Open Access Original Research Article

Inoculation of Wheat Plants with Pseudomonas spp. and Azospirillum brasilense under Drought Stress

Samuel Luiz Fioreze, Magaiver Gindri Pinheiro, Yriá Dias Pereira, Sonia Purin da Cruz

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230461

Aims: To investigate the effect of inoculation and co-inoculation of Pseudomonas spp. and Azospirillum brasilense on the morphophysiological characters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought stress conditions.

Study Design: A randomized complete block design was used in a split plot scheme with four replicates. The plots consisted of irrigated and drought conditions. The subplots consisted of control (without inoculation), inoculation of Pseudomonas spp., inoculation of A. brasilense and co-inoculation of Pseudomonas spp. + A. brasilense. Liquid inoculant was used for two bacteria.

Place and Duration of Study: Agricultural Experimental Area of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus of Curitibanos, SC, Brazil, between July and October 2018.

Methodology: Inoculation was performed at the time of sowing. Water deficit was characterized by irrigation suppression after plant emergence, considering a 25-day period without significant rainfall. At the end of the water restriction period, SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development) index and morphologic parameters of wheat plants was determined.

Results: Drought stress decreased dry matter accumulation of wheat plants, in terms of number of tillers, above ground dry matter and root-shoot ratio. Inoculation or co-inoculation with Pseudomonas spp. and A. brasilense did not affect plant growth. Under drought stress, SPAD index was higher in plants co-inoculated with Pseudomonas spp. and A. brasilense.

Conclusion: Although maintains SPAD index of wheat plants under drought stress, inoculation and co-inoculation with Pseudomonas spp. and A. brasilense do not influence the morphological characters of wheat plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vegetative Propagation of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg.) Woodson by Stem Cuttings

Rayssa Gomes Vasconcelos, Raquel da Silva Medeiros, Daniel da Silva, Paulo de Tarso Barbosa Sampaio

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230462

The vegetative propagation by cuttings can be an advantageous alternative to the production of Himatanthus sucuuba seedlings because it allows the obtention of a large number of plants genetically identical to the matrix plant in a shorter time and space. However, such a technique is simultaneously influenced by different factors that can compromise its success. In this sense, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of cuttings and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentration, on the survival and rooting of cuttings of H. sucuuba. The experimental design used was in randomized complete blocks, with a factorial arrangement: 2 types of cuttings (with and without leaves) and 3 concentrations of IBA (0, 1000 and 3000 mg L–1). After 100 days, were evaluated the following variables: survival (%), rooting (%), number of roots per cutting, length of the largest root (cm), number of leaves and dry biomass. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means compared by Tukey’s test at p < 0.05. The survival and rooting percentages were higher than 70% in all treatments. There was no significance for the interaction of the factors analyzed, neither for the effect of AIB, analyzed in isolation. The type of stake exerted the greatest influence, with emphasis on the cuttings with leaves, which stood out in most of the factors analyzed. The propagation of H. sucuuba to cuttings was considered viable, and the maintenance of the leaves, associated with juvenility of the propagules, was determining factors in the conditions in which this study was developed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Structural Diversities of Indigenous Mycorrhiza Communities Associated to Castor Bean from Adamawa Cameroon

Lucien Tatchum Tchuenteu, Abba Maimouna, Olivia Wafo Youmbi, Clautilde Megueni

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230466

This study describes the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that enter into association with castor bean growth wild in Subsaharan Africa. Three sites of castor bean stands were selected in each of the three Subdivisions (Ngaoundere I, Ngaoundere II and Nyambaka) of the Vina Division in Adamawa Cameroon. Soil samples and roots were taken from each castor bean rhizosphere. All samples from one site were mixed into a composite sample. Leek was used as trap plant. Mycorrhizal parameters, spores density and specific richness were determined following to the standard methods. After spore extraction, species identification was obtained through the informations provided by the International Vesicular Mycorrhizal fungi collection. Results indicate that Cameroonian castor bean accession was found to be symbiotic with AMF under Sudano-Guinean climate of Adamawa Cameroon. The morphological and structural characterization enabled the description of six AMF species, belonging to three genera: Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus sp1, Glomus sp2, Scutellospora calospora,  Scutellospora purpurasens, Entrophospora infrequens. These findings open opportunities for domestication and application of AMF for a sustainable castor bean productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficiency of the Adapted Automatic Row Hoe for Weed Control in Organic Soybean

