Open Access Original Research Article

Comparing the Growth Performance and Yield Parameters of Two Cowpea Varieties (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) under Different Sowing Densities

Gore Bi Boh Nestor, Koffi Ahébé Marie Hélène, Kadio Gnigouan Anzara, Akaffou Doffou Sélastique

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830563

Cowpea is a food legume very popular for its seeds and leaves in Côte d’Ivoire. This plant constitutes a significant source of financial income for vulnerable populations in rural areas. However, it production remains low in the growing areas because of the traditional practice of this food. In other words, the cultivation technique adopted for this plant is not appropriate, in particular the sowing density. To solve this problem, research work has been undertaken in 2019 and 2020 with the aim of improving the production of this crop. The first year consisted of identifying the most productive variety in a complete random arrangement with three replicates. During the second, the trials concerned the optimization of the production of this variety by controlling the seed density. For this purpose, the sowing was carried out according to three sowing densities: low density (40.000 plants/ha), middle density (134.444 plants/ha) and high density (280.000 plants/ha) in a complete random device with three repetitions. The parameters collected from sowing to harvest and after harvest were subjected to statistical analysis. Thus, it emerges from this analysis that the creeping variety recorded the best values of the growth parameters. This variety could be used as fodder for animal feed. For variables related to production, the highest values were obtained with the upright variety. The yield of this variety is doubled when cultivated at low density.  Thus, for the financial and food empowerment of cowpea producers, they will have to take an interest in the upright variety and cultivate it in low density.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Haematology and Carcass Indices of Weaned Grass-Cutters Fed Diet Containing Snail Shell

Oladele-Bukola, M. O., Popoola, Y. A., Banjoko, O. J., Fayenuwo, O. J., Durotoye, E. S., Owosibo, A. O., Omole, A. J.

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 8-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830564

Aims: Bone meal and oyster shell are good source of calcium in the diet of livestock but they are expensive hence there is need to look for another source. Snail shell is rich in calcium and could be used to replace other sources of calcium hence the study was designed to determine the effect of inclusion of snail shell (SS) in the diet of grass-cutters on dressing percentage, meat qualities, haematological and serum biochemical indices. 

Experimental Design: Completely randomized design was used for the study

Place and Duration  of the Study: The study was conducted in the Institute of Agriculture Research and Training, Ibadan, Nigeria for a period of twelve weeks

Methodology: A total of thirty six weaned grass-cutters of mixed sexes of mean weight 523.45±3.6g were used. Four diets were formulated to contain SS at 0% (SS1) as Control, 50% (SS 2), 75% (SS 3) and 100% (SS 4) as replacement for oyster shell in the diet of grass-cutters. Each dietary treatment was replicated thrice with 3 grass-cutters per replicate in a. Data were collected on dressing percentage, heamoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, blood calcium and phosphorus etc.

Results: The results of the carcass analysis showed that the dressing percentage was not significantly influenced by substituting oyster shell with snail shell in the diet (P>0.05). The results of Haematological and Biochemical indices indicated that the mean red blood corpuscles of the grasscutters were not significantly different from one another and varied between 5.31 and 5.44 106/µ1 (P>0.05). The mean haemoglobin was not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments, the values varied between 12.23 and 12.57g/dl respectively. The mean globulin, calcium and phosphorus levels of the grass-cutters were not significantly influenced by substituting oyster shell with snail shell.

Conclusion: It could be therefore, concluded that carcass qualities and blood indices were not significantly influenced by the inclusion of varying levels of snails shell as partial or total replacement for Oyster shell in the diet of weaned grass-cutter, hence snail shell could be used as substitute for Oyster shell.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Planting Distance and Poultry Manure on Performance of Utasi (Gongronema latifolium)

O. A. Agba

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 24-36
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830567

