Open Access Original Research Article

The Legislation of Agrochemicals in Citrícola Production in the Municipality of Capitão Poço, Pará

Maria Eunice Lima Rocha, Mayra Taniely Ribeiro Abade, Fernanda Ludmyla Barbosa de Souza, Luane Laíse Oliveira Ribeiro, Letícia do Socorro Cunha, Robson Christie Lacerda Siqueira, Jackeline Araújo Mota Siqueira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330479

Brazil is one of the largest producers of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) in the world. The State of Pará is responsible for 1.02% of the production of Orange in Brazil. Of this amount, the municipality of Capitão Poço is responsible for 57% of the total produced by the State. In view of this, it is evident that the model of current economic development imposes transformations in the way of life that entail serious problems of health to the worker, for example, the exposure of the workers to the pesticides in the field. With this, it is noticed that it is important to deal with the legislation of Agrochemicals because this is still little known by most citricultures in the municipality of Capitão Poço, leading them to non-compliance with the law. From this, the objective of the research was to observe the potentials and limitations regarding the distribution chain, acquisition and use of agrochemicals and knowledge of the laws in the citriculture Paraense. For the development of the work, questionnaires were applied (based on the Agrochemicals Law - Law No. 7,802 of July 11, 1989, and the Law of Packaging - Law No. 9.974 of June 6, 2000) in the community of Nova Colônia. It is concluded that the laws, besides not being known and consequently not fulfilled, make it difficult to supervise the specialized professionals, who, in turn, are few for the region. Another obstacle to compliance with legislation is to make the producer update certain concepts and teachings, which are no longer accepted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strategy to Maintain the Regional Food Security in Province of Bali, Indonesia

Made Sri Sumarniasih, Made Antara

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330480

Based on the results of the first phase research in 2018, it was found that regional food security in the Province of Bali is in a resistant and guaranteed condition. However, the problem is how to sustainably maintain Bali's regional food security in the Province of Bali? The objective of the research in 2019 is to formulate general and alternative strategies to maintain Bali's regional food security. The method for formulating general strategy using IFAS-EFAS matrices and formulating alternative strategy is the SWOT matrices. The results of the research found that the grand strategy for maintaining regional food security in the Province of Bali is a “Defend and Maintain”. Alternative strategies namely: (1) Collaboration on Penta-Helix, namely Academic, Business, Community, Government, and Media (ABCGM) to create a strong food security system; (2) Increase food production as part of regional and national food availability; (3) Utilizing the development of agricultural technology 4.0, cultivation technology and food processing technology; (4) Conducting research and development, cooperation with research institutions, universities and National Atomic Energy Agency, as well as improving institutional facilities; (5) The synergy of all Regional Apparatus Organizations belonging to the Regional Food Security Council, both at the district and provincial levels following their respective roles in efforts to strengthen food security; (6) Increase government to government cooperation and government to business to support food security programs and activities; (7) Slow download conversion, maintain the area of rice fields as the main producer of rice food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Spring Onions (Allium fistulosum) Based on DNA Markers

Chiamaka Ijeomah, Oyewumi Amuda, Benjamin Babatunde, Philip Abutu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330481

The Alliaecae family is a widely cultivated vegetable family in Nigeria, with nutritional, culinary and medicinal usefulness. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity using SSR and ISSR markers among ten (10) cultivars of spring onions. This study was carried out using one (1) SSR marker and three (3) ISSR markers. In this study, the genetic diversity among the cultivars were revealed. The four markers produced a total of 26 polymorphic alleles with PIC values of 0.7481, 0.6402, 0.675 and 0.7569 for ISSR 879, ISSR 866, ISSR 881 and SSR 62. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that the ten spring onion cultivars could be divided into two main groups. The subgroup SPO06 and SPO04 showed no genetic distance among them revealing that there is a very close relationship and in total agreement with the factorial analysis. This study has revealed the efficiency of SSR and ISSR markers to estimate the extent of genetic variation of spring onion cultivars and will be a contribution for the conservation and management of Allium species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Rate of Bat Guano on Growth and Yield of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) in Niamey, Niger

Ambouta Harouna Karimou, Guero Yadji, Abdou Gado Fanna, Abarchi Idrissa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 34-46
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330482

Aims: A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Abdou Moumouni University of Niamey - Niger, from November to March 2018 to determine the effects of different rate of bat guano fertilizers on growth and yield parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

Study Design: The four treatments included no manure T0 as control, T1-500 kg/ha, T2-1000 kg/ha T3-1500 kg/ha of bat guano fertilizers was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications.

