Open Access Minireview Article

Growth and Physiological Responses of Vegetable Crops to Water Deficit Stress

Henil D. Vashi, Prutha P. Patel, Kirti Bardhan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 91-101
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530523

Future climate change scenarios have become a major threat and limitation for global food production. The rise in greenhouse gases and temperature throughout the globe has caused perturbance in the natural seasonal cycles. This causes a threat to nutritional and calorific food security for the ever-increasing population in the South Asian Countries.  Reduction in the amounts of rainfall in the tropics and subtropics has increased the occurrence of drought leading to more frequent water stress affecting the production of crops, including vegetables, which are  predominantly grown in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. India is the second-largest producer of vegetables in the world and heavy consumer of vegetables. The mini-review focused on drought stress effects on the vegetable production and photosynthesis, transpiration, water uptake and other metabolic and developmental processes. Grafting, breeding, cultural and biotechnological strategies are used to combat drought stress and will be used in the future to ease the harmful effects of drought stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [L.]) as Influenced by Row Arrangement and Cowdung Rates Grown in Intercrop with Maize (Zea mays [L.]) in Sudan Savanna

B. K. Adam, B. H. Kabura, I. J. Dantata

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530512

Aims: To study the performance of watermelon in maize/watermelon intercrop under varied row arrangements and cow dung rates in a Sudan Savanna area.

Study Design: Field-experimental design was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: Field trials were carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Maiduguri in Borno State, Nigeria during the 2014 and 2015 rainy seasons.

Methodology: Field trials with treatments consisting of factorial combinations of three row arrangements of maize: watermelon (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1) and five levels of cow dung rates (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20t per ha) laid out in a split plot design and replicated three times. Cow dung was assigned to the main plots while row arrangements were assigned to the sub plots. The parameters of watermelon studied were: number of fruits per plant, fruit circumference, fruit length, fruits weight per plant and fruit yield per ha.

Results: The results showed that number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per ha of watermelon were significantly greater at 1:2 row arrangement than the other planting patterns used. Application of 15t cow dung per ha was found to be maximum for number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per ha of watermelon. The interaction or combination of 1:2 row arrangement and 15t cow dung per ha was optimum for fruit yield per ha of watermelon.

Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, 1:2 row arrangement with application of 15t cow dung per ha should be adopted for production of watermelon in maize/watermelon intercrop in the Sudan Savanna agro-ecology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cell Membrane Stability as a Measure of Heat Tolerance in Hexaploid and Tetraploid Wheat

Syed Bilal Hussain, Ali Bakhsh, Muhammad Zubair

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 16-22
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530513

A comparison was made of the physiological and morphological differences between Inqlab-91 (hexaploid) and Langdon (tetralpoid) wheat genotypes in response to high temperature stress applied at third leaf stage of growth. Electrolytes leakage technique was used to detect differences in the heat sensitivities of leaves of Inqlab-91 and Langdon. This method showed that at both 35 or 40°C Inqlab-91 was more heat tolerant than Langdon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Maize/Rice Intercrop as Affected by Maize (Zea mays L.) Spacing and Weed Control

Albert Berdjour, Israel Kwame Dzomeku, Fuseini Dokurugu, HarunaAlhassan Yemyoliya, Richard Naabe Yaro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530515

This trial was conducted to determine maize spacing and weed control effect on the performance of maize/rice intercrop in the Guinea Savanna of Ghana. The study was a 4 x 4 factorial experiment laid out in Randomised Complete Block Design with 3 replications. Four maize spacing’s: 90 x 40 cm, 85 x 40 cm, 80 x 40 cm and 75 x 40 cm and four weed control regimes: weeding at 3 & 6 WAP, weeding at 3, 6 & 9 WAP, weed free and weedy check (no weeding) were used as treatments. Rice was planted at 20 x 20 cm within maize rows, resulting in a 1:2 row arrangement. Data were collected on growth parameters, grain yield, weed biomass and weed species richness. Days to 50% flowering of rice, panicle weight and rice grain yield were significantly enhanced by the interaction effect of maize spacing and weed control. It was evident that, weeding at 3 & 6 WAP and 3, 6 & 9 WAP were best for controlling weeds and resulted in significant influence in almost all of the data taken likewise rice in maize spacing of 85 x 40 cm and 80 x 40 cm. Therefore, to ensure that plant densities are not reduced, farmers are adviced to intercrop maize with rice, using maize spacing of 80 x 40 cm. Similarly, to save time, small-scale farmers are advised to weed only twice at 3 & 6 WAP. However, it was prudent not to suggest any recommendation from the two and three hand weeding’s in interaction with maize spacing, since the results for the interaction appeared not consistent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Increasing on Fruit Set and Yield of ‘Monalisa’ and ‘Maxi Gala’ Apple Trees Using Plant Growth Regulators

José Luiz Petri, André Amarildo Sezerino, Cristhian Leonardo Fenili, Everlan Fagundes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530516

Aims: To evaluate the effect of different plant growth regulators on fruit set and yield of apple trees in mild winter conditions.