Emerson Fey, Neumárcio Vilanova da Costa, Silvio Douglas Ferreira, Vitor Gustavo Kuhn, Anderson Marcel Gibbert, Hiago Canavessi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 25-36
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230467

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the row hoe model CHOPSTAR®, the mechanical control of weeds in between the rows of soybean implanted in organic direct sowing system, associated with the camera-guided system. Two experiments were carried, being that in the first experiment an experimental design with sub-subdivided plots with four replicates. The plots corresponded to two soybean varieties (‘Embrapa BRS 284’ and ‘Coodetec CD 216’), the subplots corresponded to the sowing densities of 329.2 and 574.6 thousand plants ha-1; and the sub-subplots corresponded to four managements of weeds: one mechanized hoe (2 days after sowing – DAS), two mechanized hoes (22 and 47 DAS), one control manually hoed and other control without hoeing. In the second experiment a randomized block design in subdivided plots with three replicates was used. The plots corresponded to two soybean varieties (‘BRS 284’ and ‘DF 2353’), the subplots constituted of different times when the hoes were made, being: one (14 DAS); two (7 and 21 DAS; two (14 and 28 DAS); three (7, 14 and 28 DAS); besides one control manually hoed up to 28 DAS. In the first experiment it was observed that the automatized hoe was efficient in controlling the weeds and it was necessary only one mechanized hoe (22 DAS) for the ‘BRS 284’ independent of the sowing density, while for the ‘CD 216’ the number of mechanized hoes depended on the sowing density. In the second experiment, it was necessary only one mechanized hoe (14 DAS) to avoid production losses in the varieties ‘BRS 284’ and ‘DF 2353’. The automatized hoe is an alternative to control weeds in areas of organic soybean in direct sowing system, however, damages to the crop can occur depending on the sowing density, mainly in the late management of the mechanized hoe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Spirulina platensis on Reproductive Characteristic and Biochemical Profile in Female Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) Exposed to Lead Acetate

Deutcheu Nienga Sorelle, Ngoula Ferdinand, Tchoffo Herve, Mabou Nguemo Jeasmine Laura, Vemo Bertin Narcisse, Tchoumboue Joseph

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 37-46
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230468

The effect of ethanolic extract of Spirulina platensis (EESP) on reproductive function of female guinea pigs exposed to oxidative stress induced by lead acetate was explored. 60 mature female guinea pigs were used. They were divided into 6 groups of 10 guinea pigs each. For 3 months, pigs in Groups 1 were orally given distilled water daily; Group 2 were treated with lead; Group 3: received lead acetate and Vitamin C while Groups 4,5 and 6 were given lead acetate with 50, 100 and 200 mg of EESP/kg.bw respectively by gavage. At the end of trial (90 days), 6 female pigs per group were sacrificed and some reproductive characteristics, oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity markers were evaluated. Results revealed that, exposure to Lead acetate induced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of fertility index, reproductive organs and hormone concentrations. It equally led to a significant (p < 0.05) decline of serum content in superoxide dismutase, catalase and total peroxidase activities. The reverse effect was noted in malondialdehyde concentration, hepatic and renal toxicity biomarkers. Histological examination of the ovaries of lead treated females revealed lesions and severe degenerative changes in the structures of the ovaries. However, the administration of ethanolic extract of Spirulina platensis to treated females alleviated the toxicity of reproductive function and oxidative damage induced by lead acetate. In conclusion, the exposure of animals to lead acetate had negative effects on guinea pig reproductive characteristics. The co-exposition to lead acetate and ethanolic extract of Spirulina platensis however, reestablishes normal reproductive characteristic values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Cassava Genotypes for Agronomic Performance, Correlation with CMD and CBSD Parameters and Stability across Alupe, Kakamega and Kibos in Western Kenya