Gongronema latifolium (Benth) commonly call ‘ Utasi”, or “Arokeke” in local Nigerian languages (Igbo and yoruba) names belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae is a neglected vegetable in Nigeria. The plant has high economic importance, the leaves, stem and roots are very useful for food, medicine and other domestic purposes. Studies were conducted to determine effects of poultry manure and planting distance on the growth and yield of utasi (Gongronema latifolium) in a tropical utisol of the Cross River University of Technology, Department of Agronomy ,Faculty of Agriculture, Obubra, Cross River state, Nigeria in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a 4 x 5 factorial laid out in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were 4 planting distances of 100 X 40, 100 X 60, 100 X 80 and 100 X 100cm and five rates of poultry manure at 0,1.0, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5. They were 20 treatments combination replicated three times. Data collected on growth and yield parameters were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Results showed that wider intra row planting distance gave higher number of leaves, branches and dry matter of plant fractions than closer row planting distance. The application of poultry manure significantly (p<0.05) increased plant height, the number of leaves and branches per plant . Poultry manure rate of 4.5 t/ha recorded the highest leaf area index , number of leaves per plant (36.2) and (38.4) at 50% anthesis in 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons respectively. The was significant interaction between poultry manure and planting distance. The highest Gongronema latifolium fresh leaves yield at 21 WAP (151.37g in 2017 and 153.42g in 2018) and dry leaf yield (60.55 g in 2017, and 61.28 g in 2018 ) yield per plant were obtained in wider intra row planting distance of 100 x 100cm that received 3.5 t/ha, poultry manure at 21 weeks after planting, while the closer inter row planting distance of 100 x 40cm that received 3.5 t/ha poultry manure produced the highest fresh leaves yield of (3.512 t/ha in 2018 and 3.613 t/ha in 2019 ) and dry leaf yield of ( 0.788 t/ha in 2017 and 0.986 t/ha in 2018) yield per hectare in both cropping seasons (2017 and 2018).Farmers are advice to cultivate Utasi ( Gongronema latifolium ) at panting distance of 100 x 40 cm with the application of 3.5t/ha poultry manure for optimum growth and yield in an utisol of tropical agro ecological zone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mulch Cover Management for Improving Weed Control in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Production

. Shilpa, Y. R. Shukla, Priyanka Bijalwan, Kuldeep S. Thakur

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 37-43
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830568

In this study we evaluated the effects of two different types of mulches (black mulch, silver/black) on weed control and yield in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production. Field studies were carried out during 2017-2018 and 2018-2019. The treatments consisted in the study were planting methods (raised bed/flat bed), polythene mulching applications (black mulch, silver/black and unmulched plots) and training systems (two stem and three stem). Tomato seedlings were transplanted in the plots, where mulch application had already been done prior transplanting.The results indicated thatmarketable tomato yield from the treatments consisting of black mulch, was higher compared to the other unmulched plots for both the years of study. In unmulched plots there was reduction of tomato yield. Mulch treatments reduced the number of weeds, weed intensity, and above ground biomass (fresh weight and dry weight of weeds) as compared to control plots. At tomato harvest weeds were well suppressed by black mulch above the entire where black mulches have been used. In mulch plots there was consistent reduction in weed intensity also. The black mulch seems to be a suitable for assuring an effective weed suppression and high yield in tomato grown in raised beds compared to the plants grown on flat beds without using any mulch material.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Leaf Extract of Pawpaw (Carica papaya (L.)) in the Control of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) in Garden Egg (Solanum melongena (L.))

I. Umar, M. B. Aji, A. Haruna

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 44-49
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830569

The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica is one of the most important soil borne pathogen affecting Garden eggplant in Nigeria. The study was conducted in the Screen house of Department of Crop Protection, Modibbo Adama University of Technology in 2013 to evaluate the effect of (Pawpaw) Carica papaya leaf powder for the control of root-knot nematode M. javanica on Garden egg. The experiment consisted of five treatments replicated three times in a Completely Randomized Design in the screen house. C. papaya powder at different levels 50 g, 40 g, 30 g, 20 g and control which received no treatment were incorporated into fifteen  (15) separate pots of 20cm diameter containing 4 kg sterilized soil. Data collected on plant height (cm), number of leaves, fresh shoot weight (g), fresh root weight, dry root weight (g), gall index and final nematode population. The result indicated that Garden eggplant amended with 50 g C. papaya recorded higher growth parameters, plant height (33.75 cm), number of leaves (29.00), fresh shoot weight (145.40 g), gall index (1.33) and the least final nematode population (160.50), whereas the control recorded the least growth parameters, plant height (10.20cm), number of leaves (9.33), fresh shoot weight (9.76 g) and highest gall index (5.0) and final nematode population (1063.87). It can then concluded that Carica papaya powder when used as an amendment was effective in controlling M. javanica in garden egg under screenhouse and has the potential for use as a nematicide in the future. This study recommends that C. papaya leaf powder should be put to field trials to ascertain its efficacy in controlling M. javanica on garden egg.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining Appropriate Fertilizer Scheme for Maize and Sorghum Cultivation in the Sahel Agroecological Zone of Cameroon