Methodology: The variables measured were plant height, number of branches, stem diameter and fruit yield obtained. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The means were separated using LSD at five percent level of significance.

Results: The results showed that all levels of bat guano improve the growth and yield parameters of tomato compared to the control. Growth and yield parameters of tomato plants treated with 1500 kg/ha and 500 kg/ha of bat guano were higher than the other treatments. The T3 (1500 kg/ha) and T1 (500 kg/ha) of bat guano are statistically homogenous and showed highest plant yield with 40.45 and 38.75 t/ha of tomato fruits respectively.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of the experiments it could be deduced that bat guano seems to promote higher growth yield of tomato. Thus, it should be recommended 500 kg/ha of bat guano for growers of tomato crop in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Can Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) Hook.f. Serve as Supplement for Production of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus floridanus) Singer?

F. Ofomana, O. M. Adedokun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 47-54
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330483

Supplement in mushroom production boosts yield. Fluted pumpkin parts were assessed as an alternative to wheat bran as supplement in mushroom production. Sawdust, lime and wheat bran or fluted pumpkin (Pod, seed, stem) were mixed in ratio 180: 1: 30. There were 10 replicates for each treatment. The design was completely randomized blocked design. The results showed that supplemented sawdust with wheat bran had higher value for the dry weight with significant difference from treatments with pumpkin parts in some flushes and none in other flushes Supplemented sawdust with mixture of all supplements was highest in Ash (14.30%) and moisture (24.75%). Protein and lipids values were highest for supplemented sawdust with wheat bran and significantly different (p<0.05) from other treatments. Sawdust supplemented with fluted pumpkin stem (28.06%) had highest value for carbohydrates while that supplemented with pod had (21.16%), the highest for fiber. For minerals, K (794.50 mg/kg), Ca (349.75 mg/kg), and Na (379.50 mg/kg) were highest for Fluted Pumpkin Seed Supplement, Fluted Pumpkin Pod Supplement and No Supplement respectively. In conclusion, Fluted pumpkin pod and stem compares very well with wheat bran supplement, and can serve as supplement in the production of oyster mushroom.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) as Influenced by Poultry Manure and Biochar in Two (2) Soil Depths

F. B. Musa, F. O. Abiodun, A. R. Falana, B. H. Ugege, R. V. Oyewumi, E. M. Olorode

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 55-63
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330484

Background and Objective: Unproductive soil has been a major problem to farmers, recent interest in the use of a stable organic manure (biochar) as soil amendment and poultry manure to increase soil fertility is also increasing. Hence, the experiment was conducted to assess the condition of poultry manure and biochar on the growth and yield of tomato.

Materials and Methods: A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Federal College of Forestry Ibadan, using polyethylene bag with 5 kg soil collected at two (2) soils depths, 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth at the botanical garden, Federal College of Forestry Ibadan. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replicates. The treatments used were poultry manure (5t/ha), biochar (10t/ha), mixture of poultry manure and biochar (1:1) and control (no amendment).The tomato seeds (UC82B) were sourced from NIHORT, Ibadan and raised in a germination basket. Data were collected weekly on plant height, collar diameter and number of leaves, 50% days to flowering and yield of tomato plants from two weeks after transplanting (WAT). Data collected were analyzed statistically using ANOVA while means were separated using LSD (p<0.05) where applicable.

