Open Access Minireview Article

Review on Browntop Millet- A Forgotten Crop

P. Ashoka, N. H. Sunitha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 54-60
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730553

Browntop millet is a warm season crop and it can produce heavy seeds compared to other millets. This crop grown on a variety of soils and climates. It can be used as a wild life food crop, livestock grazing crop, for erosion control, hay production and also as a food grain crop. Millets are the major food source in arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Although India is the top most producers of millets, observed a steady decline in its production and utilization. Brown top millets provide nearly all essential nutrients. Brown top millet referred as miracle or positive crop for the dry and rainfed situations. The Brown top millet is known for its rapid forage production. It is grown for several other purposes like cover crop in plantation crop for soil erosion control and for high straw production. It suppresses root-knot nematode in the soil. This millet can be recommended in daily diet, there is a need to encourage the farming community to grow this crop thus contributing in achieving nutrition security. The nutrient content of browntop millet is on par with other millets and cultivation of this crop is also easier. Hence, there is an urgent need to popularize this millet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Performances and Nutritional Assessment of Three Sweet Potato Varieties (Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam.) Introduced in an Agro-ecological Zone of Groundnut Basin in Senegal

Papa Mamadou Dit Doudou Sylla, Fatou Ndoye, Abdou Badiane, Mame Samba Mbaye, Laure Tall, Ndeye Sokhna Cisse, Adama Diouf, Guy Mergeai, Nicole Dossou, Philippe Donnen, Salimata Wade, Kandioura Noba

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730548

Aims: To evaluate the agronomic and nutritional performances of three varieties of sweet potato (Kandee, Caromex and Gandiol1) cultivated for the first time in the agro-ecological zone of the groundnut basin in Senegal.

Study Design: The experiment was arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted during two growing seasons from April to August 2017 and from October 2018 to February 2019 in Sagna village (Kaffrine, Senegal).

Methodology: The planting of the cuttings was done with a density of 0.3 x 1 m or 3333.3 cuttings ha-1. Drip irrigation was used and mineral fertilization with 15-15-15 was applied. In each elementary plot, 5 plants were checked monthly for growth and phytosanitary monitoring. The harvest took place at 145 days after planting. The yields and agro-morphological characteristics of the roots were determined as well as their nutritional value and the incidence of bio-aggressor attacks.

Results: The success percentage of cuttings was 90.1, 90.5 and 88% for Kandee, Caromex and Gandiol1, respectively. The length development of sweet potato stems was variable between the 3 varieties. The Gandiol1 variety with stems longer than 1.6 m was very spread out contrary to Caromex whose average stem length did not exceed 0.5 m. The marketable tuber yields obtained were comparable between the varieties and were 21.5, 22.5 and 13.4 t ha-1 respectively for Kandee, Caromex and Gandiol1. The morphology of the tubers was different in shape (diameter and length) but also in flesh color. Kandee had orange flesh, rich in carotenoids (101.1 mg/kg; P<0.001), Caromex a cream color with carotenes of 43.2 mg kg-1 and Gandiol1 a white flesh. Caromex had the best proportion of dry matter (40.6%; P<0.001) compared to the other varieties. This amount of dry matter was correlated with the marketable root yield (r=0.54; P=0.04) and the carbohydrates amount (r = 0.52; P=0.05). Bio-aggressor incidence on tubers was lower for the Kandee variety (10.3%; P=0.01).

Conclusion: Sweet potato varieties performed well in the agro-ecological conditions of the groundnut basin and showed comparable agronomic performance. The three varieties can be discriminated on the level of their nutritional quality, particularly on their β-carotene content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytosociological Survey of Spontaneous Plants in the Culture of Agroecological Maize with Plants of Intercalar Coverage

Alexandra da Silva Martinez, Edleusa Pereira Seidel, Renan Pan, Tauane Santos Brito, Wesler Meiners Caciano

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730549

Aims: The objective was to carry the phytosociological survey of spontaneous plants in the agroecological maize crop cultivated with intercalar cover plants in the summer and fall/winter harvest.

Study Design: The experimental design used was of randomized blocks with subdivided plots in the time 4x2x2, with 5 replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a farm, located in Missal – PR, managed in agroecological system since 2009.