Nono Carine Temegne, Francis Ajebesone Ngome, Christopher Suh, Alphonse Youri, Simon Bjakba Basga

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 50-58
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830570

The objective of this study was to investigate appropriate fertilization schemes to improve the production of maize and sorghum in the Sahel agroecological zone of Cameroon. The experiment was carried out in 2018 at IRAD (Institute of Agricultural Research for Development) Kismatari experimental field. The experimental setup was a complete randomized block design in four replicates and four treatments for each crop. For maize, treatments were: T1 (No input), T2 (100 kg NPK + 100 kg Urea.ha-1), T3 (150 kg NPK + 150 kg Urea.ha-1), and T4 (200 kg NPK + 200 kg Urea.ha-1). For sorghum, treatments were: T1 (No input), T2 (50 kg NPK + 50 kg Urea.ha-1), T3 (100 kg NPK + 100 kg Urea.ha-1), and T4 (150 kg NPK + 150 kg Urea.ha-1). All fertilizer treatments NPK and urea were applied to both crops respectively at 3 and 5 weeks after sowing. Nine weeks after sowing, the plant height was highest at T3, following by T2 and T4 for the two crops. The treatment T1 exhibited the lowest grain yield while T2 and T3 showed intermediate grain yield. The treatment T4 produced the highest biomass, number of ears.plant-1, and grain yield (maize: 3.3 t. ha-1, sorghum: 2.9 t.ha-1) for the two crops and thus appears to be the most appropriate fertilizer recommendation for maize and sorghum production in the Sahel zone. However, costs-benefits studies for the use of fertilizer NPK and urea are warranted to facilitate adoption by farmers in the agroecological zone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Crop Rotation and Soil Fertility Management Strategies on Water Use Efficiency of Wheat in a Changing Climate in Njoro Sub-County in Kenya

P. A. Ooro, R. J. Birech, J. N. Malinga, E. Thuranira, C. Digo, R. Taiy

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 59-76
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830572

Aims: The study determined the effect of soil fertility management (inorganic and organic N sources) and short term crop rotation (cereal – legumes cropping systems) on water use efficiency of wheat in high potential areas.

Study Design: A randomized complete block design was used with split-split-plot arrangement replicated three times. Three factors evaluated included water harvesting (WH), crop rotation (CR) and soil fertility management (SFM). The data obtained were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Genstat statistical package while the mean separation was performed using least significance differences (P =.05).

Place and Duration of Study: The trial was conducted at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) fields based in Njoro for three years between 2014 and 2016 during rainy seasons.

Methodology: Water harvesting was evaluated at consisted of flat beds (WH1) and tied ridges (WH2), crop rotation was tested at four levels comprising of Wheat- Dolichos lablab (Lablab purpureum)-Wheat- L. purpureum (CR1); Wheat-Greenpea (P. sativum) –Wheat (Triticum aestivum L)- P. sativum (CR2); T. aestivum L-potato- P. sativum –Potato (Solanum tuberosum) (CR3); and Wheat-Wheat-Wheat-Wheat) (CR4). Six different soil fertility management (SFM) strategies evaluated included SFM1 = untreated control; SFM2 = Farm Yard Manure at 5 t ha-1; SFM3 = Green manure (L.eucaena triachandra) at 2.5 mt ha-1; SFM4 = Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) at 25 kg N ha-1; SFM5 = Calcuim Ammonium Nitrate at 50 kg N ha-1; and SFM6 = Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) at 75 kg N ha-1. The Water harvesting (WH) and SFM were fixed on the same plot at the form and rate for the entire period of the study while crops were rotated between seasons. Water use efficiency was derived as a ratio of water use and grain yield and biomass.