Results: In 0-15 cm soil, the growth variables (plant height, number of leaves and collar diameter) increased with various treatments used. The highest tomato height was observed with the application of biochar (10t/ha). All the treatments applied affected the number of tomato leaves at all weeks after transplanting (WAT) with poultry manure 5t/ha having the highest number of leaves at 7WAT, while collar diameter was significantly affected by various treatments from 2 to 5 WAT, with the mixture of P.M + BIO (1:1) recording the highest value and the control plot recorded the least values in all weeks. However, in 15-30 cm soil, there was  significant difference in the number of leaves of tomato among all the amended soil from 5 to 7 WAT, the highest tomato leaves were obtained when the soil was amended with poultry manure (5t/ha) and can be compared with other treatments. Interaction of poultry manure and biochar(1:1) and poultry manure 5 t/ha resulted in highest height of tomato plant from 3-7 WAT as compared to the control that had the least value but were not significantly different from the sole application of  biochar 10t/ha. Interaction of poultry manure + biochar (1:1) and poultry manure (5t/ha) gave the highest tomato flowering and fruits.

Conclusion: Based on this result, biochar and poultry manure when added to soil, boosted the mineralization of the soil after amendment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Drought-tolerant Varieties of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Stress Condition in the North Region of Cameroon

Paul Sounou Alioum, Jacques Djida Housseini, Tontsa Noelle Hortense Mafouasson

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 64-73
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330485

Aims: The present study aimed to assess the performance of three drought-tolerant maize genotypes (DTSTRSYNY-2 (V1), WHITE DTSTRSYN (V2) and TZL COMP.4DTF2 (V3)) developed by IITA under water deficit stress conditions.

Place and Duration of Study: Experiment was carried out at Sanguere-Paul in the Soudano-Sahelian agro-ecological zone, North region, Cameroon from September to December 2019.

Methodology: Experimental design employed was the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) of 5 treatments corresponding to different maize varieties in 2 replicates. The drought-sensitive CMS 9015 (V4) and the drought-tolerant EVDT99 QPM W (V5) maize varieties performed by IRAD was used as negative and positive controls, respectively. For each maize variety, growth and production parameters were recorded alongside the experiment and grain yield was      calculated.

Results: Results showed that the three drought-tolerant maize genotypes and the positive control maize variety assessed significantly exhibited a good performance under water stress condition regarding the growth and production traits registered compared to the negative control. Concerning growth parameters, the drought-tolerant maize varieties V1, V2 and V3 presented short anthesis-silking interval (1-1.5 day), good plant aspect, low number of dried leaves above ear (8-15 leaves) and less dead plants (1.25 -1.50 plant)compared to the controls. For V1, V2 and V3 drought-tolerant maize varieties, high yields of 3.24, 3.58 and 3.73 ton/ha, respectively, were obtained compared to the controls(1.13 ton/ha for the negative control V4 and 2.27 ton/ha for the positive control V5).

Conclusion: Thus, the three drought-tolerant maize varieties showed good performance in the Soudano-Sahelian agro-ecological zone of Cameroon and should be adopted by farmers to increase and improve the maize production in the country, even under water deficit conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heterosis and Combining Abilities of Yield Components of CMS Maintainers, Restorer Lines and F1 Hybrids of Chilies (Capsicum annuum L.)

M. Nikornpun, K. Tunjai, K. Kaewsombat, T. Tarinta

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 74-87
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330486