Methodology: The crop modalities used were maize + pigeon pea, maize + showy rattlepod, maize + jack bean and monoculture (control), being evaluated during summer and fall/winter seasons, at 30 and 70 days after emergence.  Frequency, abundance, and density of plants per linear meter and the importance value index (IVI) were determined in a 1 m² area.

Results: The specie Commelina benghalensis L. and Leonorus sibiricus L, were the plants with the highest IVI for the crop modalities maize + pigeon pea and maize + showy rattlepod.

Conclusion: The cultivation of maize with cover crops, mainly showy rattlepod, may be a recommended management to reduce spontaneous plants in maize in the agroecological system.

Aims: The objective was to carry the phytosociological survey of spontaneous plants in the agroecological maize crop cultivated with intercalar cover plants in the summer and fall/winter harvest.

Study Design: The experimental design used was of randomized blocks with subdivided plots in the time 4x2x2, with 5 replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a farm, located in Missal – PR, managed in agroecological system since 2009.

Methodology: The crop modalities used were maize + pigeon pea, maize + showy rattlepod, maize + jack bean and monoculture (control), being evaluated during summer and fall/winter seasons, at 30 and 70 days after emergence.  Frequency, abundance, and density of plants per linear meter and the importance value index (IVI) were determined in a 1 m² area.

Results: The specie Commelina benghalensis L. and Leonorus sibiricus L, were the plants with the highest IVI for the crop modalities maize + pigeon pea and maize + showy rattlepod.

Conclusion: The cultivation of maize with cover crops, mainly showy rattlepod, may be a recommended management to reduce spontaneous plants in maize in the agroecological system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield of Whole, Polished Whole Grains and Degree of Whiteness of Rice for Japanese Cuisine Obtained in Flood Irrigation System

M. M. A. Pereira, O. J. Smiderle, A. C. C. Cordeiro, R. D. Medeiros, L. T. Souza

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730550

New rice cultivars with grains for Japanese cuisine have been launched in order to add value to irrigated rice production systems in the country. The objective was to evaluate the yield of polished and whole grains of cultivar BRS 358, at harvest and at six months of storage grown under a continuous irrigation system. The experiment was conducted in a lowland area, in Cantá-RR, with application of 150 kg ha-1 of N, 50% at the base and 50% at 45 days after emergence. Three harvest seasons were carried out: 38 days after flowering - DAF (A01), 45 DAF (A1) and 52 DAF (A2), to evaluate the yield of whole and polished whole grains, at harvest and at 6 months of storage. The results showed that application of N, promoted higher yield of whole grains, with 65% yield at harvest, and when stored for six months at room temperature, yield above 75%. For the polished whole grain yield, the best harvest range is 38-45 DAF, with whole grain yield above 50% and regardless of the harvesting and storage time of the grains the total whiteness is above 55%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Mulching on Moisture Content in Soil, Weed Dynamics and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in Post Flood Situation in Coastal Odisha

P. Mishra, T. R. Sahoo, F. H. Rahman, N. Mohapatra, P. K. Sahoo, R. K. Mohapatra, S. N. Mishra

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 32-38
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730551

A field experiment was conducted at the farmer’s field at Ratanpur village of Marshaghai block of Kendrapara district of Odisha to assess the effect of different mulching practices on weed population, moisture content in soil, growth and yield of tomato. The experimental field in an adopted village of Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kendrapara where National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Project activities are being undertaken. The experiment consists of five mulching treatments like black polythene mulch, black and silver polythene mulch, transparent mulch organic mulch and without mulch as control. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications. Results revealed that higher moisture content in soil (14.2 %) at 7 days after planting when black with silver colour polythene mulch was used for tomato cultivation. Black with silver colour polythene mulch showed low weed density and dry weight (0.7/ m2 and 0.4 g/ m2) at 20 and 40 days after planting as compared to other treatments. The same treatment gave significantly higher yield per plant (2.27 kg) and yield (56.5 t/ha). Organic mulch was also found a better treatment with respect to yield per plant (1.84 kg) and yield (48.4 t/ha). Higher return obtained by the farmers when black with silver colour polythene mulch was used for tomato cultivation. Black polythene mulching and organic mulching practices was also found good in soil moisture content, weed population in field and yield of tomato.

