 800 m above sea level.  Generally speaking, optimal coffee-growing conditions include cool to warm tropical climates, rich soils, and few pests or diseases. Each of the grown species however does well under specific environmental conditions. The constantly increasing environmental temperatures, coupled with accompanying variations in weather conditions, have some direct debilitating effects on coffee production and quality. Pests and pathogens, being able to tolerate a wide range of temperature, have the capabilities to proliferate and negatively influence the crop’s yield, quality and production cost. In view of the the highlighted problems, some mitigation strategies have been developed by researchers to limit the extent of damage caused by global warming on coffee production in the region. Chief among these include genetic improvement/development of resistant cultivars, reforestation (planting under shade), high-density planting/irrigation, integrated pest management, improved access to climate information and reduction of green house gas emissions. These, among others would enhance the quantity and quality of coffee produced and consequently boost the region’s economy.