L. N. Navangi, S. M. Githiri, E. M. Ateka, E. Kanju, T. L. Munga, S. Tumwegamire, R. M. Otsyula, P. O. Kwena, V. W. Woyengo, J. Malinga, L. O. Okitoi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 47-62
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230469

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is constrained by the two biotic constraints namely, cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). The aim of this study was to evaluate elite cassava genotypes for variation in agronomical traits, correlate them to CMD and CBSD parameters and identify stable genotypes in Alupe, Kakamega and Kibos in Western Kenya. Twenty three (23) elite cassava genotypes that had shown resistance to either one or both of CMD and CBSD in Eastern Africa were evaluated. The trial was conducted using an alpha lattice balanced design with twenty three (23) genotypes, replicated three times at Alupe, Kakamega and Kibos in Western Kenya for an extended cropping cycle between 2016 and 2017. Results showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between genotypes and location (or agro-ecology), but not interaction (P ≥ 0.05), for all the agronomic performance parameters evaluated. All the 23 cassava genotypes evaluated across the three locations had mean cyanide potential levels ranging from of 3.00–6.00 and were therefore, sweet and not bitter. The significant but negative relationship between CMD and CBSD incidence and severity with agronomic performance implied that their relationship was inverse. Confirmation of stability for agronomic performance was achieved through AMMI analysis, using AMMI stability value (ASV). Stable genotypes based on AMMI stability values (ASV) for fresh root yield across Alupe, Kakamega and Kibos were KBH/2002/066, Kibandameno (a local standard check), NASE-18, Kizimbani and NASE-3. These genotypes need to be further evaluated in more environments to assess their wider adaptability and stability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Woody Plants Species Composition and Diversity in West Bank Forest of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Ariyo, Oluyinka Christopher

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 63-78
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230470

Woody plants species composition, richness, dominance and diversity in west bank forest of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) was undertaken to understand the status of the forest. The analysis of tree species composition, richness and diversity in the forest was carried out with the aim of developing efficient management plan that will ensure biodiversity conservation. Vegetation survey using transects and plot sampling techniques were used to collect data for the study. Three transects of 500 m long each {A (270°W), B (90°E) and C (180°S)} were constructed with the aid of prismatic compass in the forest. 10 sampling plots of 10 m by 10 m each were demarcated along each transect making a total number of 30 sampling plots. In each plot, all woody plant species (trees and shrubs) with girth at breast height (gbh) greater than or equal to 10 cm (gbh ≥ 10 cm) were identified, enumerated and measured. The results showed that 581 woody plants belonging to 65 species and 28 families were encountered in the forest. The most abundant family in the forest was Fabaceae sub families of Caesalpinioidea, Mimosoideae and Palpilinoideae. The forest had Simpson diversity index (D), Shannon-Wiener (H) and Evenness index of 0.012, 0.354 and 0.195 respectively. The total density and basal area of woody plants species in the forest was 1,936.67 individuals’ ha-1 and 98.23 m2 ha−1. Newbouldia laevis had the highest density of 190 ha-1 and relative frequency of 9.811% while Milicia excelsa had the highest basal area of 40.34 m2 ha−1, relative dominance of 41.07% and Importance value index of 14.04%. The study concludes that the forest has a reasonably good tree and shrub species composition and richness, dominated by trees and a repository of many indigenous tropical woody plant species. The study recommends in-depth forest inventory, preparation of management plan and promotion of good governance in management of the forest. Also, further studies on regeneration, structure, soil seed bank, seed physiology and herbaceous plant should be carried out in the forest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Betaxanthines of Pilosocereus catingicola (Gürke) Byles & Rowley Subsp. salvadorensis (Werderm.) Zappi (Cactaceae)

Rodrigo Garcia Silva Nascimento, Ana Paula Pereira do Nascimento, Fabiana dos Anjos Barbosa, João Henrique Constantino Sales Silva, Alex da Silva Barbosa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 79-86
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230471