Open Access Original Research Article

Year Round Feed and Fodder Availability in Smallholder Dairy Farms across High and Low Altitude Areas in Eastern Africa

Ongadi, P M, Lukuyu, B A, Mpolya, E A, Min Wang, Chagunda, M G G, Malkamu, D, Aberra, A, Woldemeskel, E

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 39-53
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730552

Feed-year strategies involve matching the cycles of dairy production with the changing availabilities of all sources of nutrients over time. Therefore, an understanding of seasonal variation in availability of forage resources is important in future planning and development of appropriate technologies to assure resilience of smallholder dairy systems to seasonal changes. This study was carried out to: 1) evaluate the current pattern of seasonal variation in forage availability in smallholder dairy farms, and 2) assess seasonal variation in year-round forage based feeding strategies in smallholder dairy farms in Eastern Africa. Data was collected from a purposive representative sample of 400 smallholder dairy farmers through cross-sectional and observational studies. The Feed Assessment Tool (FEAST) was used to capture the season’s effect (wet and dry) across high and low altitude areas in Kenya and Tanzania from 2016-2018. Data were analyzed using the generalized linear model (GLMM) procedure of SPSS 21.0 (Chicago, IL, USA), using models that included the fixed effects and random effects; and FEAST Version 2.21. Results showed that location (country), agro-ecological zone and season had a significant influence (p ≤ 0.05) on year-round rainfall variability. Availability and utilization of concentrate feeds, green and dry crop residues, improved fodder, pasture and legume forage throughout the year, were significantly influenced (p ≤ 0.05) by location, agro-ecological zone, seasons and production systems. Correlation between the forage resources revealed highly significant (p ≤ 0.001) and positive relationships in availability and usage across the two countries. From this study, rainfall variability was crucial in determining sources and year-round variation in availability and utilization of forages. Therefore, different seasonality driven site, region or country specific year-round feeding interventions and strategies could be applied depending upon type, source, quantity (availability) and quality of feeds to overcome seasonal milk fluctuations in smallholder dairy farms in Eastern Africa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Azolla as Feed Supplementation on Growth Performance and Economics of Vanaraja Birds in Backyard System of North Western Odisha

S. K. Joshi, J. Udgata, L. M. Garnayak, F. H. Rahman, A. Phonglosa, D. Parida

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 61-65
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730554

This study was conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra Jharsuguda, Odisha under National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture Project in 2019-2020 in the operational villages Bhoimunda and Tharkaspur of Jharsaguda district of North-Western Odisha, India. A total of 300 unsexed brooded chicks, breed Vanaraja, were provided to the farmers under the project and were randomly distributed into three treatment groups (100 birds in each treatment group) with ten replications in each group, having ten birds in each replicate. The study was undertaken for a period of 7 months, from September, 2019 to March, 2020. The study started with birds of 4th week of age and continued up to 28th week of age. Vanaraja birds of group I were let out for foraging with no supplementation, in group II birds were provided with fresh Azolla @ 200 g per bird along with foraging and birds of group III were given commercial feed @ 50 g per bird along with foraging. Weekly body weight gain upto 16th week and egg production upto 28th week were recorded. The benefit cost analysis was also evaluated. The result of this trial indicated that supplementation of azolla in instrumental in increased body weight gain along with higher egg production with better Benefit Cost ratio. Therefore, it can be concluded that feeding of Azolla to poultry birds under backyard condition @ 200 g per day per bird may be highly effective method to get more profit. Under the prevailing situation of change in climatic condition, backyard poultry is a good insurance against crop loss and feeding of azolla to backyard birds will further strengthen the economic status of farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Manufacture of a Groundnut Sheller

Jean-Louis Comlan Fannou, Guy Clarence Semassou, Kouamy Victorin Chegnimonhan, Gbodja Sonoudouto, Gérard Degan, Emile Adjibadé Sanya, André Fanou, Germain Houndekpondji

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 66-75
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730555