Fruit yields and yield components of certain F1 hybrids, parental lines and commercial varieties in 3 discreet experiments were significantly different. Seven high-yielding F1 hybrids were observed: CA 1286 × CA 1447, CA1286 × CA1450, CA1303 × CA1446, CA1303 × CA1447, CA1303 × CA1450, CA1441 x CA1450 and CA1442 x CA1447. About half of them were significantly higher in yield than commercial varieties while the rest were not significantly different from the commercial varieties. Heterosis and heterobeltiosis of yield components of F1 hybrid chilis were significant. High yielding varieties showed both positive and significant heterosis and heterobeltiosis of all yield components. When maintainer lines, CA1441 and CA1442, were used as female parents, CA1441 was better than CA1442 for fruit length but variety CA1442 was better than variety CA 1441 for fruit width. When maintainer lines CA1286 and CA1303 were used as female parents, CA1303 was better than CA1286 in terms of yield in one experiment but they were more or less the samein another experiment. Significant general combining ability of the maintainer line CA1303 was observed in fruit width. Significant differences of general combining ability of some horticultural characteristics of restorers was observed in CA1446, CA1447, CA1448, CA1449 and CA1450. Almost no significant differences of specific combining ability of F1 hybrids were found in the F1 hybrids, except CA 1286 × CA 1447 and CA1303 × CA1451 demonstrated significant differences of specific combining ability of an average fruit weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytosociology, Diversity and Ecological Groups of the Adult Tree Component of a Forest Remnant in Pernambuco – Brazil

Raquel Elvira Cola, Anne Carolyne Silva Vieira, Lucas Galdino da Silva, Sthéfany Carolina de Melo Nobre, Maurício Leodino de Barros, Mayara Dalla Lana, Regis Villanova Longhi, Carlos Frederico Lins e Silva Brandão

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 88-106
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330487

The main objective of this study is to characterize the floristic richness, phytosociological structure, and classify the ecological groups of the adult tree component species in an area of ecological tension (Seasonal Forest and Caatinga) in Pernambuco - Brazil. The study was conducted in Atlantic Forest stretch in Pernambuco – Brazil, from April 2019 to February 2020. Methods adopted for this study includes the allocation of 20 plots, with dimensions of 10 m x 25 m, spaced in 25 m. Each adult individual, with a circumference at breast height (CBH 1.30 m) ≥ 15 cm, was identified in the field. The softwares Mata Nativa version 2 and Excel 2019 were used to process the collected data. Sample sufficiency, classification of ecological groups, diversity and phytosociology were analyzed. As a result of the research, the density of the adult tree component in the fragment was 1,888 indha-1 and the dominance was 21.64 m².ha-1. These values are following the standards of other studies in Atlantic Forest in the State of Pernambuco. The botanical families with greatest richness are, respectively, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Annonaceae, Lauraceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae. Regarding the ecological groups, 46% of the species were classified as initial secondary. The species of greatest Value of Importance were Guapira nitida, Buchenavia tetraphylla, Manilkara sp., Byrsonima crassifolia and Sloanea obtusifolia, respectively. The Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H') value was 3.21 nats.ind-1 and the Pielou Uniformity Index (J) was 0.73. According to the results obtained, the development process of the adult tree component of the fragment was directly affected by the pasture matrix. However, species diversity has not been compromised, indicating the area's resilience potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction of Genotypic Values and Selection Gains in Peanut Lines Derived from a Synthetic Amphidiploid

Jean Pierre Cordeiro Ramos, Wellison Filgueiras Dutra, Yrlânia de Lira Guerra, Lucas Nunes da Luz, José Jaime Vasconcelos Cavalcanti, Carliane Rebeca Coelho da Silva, Soraya Leal Bertioli, David Bertioli, Roseane Cavalcanti dos Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 119-126
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330489

Genotypic values and selection gains were estimated in peanut lines derived from backcrossing with synthetic amphidiploid (A. batizocoi x A. duranensis)4x and a commercial cultivar, based on agronomical traits. Thirteen BC1F3 lines were grown in the field and submitted to 21 d of water suppression. Two earliness and drought tolerant cultivars (BR 1 and Senegal 55 437) were used as controls. Eight agronomic traits were adopted to characterize the lines. The estimates were based on mixed models (REML/BLUP) and Sum of Ranks Selection Index. We found that residual variance was greater than genotypic one, indicating the existence of variability within the families. Most traits showed high accuracy values. Three families showed an increased number of pods/plant, pod length and several seeds/pod. Negative gains were achieved for time for blooming and full pod maturation. As these traits are used as criteria for selection for earliness, these results favour the identification of short-cycle plants and prone to tolerate dry environments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement in the Management of Leaf Blight Disease of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with Copper and Metalaxyl Fungicides