Study Design:  The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were carried out in southern Brazil, municipality of Caçador/SC, during the cycle 2016/2017 to 2019/2020 in the 'Monalisa'/M9 and another experiment with cultivars Maxi Gala/M9 and Monalisa/M9, in 2018/2019 and 2019/2020.

Methodology: The following products were tested: TDZ (Thidiazuron) Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), Maxcel®, Ethrel®, Promalin®, Ammonium thiosulfate, and the combination TDZ + Viviful® + Retain®. The following evaluations were carried out: fruit set, fruit yield per plant and per hectare; number of fruits per plant, average fruit mass, the red skin color of fruits, degree of russeting and classification of fruits by size.

Results: In 'Monalisa' apple trees, TDZ alone and combined with PCa + AVG increases the fruit set, when applied in full bloom, while TDZ alone and NAA applied in full bloom increases the productivity. TDZ alone reduces return bloom and induces greater alternate bearing while, combined with PCa + AVG does not cause bearing alternation; however, it reduces the average fruit mass. BA + GA reduces the productivity of 'Monalisa' apple trees. The fruit set increased significantly with AVG treatments 52 ppm, 104 ppm, and 156 ppm, while the yield per plant, number of fruits per plant and estimated productivity, all treatments were significantly superior to the control treatment with the exception of AVG 52 ppm, on the Cv. Monalisa. The control treatment and AVG, 104 ppm and 156 ppm presented fruits with larger caliber and only AVG 26 ppm showed a lower percentage of fruits in the class of higher coloration, in comparison to the other treatments. The russeting incidence did not present significant differences in the cultivar Monalisa and Maxi Gala. None of the variables were significantly altered by the application of Retain® in the Cv. Maxi Gala.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Climate Change on Rainfall Distribution on Cassava Yield in Coastal and Upland Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Isaiah A. I., Yamusa A. M., Odunze A. C.

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 44-53
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530517

This study examined the implication of rainfall variability on cassava yield in selected coastal and upland areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Thirty years daily rainfall data were collected from Nigeria Meteorological Agency (1989 – 2018); cassava yield data were also collected from Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Agriculture Uyo (1989 – 2018). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the average annual rainfall and cassava yield. Time series analysis were used to assess the relationship between rainfall and cassava yield. The result indicated an increase in rainfall trends in all areas with Eket – r2 = 0.6631, Oron - r2 = 0.5329, Uyo - r2 = 0.4215 and Ikot Ekpene - r2 = 0.4042. The result also showed an increase in yield of cassava in Uyo and Ikot Ekpene at r2 = 0.2436 and 0.4397 respectively; while its decreases in Eket and Oron at r2 = 0.0611 and 0.1159 respectively. This suggested that a high yield of cassava may be achieved only in the upland areas of Akwa Ibom State due to continuous increase in rainfall as a result of climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative & Quantitative Analysis of Adult Arboreal Individuals from the Afforestation in the Municipality of Várzea, Paraíba, Brazil

Iara Cristina Araujo Rocha, Jaqueline Rocha de Medeiros, Geovanio Alves da Silva, Vinícius Staynne Gomes Ferreira, Joedla Rodrigues de Lima, Marcelo Pereira Dutra Junior, Maria Beatriz Ferreira, Geovana Gomes de Sousa, Sebastiana Renata Vilela Azevedo, Elisabeth de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 54-63
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530518

Aims: Perform a qualiquantitative analysis of adult arboreal individuals in urban roads in the municipality of Várzea, Paraíba, Brazil.

Study Design: Census inventory.

Place and Duration of Study: Várzea Municipality, Paraíba, Brazil from March to April 2018.