Groundnut shelling is one of the important operations in the peanut harvesting process. Indeed, one of the major constraints in the groundnut production process in developing countries is the tedious task of shelling. It is with the aim of removing this constraint that a prototype groundnut sheller was produced including the dimensioning and design of all the constituent parts. The main components of the stripper are: The frame, the threshing machine, the concave, the fan and the motor. The nominal production capacity of the machine is 378 tons per year and per season with an electric power of 1.6 HP. The cost of the machine is US$ 475, affordable for small local producers. Finally, an economic profitability study of the machine was carried out and presented. It reveals a minimum production of 2.2 tons per year and per season to pay back the initial investment cost of the acquisition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fish By-product Meal Inclusion in Broiler Feeds on Growth Performance

Ashenafi Assefa Adugna, Keredin Mohammed Habib, Ojuni Odier, Tsigabu Gebresilase

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 76-81
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730556

Background: The presence of inadequate and inconsistent feeds to the chicken resulted in lower performance of chick production in Ethiopia. Broilers are meat type chickens with fast income generation and depend on high quality feed. Feed costs alone currently account for over 65-70% of poultry production in third world countries, there has been recent interest in determining the feeding value of different locally available alternative feeding resources. As fish is generally appreciated as one of the healthiest and cheapest source of protein and it is available in Gambella water bodies, this research is intended to investigate the effects of fish by-product inclusion in broiler feeds on growth performance. Two hundred and forty (240) day old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were reared and assigned to four treatments for 42 days. Treatment one was the control without fish by-product meal, treatment 2 contained 2% fish by-product meal, treatment 3 contained 3% fish by-product meal and treatment 4 contained 5% fish by-product meal. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 20 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Parameters measured for the experiment were the initial body weight, final weight, daily feed intake while weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Data were analyzed using General linear model procedure of statistical analysis software (SAS) version 9.2.

Results: This study indicated that the average daily feed intake of broiler significantly increased (P<0.05) in 3 and 5% fish by-product meal level to the diets during 11-20 days of age. At the age of 32 – 42 days the average body weight and daily feed intake at the age of 21-32 days were significantly (P<0.05) increased in 3 and 5% fish by-product meal level compared to control and 2% fishmeal diet.

Conclusion: This study revealed that inclusion of fish by-product meal in the diet improved the performance of broiler. To utilize and exploit the potential of fish by-product meal as broiler feed in Gambella region, farmers should get training on preparation and utilization of fish by product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potentials of Cultivated Varieties and Wild Yam Seeds as Efficient Alternative Plant Genetic Resources for Resistant Genotypes against Yam Mosaic Virus (YMV) in Togo

Kwasi Dzola Ayisah, Gbénonchi Mawussi, Larounga Tchaniley, Mawuli Kossivi Aziadekey

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 82-93
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730557

In Togo, cultivated yams are severely infected by Yam Mosaic Virus (YMV). In order to find an efficient method for researching genotypes resistant to the virus, this study aims to screen plants obtained from yam seeds. As such, 640 yam seedlings were produced from seeds collected on 20 plants (accessions) of wild yams, D. praehensilis (10) and D. abyssinica (10) and on 12 plants of the complex D. cayenensis-rotundata. The yam seeds were collected during prospections carried out in october 2018, covering 14 districts in Central and Plateaux regions of Togo. Then, 20 yam seedlings (ten plants in two replicates) per accession, were inoculated with YMV isolate M9-30 using mechanical inoculation. Leaf samples taken from the inoculated seedlings, were analyzed by RT-PCR to detect the YMV, using QiAgen one step RT-PCR Kit and a pair of primers YMV1 & YMV2 (196 pb) . Data was analyzed using GenStat 12.1 and SPSS 20.  Following the observations and molecular analyzes, it appears that 46.5% of the seedlings inoculated in D. praehensilis, were resistant, while 27.08% of resistant plants and 0.47% of tolerant plants were obtained in  D. cayenensis-rotundata  complex and 17% resistant plants obtained in D. abyssinica. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between among accessions of D. praehensilis and those of D. abyssinica at P≤0.05. The high rate of 30% of resistant plants provided in total, and specifically, the results obtained in D. cayenensis-rotundata compared to those provided in 2012 using clonal selection, i.e. 8.33%, suggest that, screening of seedlings from yam seeds, is efficient and could be used for researching yam genotypes resistant to YMV. Results of D. abyssinica and of some accessions of D. cayenensis-rotundata, would be influenced by the proximity of other yam species. The yam seeds production environment would, therefore, be an important factor to take into account.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of the Average Wind Speed in the Municipaly of Teresina-PI