Results: Results revealed significant (P =.05) effect of crop rotation and soil fertility management on water use efficiency. However, water harvesting did not influence. While interaction of CR and SFM significantly (P =.05) influenced WUE and grain yield. Significant influence was also observed on WUE due to an interaction between WH and SFM. Dolichos lablab (L. purpureum) and green pea as pre-crops resulted in higher yield than when potato was the pre-crop and continuous wheat.  Use of inorganic N fertilizer with L. purpureum as a pre-crop resulted in higher grain yield than all other soil fertility management strategies evaluated. In conclusion, the use of green pea as a pre-crop during the short rain followed by wheat in long rains is a beneficial crop rotation systems and a climate smart strategy. In addition, organic N sources should be recommended for sustainable wheat production because it will positively influence the accumulation and slow release of soil moisture for increased water use efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Yields of Selected Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L) Varieties in a Humid Environment

A. I. Nwonuala, L. D. Gbaraneh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 77-84
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830573

This study is aimed to evaluate the yield performance of 12 varieties of upland rice and to assess the agronomic traits that contribute to yield performance of these varieties. A 2-year field experiment was conducted in the Teaching and Research Farm of the Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The twelve varieties which made up the twelve treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The experimental site was loamy sand, medium acidic with the soil pH reduced in the second cropping season (pH 4.9 in 2012; and pH 4.8 in 2013). The varieties differed significantly amongst themselves in panicle weight, number of fertile spikelets, grain length/breath ratio, 1000 grain weight in 2012 and 2013 planting and grain yield in 2012 planting season. The ITA 321 had the highest yield of 10300.33 kg/ha in 2012 and 10533.33 kg/ha in 2013 followed by NERICA 1 having 9066.67 kg/ha (2012) and 9133.33 kg/ha (2013). The NERICA 2,3,4,5 and 6 also belonged to the high yielding group while APO, Vandana,  IR68 and ITA 150 recorded lower yields. Results of this evaluation have shown that ITA 321 and NERICA 1 can be grown in the tropical rainforest zone for paddy grain yield rather than ITA 150 which are already in use in this agro-ecological zone. They are recommended also for adoption and use in rice production instead of the popular ITA 150.

Open Access Original Research Article

Storage of Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels. Seeds

J. M. Asomaning

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 85-94
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830574

Teminalia superba is one of the species receiving priority under the on-going Forest Investment Programme in Ghana. A more comprehensive look at the response of the seeds to storage is therefore important for their use in afforestation, reforestation activities, breeding programmes and long term conservation.  Seeds of T. superba were harvested in October, 2016 from Amantia in the Ashanti Region of Ghana and immediately processed. Drawn seed samples were dried over silica gel to reduce seed moisture content to 10% and 5% respectively. Moisture content of seeds was determined by drying in an oven at 103° C for 17 hours.  Seeds were placed in two types of storage containers namely, hermetic glass bottles and plastic bottles. These were placed at three different temperature conditions namely; ambient temperature (28-32°C), refrigerator temperature (4-5°C) and freezing temperature (-10°C) and stored for a period of 24 months with the conduction of germination tests every two months at the laboratory and plant house of the Forestry Research Institute of Ghana. Germination tests were conducted in a medium of heat sterilized river sand at the plant house with ambient temperature of 27-33°C. The statistical design used in the investigation was a completely randomized design in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial (moisture levels × storage containers × storage temperatures). Storage of seeds in hermetic glass bottles was found to have maintained seeds at a higher viability level than storage in plastic bottles. Both freezing and refrigeration temperatures were found to be ideal storage conditions.  Storage at 5% moisture content resulted in higher viability of seeds. The electrical conductivity test was found to be an efficient test for distinguishing good quality seeds from poor seeds of the species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Aromatic Volatiles in Young, Recently Matured, Matured and Old Leaves of Ginger (Zingiber officinales) by Electronic Nose

Ramasamy Ravi, . Sunil, Dharma Pitchay

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 95-111
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830575

Aims: Ginger aromatic volatiles generally extracted and quantified by various laboratory techniques analysis and instruments. Possibility of few highly volatiles loss coupled with the formation of different compounds during various extraction process due to changes in the natural chemical profiles of the ginger tissue samples. Thus, a study was carried out to explore and quantify the distribution of various natural volatiles present in young, recently matured, matured and old leaves of ginger.