Methodology: The qualitative and quantitative census inventory of adult shrubs-tree individuals was carried out in the urban roads of the municipality, the level of inclusion of the individuals was circumference at breast height (CBH) of (1.30 m) was ≥ 6 cm. Common name of the species was recorded, CBH measurements, height of the first bifurcation and total and physical conditions that were classified as good, regular, bad and dead. The data were tabulated, processed and presented in tables and graphs.

Results: A total of 429 individuals were recorded on public roads distributed in 20 species. Azadirachta indica A. Juss and Ficus benjamina L. had the highest number of individuals.

85% of the species were exotic and 15% were native. 12 species offered direct nutritional benefit to man and local fauna as they were fruit trees. The physical conditions of the individuals were 55.94% good, 40.33% regular, 3.73% poor, however, 47.50% of individuals had some type of conflict. 41.72% of individuals were concentrated in the diametric class of 15-21 cm. 54.78% of individuals had height of the first bifurcation greater than 200 cm and 62% of the individuals medium size.

Conclusion: The afforestation of the municipality was satisfactory in relation to plant health. Attention needs to be paid to the diversity of native species and the injuries caused to vegetation. The height of the first fork was adequate. The trees were medium sized. It is suggested that studies of perception of afforestation be carried out in the municipality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cumulative Applications of Paclobutrazol with Leaf Nitrogen in Biquinho Pepper

Elijanara Raissa da Silva, Magaiver Gindri Pinheiro, Julia Cabreira Carraro, Flávio Ferreira da Silva Binotti, Caio César Burin, Juliana Nunes Oliveira, Tiago Zoz2 and Edilson Costa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 64-71
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530519

The use of growth regulators as an example, paclobutrazol, active in the biosynthesis of gibberellin, is a technique that can be used to inhibit longitudinal growth modifying the morphophysiological characteristics of plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the cumulative application of paclobutrazol with the presence or absence of leaf nitrogen (N) in Biquinho pepper (Capsicum chinense). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse under a randomized block design, in a 2 x 3 factorial with five replications. The first main factor with two levels (Factor I) consisted of the application of 50 mg L-1 of paclobutrazol growth regulator with presence and absence of nitrogen. The second main factor (Factor II) composed by three levels was the cumulative applications at 9, 18 and 26 days after transplanting of seedlings (DAT). The association of leaf N with paclobutrazol provided an increase in plant biomass when applied two and three times while the largest biomasses were observed with the single and isolated application of paclobutrazol. Cumulative applications of paclobutrazol prevented the production of C. chinense fruits, however there was a better root growth. The application of paclobutrazol alone and in association with leaf nitrogen provides an increase in the levels of chlorophyll of C. chinense.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Colour Shading on Seedling Growth, Fruit Morphology and Phytochemical Properties of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var KWR)

P. K. Dissanayake, W. G. C. Wekumbura

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 72-84
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530520

Context: Producing high quality and chemical free tomato would favorably enhance consumer preference. There are most promising findings available on growth and quality attributes of tomato and other plants under different light spectrum in closed house conditions using different light sources. Installment of light emitting devices and running cost with high power consumption might not favorable for commercial cultivators and small scale growers.

Aim: In present study we used colour transparent sheets such as colourless (control), red, blue, green and yellow as shading material to transmit respective spectrum of light on tomato plants to study the effect.

Methodology: Tomato seed germination study was done under different colour shading in petri plates. Seedling and plant growth parameters and phytochemical properties of tomato plants grown under different transparent colour shadings were studied such as number of leaves, leaf area, weight of shoot and root, chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid content of fruits, lycopene contents of fruits, fruit physical parameters and flowering.

Results: Seed germination was significantly high under yellow, colourless and red shading over blue and green. Seedling growth was significantly high under yellow shading. Fruit Ascorbic acid content was positively enhanced by yellow, green and colourless shading, whereas chlorophyll and lycopene content significantly high under green and red. Number of flower setting per plant was high under green shading (40±5.77), whereas lowest under yellow shading (22.33±6.38). Fruit setting significantly high under yellow shading (14±2) and lowest was red (9±1). Blue shading showed significantly high effect on fruit morphological traits such as pericarp thickness and fruit size.