Raimundo Mainar de Medeiros, Moacyr Cunha Filho, Manoel Vieira de França, Romildo Morant de Holanda, Victor Casimiro Piscoya, Jucarlos Rufino de Freitas, Thaísa Oliveira Folha Piscoya, Ana Luiza Xavier Cunha, Guilherme Rocha Moreira, Maria Lindomarcia Leonardo da Costa, Dayane de Souza Lima, Jamilie Brito de Castro, Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 94-101
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730558

The winds are of fundamental importance in the terrestrial dynamics; Represent one of the main elements influencing various climate phenomena such as soil erosion, pollutant dispersion, seed transport and generation of wind energy. The characterization of the wind at any point of the atmosphere takes two parameters: Speed and direction, which are instantaneous quantities because they depend on conditions such as atmospheric pressure gradient originating displacement of air masses at different temperatures. Accurate information on wind speed is important as it plays a significant role in the application efficiency. Considering the importance of understanding the behavior of the wind, this work, was aimed to characterize the average wind speeds for the city of Teresina, located in the state of Piauí, Brazil. We used 1976 to 2019 data on wind speed of 10 meters height obtained fromthe records of the conventional meteorological station of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The highest wind speed is in July to November with speed ranging from 1.6 to 1.8 m/s and the lowest wind speeds are centered in the months from December to April with oscillation 1.3 to 1.5 m.s-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organoleptic Approach of Drinks Formulations from Coffee and Cocoa Extracts

Sidibe Daouda, Coulibaly Adama, Konan N'Guessan Ysidor, Kadjane Assoua Désiré, Mahan Makado Romuald, Biego Godi Henri Marius

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 102-112
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730559

Aims: The current work evaluates some organoleptic characteristics of various formulations from diluted coffee and cocoa extracts.

Study Design: Raw extract produced from Cocoa and Coffee beans, Diluted Extract Formulations processed, and Organoleptic Analyses performed for Sensory profile and Sensory acceptance of the formulations.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences from Felix Houphouët-Boigny University in Abidjan, between March 2019 and July 2019.

Methodology: Six (6) diluted formulations of coffee extracts (dilutions 1/5, 1/10, and 1/20) and cocoa extracts (dilutions 1/3, 1/5, and 1/8) were prepared using variable amounts of concentrated raw coffee and cocoa extracts and mineral water. The acceptance of these formulations by consumers was thus probed, just as the sensory perception index of their appearance (brown), texture (turbidity), and flavor (sweet, acid, bitter). The sensory assessment was achieved from taster's panels.

Results: The coffee extract dilutions 1/5 to 1/20 were filled invarious coffee aroma (2.58/7 to 3.25/7) and sweetness (0.92/7 to 1.33/7). But the coffee dilution 1/20 has enjoyed 50% tasters and highlighted light brown appearance (2.58/7) and light acid flavor and bitterness (1.92/7 and 2.25/7). The cocoa extract dilutions 1/3, 1/5 and 1/8 exhibited similar and light sweetness of 1/7 to 1.33/7. However, the dilution 1/8 was accepted by 48.33% panellists. It was rated with lightest brown appearance (3.25/7), cocoa aroma (2.67/7), and bitterness (3.08/7), and also moderate acid flavor (2.67/7).