In the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil, we find several cacti that are very important for the regional fauna and flora, including the “facheiro” (Pilosocereus catingicola (Gürke) Byles & Rowley subsp. salvadorensis (Werderm.) Zappi, a species that belongs to this botanical family and is widespread in the Paraiba semiarid region. The objective of this study was quantify and characterize the chemical constituents of the fruits and cladodes of Pilosocereus catingicola subsp. salvadorensis. The fruits were lyophilized and the samples were subsequently ground. A 2 gram aliquot of the lyophilized material was solubilized in 5 mL of 50% MeOH and 50 mmol L-1 of sodium ascorbate and distilled water. The extractive content was monitored by absorbance in a UV-VIS Meter® SP2000 (600 nm) spectrophotometer. Analyzes were performed using the SAS® Program (North Carolina, USA), version 9.2. The constituent groups identified on the stem were the phenolic and tannin groups: steroids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. Betalains are the group of alkaloids of greater expression in the fruits of this species, from which the betaxanthines are its main constituents, such as vulgaxanthin III, muscarine and dopaxanthin. Pilosocereus catingicola is a potential source of these metabolites in different parts of the plant, which, therefore, justifies encouraging the best employment of the species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Zinc and Boron Levels for Better Growth and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

Supti Mallick, H. M. Zakir, M. S. Alam

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 87-96
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230472

A pot experiment was conducted at the net house of the Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period of November, 2017 to March, 2018 to optimize different levels of Zn and B for better growth and yield attributes of tomato (cv. Ruma VF). The experiment included two factors [factor- A viz., control (Zn0 ), Zn @ 4.0 kg ha-1 (Zn4),  Zn @ 6.0 kg ha-1 (Zn6) and Zn @ 8.0 kg ha-1 (Zn8) and factor B viz., control (B0), B @ 2.0 kg ha-1 (B2) and B @ 3.0 kg ha-1 (B3)], which was laid out in a completely randomized block design with 4 replications, thus total number of pots were 48. Zinc sulphate and boric acid were applied as the source of Zn and B that were applied during pot preparation along with recommended doses of N, P, K and S. The study revealed that application of different doses of Zn increased number of flower clusters plant-1 at 80 days after transplanting, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of fruits plant-1 and yield of tomato up to 4.0 kg ha-1. Similarly, application of B @ 2.0 kg ha-1 produced the highest number of flower clusters plant-1, fruit length and fruit diameter. On the other hand, the highest number of fruits plant-1 and yield of tomato were obtained by the application of B @ 3.0 kg ha-1 which was statistically similar to the application of B @ 2.0 kg ha-1. Combined application of Zn and B, @ 4.0 and 2.0 kg ha-1, respectively appeared as the best practice for better growth and yield of tomato, and therefore it may be recommended to boost up tomato productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotype x Environment Interactions in Sugarcane under Irrigation for Agronomic Traits at Advanced Screening Stage in Ferké, Northern Ivory Coast

Crépin B. Péné, Yavo Michael Béhou

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 97-115
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230473

Background: The selection procedure of commercial sugarcane varieties introduced in Ivory Coast involves two different stages. Four varieties pre-selected at the first stage regarding a previous trial were due to be tested at the advanced stage.

Aims: The study aimed to determine the best performing sugarcane genotypes at the advanced selection stage under sprinkler irrigation, in comparison with to two check varieties (R579, SP70-1006).

Methodology: The same field experiment was carried out on two different locations in Ferké 2 sugar estate of Northern Ivory Coast. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block (RCB) with six cane genotypes in four replications. Every plot consisted of five dual rows of ten meters with 0.5 and 1.90 m of inter-row spacing, i.e. 95 m² per plot and about 3000 m² for each experiment. Both experiments were conducted over two seasons (plant cane and first ratoon) as early-season crops from early November, 2017 to mid-December, 2019. Over each micro-plot, data based on different agro-morphological traits were collected at harvest from three central dual rows.

Results: The study showed that most relevant traits in genotype clustering were related to juice quality (recoverable sucrose, sucrose content, purity), yields and yield components (Millable stalk number/ha, stalk height, stalk diameter, internode number). Based on sugar yields, two genotypes (N47, ECU01) superior to both check varieties were found promising with, respectively, 13.7 and 13.5 t sugar/ha. Their cane yield performances gave 124 and 123 t/ha, respectively, compared to 126.8 t/ha for the best performing check.