Conclusion: Yellow colour shading enhances seedling growth and fruit setting of tomato, while green having positive impact on fruit morphology. However, different characters of tomato were differently affected by different colour shading in greenhouse condition and for the better effect appropriate colour shading should be selected at particular stage of growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Eucalyptus Leaf (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Moringa Seed (Moringa oleifera) and Pirimiphos-methyl Powders against Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) in Stored Maize

C. P. O. Emeka, F. K. Ewete, S. T. Ebeniro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 85-90
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530522

Annually, Nigeria loses 20–40% of maize grain due to insect pests attack. However, insect pest control in stored products relied heavily on the use of gaseous fumigants and residual contact insecticides. The control method is limited as it is toxic to beneficials and humans. Efforts have now shifted to the use of edible plant materials as protectants of which the tropics are well endowed with. Therefore, a study was conducted in laboratory in order to evaluate the effectiveness of powders of eucalyptus leaf (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Schlecht,) moringa seed (Moringa oleifera Lam.) and Pirimiphos-methyl against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) on stored maize (Zea mays L.).

  1. camaldulensis leaf powder showed 100% repellence effect at a concentration of 2.0 g / 20 g maize seeds while M. oleifera seed powder had 75% repellence effect against S. zeamais. Contact toxicity of E. camaldulensis leaf powder on S. zeamais was 65% at 1.0 g/20 g maize seeds after 96 hours of exposure. Contact toxicity of M. oleifera seed powder on S. zeamais was 60% at 96 hours of exposure at a concentration of 1.0 g/20 g maize seeds. The powders of E. camaldulensis leaf and M. oleifera seed showed promising effects against S. zeamais in stored maize, hence could be incorporated in an integrated approach as alternative to synthetic pesticides when used in reducing weevil infestation in stored maize seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Land Cover Change on Atlantic Forest Fragmentation in Rio Largo, Al, Brazil

Lucas Galdino da Silva, Arthur Costa Falcão Tavares, Carlos Frederico Lins E. Silva Brandão, João Pedro dos Santos Verçosa, Raquel Elvira Cola, Nivandilmo Luiz da Silva, Anderson Arthur Lima dos Santos, Anne Carolyne Silva Vieira, José Feitosa da Silva Neto, Mayara Dalla Lana

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 102-114
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530524

This study's objective was to analyze the effect of land cover change, between 1965 and 2018, using statistical metrics and geoprocessing tools. And consequently, to provide information of area (ha) and spatial fragmentation of the Atlantic Forest in the municipality of Rio Largo/AL, Brazil. The samples were collected and transferred by CECA, CADEH, and INCRA, between November 2019 and April 2020. The basic materials used in this work were multi-temporal aerial images in digital format, derived from the 1965 aerophotogrametric survey on the scale 1:25000, belonging to the collection of the Engineering and Agrarian Sciences Campus - UFAL, and images of Landsat satellites (5 and 8) processed and made available by the Mapbiomas Project. The statistic landscape metrics were calculated using Landscape ecology Statistics (LECOs), a QGIS plugin. The analysis of forest fragmentation areas over the 53 years showed a reduction between 32.17% (1965) and 12.04% (2018) concerning the total extension of the municipality. In 1965, the average area obtained from 49 fragments was 201.13 ha. The values show a higher distance of forest fragments between 1965 and 1989, and disappearance by 2018.The Pearson correlation coefficient for 1965 and 2018 presented the value of r = -0.525, indicating a moderate and negative correlation between the mean values of areas (ha) of forest fragments and the number of forest fragments. The worst-case scenario for the maintenance of native forests occurred in 1989, where the reduction of continuous forest areas had 10.87 ha for forest area average, being spaced in 327 fragments. In the period 1986 and 1996, there was a decrease in fragmentation, reaching 200 fragments. In 1996 and 1997, there was an imbalance in forest maintenance, again increasing the number of fragments to 250 areas, and being explained by the loosening of surveillance in previous years, followed by deforestation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Genetic Parameters in Early Maturing Sugarcane Clones for Yield and Quality Traits

G. Rakesh, G. Eswara Reddy, N. Swapna, P. Jalender Naik, Y. Swathi, T. Prabhakar Reddy, M. Vijay Kumar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 115-121
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530525

Aims: To make pragmatic selection of best performing sugar cane clones, it is compulsory to know traits having high values of heritability. Hence, this work was initiated with the aim of estimating genetic parameters of twelve sugarcane clones planted in randomized block design with three replications. The tested clones were significantly different for all most all the traits at 1% and 5% level of significance. Genotypic and phenotypic variance, GCV and PCV, heritability in broad sense (h2) and genetic advance as percent of mean was calculated for all traits taken.