Conclusion: Diluted extract formulations of coffee 3 (dilution 1/20) and cocoa 3 (dilution 1/8) could be used for the formulation of new drinks products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fluctuations in Insolation during 1962 - 2019 for Municipalities in Pernambuco, Brazil

Raimundo Mainar de Medeiros, Moacyr Cunha Filho, Manoel Vieira de França, Romildo Morant de Holanda, Victor Casimiro Piscoya, João Silva Rocha, Thaísa Oliveira Folha Piscoya, Ana Luiza Xavier Cunha, Guilherme Rocha Moreira, Maria Lindomarcia Leonardo da Costa, Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 113-123
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730560

This study evaluates the insolation calculations and their analysis soon after plotting their respective local historical average graph from 1962 to 2019 for some municipalities in Pernambucana. Monthly and annual insolation data for the study period was obtained from the National Institute of Meteorology.After homogenization, data consistency and failure filling of each series, the spatial and temporal insolation densities were performed for municipalities like Arcoverde, Cabrobó, Garanhuns, Ouricuri, Petrolina, Recife, Surubim and Triunfo. The average and its historical average were calculated and appropriate analysis was performed. The spatial distribution of the monthly insolation data showed great variability for the months studied, ranging from approximately 3 to 4 hours. The median values ​​ most likely occured during the months for the eight municipalities under study. The municipality of Garanhuns presented higher insolation values ​​than Petrolina. Comparing the values ​​obtained in this study with the values ​​of the Solarimetric Atlas of Brazil, indicated a good similarity of the recorded data.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inoculation Methods and Doses and Relationship with the Vegetative and Reproductive Development of Soybeans

David Peres da Rosa, Junior Verardi, Junior Santana Girardi, Paulo Henrique Conte, Roger Toscan Spagnolo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 124-132
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730561

This study aimed to evaluate and compare the method of in-furrow inoculant application with the other existing methods, as well as, in different doses in the development of soybean culture. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a two-factorial scheme (4 x 3), with four inoculation methods, without inoculation (control), by seed, in-furrow and leaf spray, with three doses, 100, 200 and 400%. Leaf and root dry mass, number of nodules, pods per plant, number of seeds per vegetables, height, knots per plant, productivity, root resistance and average chlorophyll content were measured. The combination of factors did not affect plant height, leaf dry matter, root resistance, grains and pods per plant, plant per knot and weight of 100 seeds, affecting only other parameters, in which the largest root dry matter occurred in in-furrow inoculation in the dose of 400%, with 3.82 g plant-1, against 3.43 g plant-1 in the by seed method in the same dose. In the in-furrow application at the 100% dose, the highest number of grains pod-1 occurred, with 3.42 grains pod-1, combined with an increase in pods plants-1, and a 19% increase in productivity relative to the control, and 9.5% at the third increase, in the spray. Co-inoculation methods affect the development of soybeans, and the method that provided the greatest of soybean development was by in-furrow.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Afforestation of Arabica Coffee on the Physical and Sensorial Quality of the Bean

I. I. de M. Souza, E. da S. Araújo, M. E. P. C. Jaeggi, J. B. P. Simão, J. R. C. Rouws, M. N. Souza

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 133-143
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i730562

Brazil is a world leader in coffee production, however, the quality of the grain differs between the different production systems, which influences the price paid for the product in the national and international market.

Aims: Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the influence of Arabica coffee afforestation on the physical and sensorial quality of the bean.

Methodology: The study was carried out in the Caparaó region, which involves part of the Espírito Santo state region and another part of the Minas Gerais state, Brazil. For the experiment, nine properties with of coffee. Catuaí vermelho IAC-44 was cultivated in two different situations: a plot of land on the full sole and another of wooded land. In each property, two samples were collected, one per area, representing the coffee in full sun and the other the wooded coffee, and in one of the properties samples were collected in two different areas of wooded coffee. Thus, in total, nine samples of crops in full sun and 10 of forest crops with different species were used, such as cedar, eucalyptus, palm heart, polyculture (characterized by shading with species of fruit and wood) and bananas. The samples consisted of seven liters of cherry coffee, selectively harvested, in the middle third of 20 randomly chosen plants.

Results: The results showed that the quality of the coffee, physical and sensorial, is influenced by the cultivation system (wooded and in full sun), the degree of influence depends on the type of companion plant.

Conclusion: Systems in forest crops with cedar and eucalyptus showed the least number of defects in raw beans and the highest proportion of flat beans (% CG). Treatment of wooded coffee with polyculture showed a higher percentage of coarse mocha (% MG). The cultivation of forested coffee with polyculture has an even better sensory quality, compared to the other treatments studied.