Edmund Omane, K. Asare Oduro, Eric W. Cornelius, Andrews Y. Akrofi, Eric K. Asare, Barnabas, A. Adongo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 127-136
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330490

Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) is an important staple food crop for millions of people in developing countries. Taro production is constrained by many diseases of which leaf blight, caused by Phytophthora colocasiae Raciborski, is the most destructive and it accounts for up to 80% yield loss of taro in many countries. In Ghana, the disease accounts for 25 – 50% yield loss. Non-sustainability of cultural control method and the use of resistant varieties have compelled some farmers to abandon their fields while others have converted their farms to dry season vegetable farming. In this study, copper and metalaxyl fungicides were tested for the control of leaf blight disease of taro. In vitro fungicidal activity tests and field evaluation showed that Ridomil Gold Plus 66 WP (6% metalaxyl-M + 60% copper (I) oxide) and Metalm 72 WP (12% metalaxyl + 60% copper (I) oxide) at 50 g in 15 litres of water (3.3g/L) and Nordox 75 WG (86% cuprous oxide) at 75 g in 15 litres of water (5 g/L) are effective for the control of leaf blight disease of taro at 4 weekly intervals for five consecutive months in the wet season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Distribution, Regeneration, Growth and Thicket Formation of Thornless Mimosa tenuiflora in a Caatinga Site of Northeast Brazil

Maria Beatriz Ferreira, Olaf Andreas Bakke, Geovana Gomes de Sousa, Ivonete Alves Bakke, Sebastiana Renata Vilela Azevedo, Wesley Costa Ferreira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 137-149
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330491

Aims: Percentage of native thorny and thornless Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret trees, and their growth, height and/or diameter class distribution and clustering pattern were determined in a pure stand of this species.

Study Design: A survey of the adult and juvenile plants was carried out in a 50 m x 50 m site after 10 years of tree cover regeneration.

Place and Duration of Study: The study site was located at Fazenda Nupearido, Patos-PB, Brazil and data collection occurred in September 2017.

Methodology: Adult plants with trunk circumference at breast height (1.3 m from the soil) > 6 cm (CBH > 6 cm) were measured for height and CBH, and located within the study area. Juvenile plants (i.e.: CBH ≤ 6 cm) were divided into 4 height classes. The position of only the thornless individuals within the study area was determined.

Results: Among the 170 adult plants documented in the area, 95.3% and 4.7% were thorny and thornless, respectively. Height and diameter at breast height averaged higher for thornless than for thorny adult plants (4.13 m and 9.28 cm vs. 3.61 m and 5.90 cm). In contrast, thornless juvenile plants averaged lower for height and basal diameter than the thorny ones. The number of juvenile M. tenuiflora totaled 897 plants, including 58 thornless ones, but percentage of thornless juveniles peaked at 17.6% for 10-to-50 cm high plants. In general, thorny plants showed a clustering pattern of distribution while the thornless plans were randomly distributed.

Conclusion: The density, random distribution and growth of the thornless plants suggest the possibility to form thickets of thornless plants in caatinga sites where this tree predominates. Also, these data show that in forested sites with thorny trees that generate thornless mutants, as observed in the Caatinga Biome for M. tenuiflora and other tree species, it is possible to increase the frequency and abundance of the naturally regenerating thornless plants, making easier the exploitation of forest resources, an approach that may be applied in other types of vegetation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield of Corn Hybrids in Western Bahia and Southwest Goiania in the Agricultural Year 2017/2018

Luiz Leonardo Ferreira, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Roselaine Lages Fonseca Prado, Manuel Rodriguez Carballau, Alexandre Igor de Azevedo Pereira, Marilaine de Sá Fernandes, Carmen Rosa da Silva Curvêlo, Ariana Bertola Carnevale, Núbia Sousa Carrijo dos Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 150-158
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330492