Results: Low genotypic variances were obtained as compared to the corresponding phenotypic variances for the traits taken. High GCV and heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent mean were obtained for Shoots at 240 DAP (Days After Planting) (1000/ha), Single cane weight at harvest (Kg), commercial cane sugar (CCS) at 8 months stage (%), CCS at 10 months stage (%), Sugar yield at harvest (t/ha) and Cane yield at harvest (t/ha). Hence, selections based on these characters are appropriate for varietal improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Physio-chemical Properties of Maintainer, Restorer Lines and Hybrids of Chilies (Capsicum annuum L.)

Maneechat Nikornpun, K. Tunjai, K. Kaewsombat, T. Tarinta, Danai Boonyakiat

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 122-138
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530526

Physio-chemical properties of hybrid chilies (Capsicum annuum L.), parental lines and commercial varieties were evaluated in three experiments and showed significant differences among them. Heterosis, and heterobeltiosis were studied in hybrids while, combining abilities were investigated in maintainers and restorers. Positive statistical differences in the general combining ability of the maintainer lines for vitamin C, capsaicin and Hue were observed and general combining ability indicated that, CA1286 and CA1303, were good maintainers for the improvement of capsaicin and vitamin C. The other maintainers;-, CA1441 and CA1442, are good for the improvement of L* and Chroma. The maintainer, CA1441, was better than CA1442 for capsaicin content,- while the maintainer, CA1442, was better than CA1441 for vitamin C. Positivity and statistically significant differences among the restorers were  observed  for vitamin C, capsaicin, Hue and Chroma  and  the lines;-, CA 1447, CA 1448, CA 1449, CA 1450 and CA 1451, were useful for the improvement of these  physio-chemical properties of chilies. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotypic Variation of Different Maturity Groups of Maize (Zea mays L.) for Seed Physiological Quality

O. Bankole, A. Oluwaranti, S. A. Ajayi, F. E. Awosanmi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 139-149
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530527

Maize genotypes of different maturity groups with good seed quality had been developed, but there is little or no information on how the seed quality of the maize genotypes are affected by their maturity groups. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate maize varieties of different maturity groups for seed quality and determine genotypic variations that exist within the different maturity groups of maize for seed quality. Laboratory experiments were conducted in the Seed Science Laboratory of the Department of Crop Production and Protection, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Seeds of sixteen maize genotypes of different maturity groups were subjected to imbibition, germination, accelerated ageing, conductivity and seedling vigor tests. The late maturity group (TZLCOMP.4DTF2,TZLCOMP. 1C6/DT.SYN-1-W, WHITEDTSTR/TZLCOMP.1-W, OBASUPER1) gave the best viability, speed of germination and days to complete germination while the extra early maturity group (2009TZEE-ORISTRQPM, 2000SYNEE-WSTR,2013TZEE-WDTSTR, TZEE-WPOPDTC2STRC5F2) had the least performance. The early (2014TZE –YDTSTR, 2013DTESTR–WSYN, EVDT-2000STRC0, 2009DTEWSTRSYN) and extra-early maturity groups had the longest root length and highest root number respectively. However, the different maturity groups of maize evaluated imbibed water at the same rate. TZEE-WPOP DT STR C5 F2, 2013 DTE STR – W SYN, AFLATOXIN R-SYN2, TZL COMP.1 C6/DT. SYN-1-W among extra early, early, intermediate and late maturity groups respectively performed best for viability and vigor tests.

Open Access Review Article

Is Ethylene the Ripening Hormone

Senewa Bobby Pholoma

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i530510

The fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity since they play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth factors essential for maintaining normal health.  One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and reduced post-harvest life.  The fruit ripening involves a wide spectrum of coordinated biochemical and physiological processes that eventually leads to development of soft edible fruit with desirable qualities such as carotenoids, anthocyanin, color, sweetness, texture, firmness, flavor and aroma.  The ripening is the phase of fruit development just before senescence, therefore the excessive tissues softening due to the high ethylene exposure leads to the spoilage upon the storage.  Ethylene, a fruit ripening hormone can trigger many events of cell metabolism including ripening particularly in climacteric fruits even in minute amounts.  As fruit mature, the rate of ACC and ethylene biosynthesis increases as well as the enzyme activities for ACC oxidase and ACC synthase enhance.  However, the application of ethylene inhibitors such as 1-MCP, AVG and the ethylene remover proved to reduce the ripening where some quality attributes of ripening were reduced due to suppressed expression of the ripening hormone.