Conclusions: Not only sugar yield, but also flowering rate, stem borer infestation rate, stalk diameter, average stalk height and the number of tillers per hectare were found as the most relevant agronomic traits in the genetic variation of sugarcane genotypes tested. It came out also that GxE interactions were highly significant for five different traits, namely, cane and sugar yields, stalk borer infestation rate, fiber content and the average stalk height.

Open Access Original Research Article

Micronutrient Delivery System for Induction of Organogenesis in Banana in vitro Cultures

Luciana Cardoso Nogueira Londe, Wagner A. Vendrame, Alexandre Bosco de Oliveira, Maurício Mendes Cardoso

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 116-124
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230474

Micropropagation techniques represent one of the technologies, which allows the large-scale production of banana and the culture medium composition is one of the major factors affecting in vitro propagation of plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a new micronutrient delivery system based on ionic Cu and Zn for inducing in vitro organogenesis in two banana cultivars in vitro cultures, Grand Naine and Pysang Ceylon. The first experiment evaluated different concentrations of BAM-FX® (0.16, 0.32, 0.64, 1.28, and 2.56 µl ml-1) added to the MS culture medium. The concentration of 0.16 µl ml-1 BAM-FX® provided the best results for in vitro shoot and root growth and development. Therefore, a second experiment was performed to evaluate the potential of combining BAM-FX® with a reduced concentration of MS medium (¼, ½, and ¾ strength), or the use of BAM-FX® alone without MS medium. Results indicate that MS at ¾ strength combined with 0.16 µl ml-1 BAM-FX® provided proper in vitro shoot and root growth and development. The use of BAM-FX® in vitro requires additional studies to verify the feasibility of this product for efficient micropropagation of banana, as well as for other species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Response of Cowpea to Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

Alhassan Bawa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 125-135
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230475

Phosphorus fertilizer application plays a major role in nodulation and grain yield production of cowpea. However, phosphorus is a major limiting nutrient in soils in Ghana. Selection of cowpea varieties that produce good biomass and grain yield under low soil phosphorus or those with high phosphorus response efficiency could be a cost-effective approach in solving the phosphorus deficiency problem in Ghana. This study was therefore conducted to determine the appropriate levels of phosphorus fertilizer application for improved nodulation and grain yield of four cowpea varieties. Two-season experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of phosphorus (P) fertilizer on growth, nodulation, biomass and grain yield in cowpea. Each of the two experiments comprised of 16 treatment combinations of 4 cowpea varieties and 4 levels of P2O5 application laid out in 4×4 factorial experiments in RCBD with three replications. The cowpea varieties were IT × P 148, Valenga, Bengkpla and DPC. The levels of P were 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg P2O5 ha−1. The study revealed that varieties DPC and Valenga performed relatively better with respect to grain yield, shoot and root dry biomass production, nodulation, nodule dry biomass production, plant height, number of branches produced and number of days to 50% flowering across all levels of phosphorus fertilizer application. The study further established that P level of 60 kgha−1 also produced significantly higher quantities of yield and vegetative parameters such as grain yield, 100-grain weight, number of pods and branches, shoot and root dry biomass, nodulation and nodule dry biomass, as compared to P levels of 0 kgha−1, 20 kgha−1 and 40 kgha−1. Phosphorus fertilizer application level of 60 kgha−1 should be used for increased grain and biomass yield. For the purpose of producing grains for human consumption and leguminous fodder crops for feeding livestock, it is recommended that varieties DPC and Valenga should be cultivated for increased yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Agrochemical Use in Vegetable Production: A Situational Study in a Village of Cumilla District

Aparajita Badhan, Shakhawat Hossain, Laila Jesmin, Asad UzZaman Bhuiyan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 136-144
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230476

The excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has been a threat to agricultural production, soil and health. Present research was conducted mainly to focus the adverse impacts of pesticide use on human health and to describe the current status of pesticide use in Jaspur village of Cumilla district. Out of 65 households data were collected from 45, by using a direct interview method with a pretested questionnaire .The questionnaire included both structured and non-structured questions. It had been observed that a maximum of 52.5% farmers said that they were affected through mouth and breathing, 22.5% farmers were affected through eye, skin, mouth and breathing, 5% through eye, skin and mouth and 5% through mouth. The signs and symptoms of illness due to exposure of pesticides were burning/stinging/itching eyes, skin redness/white patches, cough, excessive salivation, nausea/vomiting, shortness of breath etc. About 37.50% respondents waited one week to collect vegetables after pesticide use. 77.5% respondents did not get any training about pesticide use as a result they were highly dependent on dealers. Lack of awareness was a great problem in this village. So in order to increase awareness farmers training was essential. Although this was a social study but it was observed that scientific study was required in this village.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies on Dimensional, Gravimetric and Frictional Properties of Chhattisgarh Popular Paddy Varieties for Suitability of Flaked Rice (Paha)

Rahul Dahare, Tankesh Kumar Nishad, Bhupendra Sahu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 145-151
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230477

The present study on different characteristics of some selected varieties of paddy was undertaken to study dimensional, gravimetric and frictional properties of paddy. The physical properties such as average length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, aspect ratio, sphericity, volume, surface area, L/B ratio, true density, bulk density, porosity, angle of repose and coefficient of friction on different surfaces of paddy varieties were measured to have an initial information of the input. All varieties have different dimensional properties, for the length of Rajeshwari, Durgeshwari and Mahamaya paddy variety 9.21 to 9.34 mm, for width 2.41 to 2.79 mm and for thickness 1.83 to 2.45 mm respectively. The geometric mean diameter and aspect ratio for Rajeshwari, Durgeshwari and Mahamaya paddy variety was observed 3.43 to 4.08 mm and 25.21 to 30.13% respectively. True density and bulk density of Rajeshwari, Durgeshwari and Mahamaya paddy variety were observed 1056.86 to 1350.43 kg/m3 and 580.18 to 695.77 kg/m3 respectively. The angle of repose of Rajeshwari, Durgeshwari and Mahamaya paddy variety was observed 42.23° to 48.51°.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Bread Waste Fortified with Moringa Leaf Meal on Performance and Health Status of Broiler Chickens

Muyiwa Adegbenro, Oluwagbenga Ifeoluwa Oyedun, Valentine Ayobore Aletor

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 152-160
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i230478

Aim: This study is to evaluate the effects of using bread waste fortified with moringa leaf meal on broiler chickens.

Methodology: Bread wastes were sun-dried and moringa leaves air-dried. The two dried products were milled separately. Thereafter, the meals were mixed in ratio 9:1 (9 kg Bread Waste + 1 kg Moringa Leaf) to produced fortified bread wastes. Four broiler starter diets and four finisher diets were formulated using fortified bread waste at graded levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15% and designated diets I, II, III and IV, respectively. Two hundred chicks were assigned to four dietary treatments of five replicates and ten chicks per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design. Diets and water were fed to the broilers ad libitum from 0 - 28 days as starter phase and 29 - 56 days as finisher phase.

Results: Highest final weight gain and total weight gain (2.12 kg/bird and 2.07 kg/bird) and least feed conversion ratio (2.32) were observed in bird fed Diet I. The dressed weight, eviscerated weight, head, chest, drumstick, wing, thigh, back and shank were influenced significantly (P˂0.05) by the dietary treatments. Highest dressed weight (92.64%), eviscerated weight (79.52%), head (25.34 g/kg body weight), chest (206.53 g/kg body weight) and wing (83.10g/kg body weight) were recorded in bird fed Diet I. Only lymphocyte was influenced (P < .05) by the dietary treatments. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate varies: 2.33 - 3.33 mm/hour, packed cell volume: 26.67 - 28.67%, haemoglobin concentration: 9.23 - 9.88 g/100 ml and mean cell haemoglobin concentration: 34.41 - 34.61%. Cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase were influenced (P < 0.05) by the dietary treatments. The cholesterol: 22.57 - 32.78 mg/dl and alkaline phosphatase: 144.17-150.98 IU/I.

Conclusion: From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that increasing levels of fortified bread wastes in broiler chicken diets up till 5% inclusion level can be practiced.