The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of corn hybrids in west Bahia and south-west Goias in the agricultural year of 2017/2018. The study was carried out in the municipalities of Luís Eduardo Magalhães in west Bahia - BA and Mineiros in south-west Goias – GO, Brasil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, the treatments being corn hybrids, 12 in west of Bahia and 23 in south-west of Goias. Each experimental unit was composed of 6 lines of 8 m in length spaced every 0.5 m and population of 70.000 ha-1 plants in 4 replications. The applications of pesticides were carried out in the morning, and the control of weeds, insects and diseases were carried out whenever necessary respecting the good practices of integrated pest management. After the harvest the yield was determined, correcting the grain moisture to 14%. Statistical analyzes were carried out at the Rbio and R interface. The analysis of variance analysis revealed that corn hybrids in the regions of west Bahia and south-west Goias were significant. The cultivation of the DKB390, MG711, DKB290 and 30F53 corn hybrids is recommended for west Bahia and the P3707 hybrid that has obtained yields above 170 sc ha-1 in south-west Goias. For both regions it was evidenced that the UPGMA grouping method using the generalized distance of Mahalanobis was efficient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Proper Management of Cocoa Plants on the Occurrence of Swollen Shoot Disease in Kipiri - Côte d'Ivoire

Franck Zokou Oro, Hermann-Desiré Lallié, Carine Aya N’Guessan, Juslin Kouadio, Lucien Diby, Christophe Kouamé, Hortense Atta Diallo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 159-166
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330493

This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between plot maintenance level and the prevalence of Cocoa swollen shoot disease in Kipiri (Department of Soubré) in Côte d'Ivoire. Indeed, the strong pressure of Swollen shoot disease in this department causes enormous damage in cocoa plots.The study design is a prospective survey in peasant cocoa plots between 2014 and 2016.

The data were collected using the Land Degradation Surface Framework (LDSF). The LDSF device is a sentinel site of 10 Km × 10 Km. The site is divided into 16 Clusters of 2.5 Km × 2.5 Km with 10 plots by cluster. In the case of our study, surveys were carried out on 108 plots carrying cocoa trees within a radius of 50 m around each test plot. The data collected included areas of Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV) outbreaks, the cocoa plot maintenance level and CSSV status like ‘Absence’ or ‘Presence’ in plots observed. CSSV prevalence was deduced from CSSV outbreaks areas of each sampling plot, allowing realization of disease map. The relationship between the level of plot maintenance and the prevalence of CSSV was assessed by using the analysis of variance test (Anova-one-way).

The results of Swollen shoot disease’s distribution showed that the Kipiri site had a CSSV prevalence around 50%.These results demonstrated that plots maintenance level has a strong influence on the prevalence of Swollen shoot disease (p =0.00 < 0.05).

At the end of this study, it appears that plots maintenance level is a key factor in the rapid spread of the Swollen shoot epidemic in Kipiri site. Cocoa producers would therefore be recommended to regularly maintain their plantations by eliminating the reservoirs of Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus.

Open Access Review Article

Nitrogen Transformation in Waterlogged Soil in Indian Rice Fields: A Review

Rajat Kumar Parit, P. K. Bharteey, Bishnu Jyoti Saikia, Sarat Sekhar Bora, P. K. Maurya, Ruthy Tabing

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 107-118
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330488

No other element can match the essentiality of nitrogen in soil for growth and development of plants and its transformations among various forms viz., nitrite, nitrate, ammonium are mostly mediated by microbes. As its transformation depends on major microbial activity and thus, there is a huge difference between the transformation of it in aerobic soil and anaerobic soil. This difference mainly arises due to presence and absence of oxygen. The absence of oxygen in soil creates anaerobic condition and thus promotes the growth of anaerobic microbes. In submerged soil, applied nitrogen is lost in various forms such as volatilization, denitrification, leaching and runoff out of which ammonium volatilization causes the maximum loss. The recovery of applied nitrogen, as recorded from various filed experiments in India, has been found to vary from 28 to 34% for submerged rice. The chemistry of nitrogen in submerged soil is quite interesting for this review.