Study Design: Ginger seedlings and plants were grown in 100% biochar substrate and fertigated with 50 mg.L-1 of 20% N:4.3% P:16.6% K water soluble fertilizer. Five months old ginger plant leaves were harvested and washed with distilled water and separated by various physiological leaf stages.

Place and Duration of Study: Tennessee State University, Nashville, USA.

Methodology: Aromatic volatiles were analyzed and quantified by using Alpha Soft V14 electronic nose. Volatiles with more than 1% concentration by fresh mass were 20, 21, 20, and 29 in young, recently matured, matured and old leaves respectively.

Results: Young, recently matured, matured and old leaves of ginger showed major volatiles  like benzaldehyde, 1, 8- cineole, myrcene, butane-2, 3-dione, 1 S-α- pinene, Z-3-Hexen-1-ol acetate, butanol and 1-Propanal, 2-methyl- volatiles were identified. A significant variation in the composition, quantity and distribution of volatiles was found across the various leaf tissue samples of ginger.

Conclusion: The distribution of aromatic volatiles in this study would provide better insight and guidance to the consumers for maximum utilization ginger plant tissues beside rhizome; as a source of aromatic volatiles. Utilization of other plant tissues especially could be considered as an important byproduct will definitely contribute to the sustainability of ginger production and marketing in the near future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating Heritability and Genetic Advance in Bambara Groundnut

O. A. T. Namo, A. Damfami

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 112-121
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830577

Aim: Bambara groundnut compares favourably with cowpea in terms of nutritional and economic values. The crop is, however, characterised by variable and unpredictable yields. Recently, there has been growing interest in the potential of the crop to contribute to food security in the sub-Sahara Africa. Therefore, there is the need for increased research attention, especially in the aspect of yield improvement. The selection of a superior genotype in a breeding programme depends on the amount of genetic variability present and the extent to which the characters are inherited and advanced. This study was aimed to estimate heritability and genetic advance in the Bambara groundnut.

Place and Duration of the Study: The experiment was carried out in Kuru, Plateau State, Nigeria, during the rainy season between June and October 2018.

Methodology: Nine genotypes of Bambara groundnut were laid out in the field using the randomised complete block design in five replicates. Genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, environmental variance, genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and genetic advance as percent of  population mean were computed from analysis of variance tables using the respective mean squares for each of the parameters studied.

Results: Results of the study showed significant differences amongst genotypes for emergence rate, plant height, number of leaves and dry matter content. The coefficient of variability ranged from 7.56 % for plant height to 45.95 % for total grain yield. The phenotypic coefficient of variability was generally higher than the genotypic and environmental coefficients of variability for all the traits studied. Low heritability estimates were observed for number of days to onset of flowering, number of days to 50 % flowering, leaf area index, harvest index, stand count, pods per plant, shelling %, seeds per pod, dry matter content and total grain yield.  Moderate heritability estimates were observed for plant height, leaf number per plant and net assimilation rate. High estimates of heritability were observed for emergence rate and relative growth rate. The genetic  advance as percent  of  population mean ( GAM) was low for plant height,  days to onset of flowering and 50 % flowering, harvest index, pods per plant, shelling  %, 100-seed weight  and dry matter content. GAM was high for emergence rate, leaf number per plant, leaf area index, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, seed number per pod and total grain yield.

Conclusion: The coefficient of variability was generally high for many of the attributes studied. Similarly, the phenotypic coefficient of variability was higher than the environmental and genotypic coefficients of variability for all the attributes studied. Heritability estimates were high for emergence rate and relative growth rate but moderate for plant height, number of leaves per plant and net assimilation rate. Genetic advance as percent of population mean was high for emergence rate, number of leaves per plant, leaf area index, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, number of seeds per pod and total grain yield, suggesting the involvement of both additive and non-additive genes in the expression of these characters. Therefore, these traits can be considered as major selection indices in the improvement of the Bambara groundnut in the Jos-Plateau environment.   

Open Access Original Research Article

Selection of Alternaria Fungi Control Treatments in a Citrus Grove through the Lens of the Electre Technique: A Case Study in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

Juan Manuel Izar- Landeta, Raul Hernandez- Molinar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 122-130
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830578

Aims: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of five control treatments (pesticides) for an Alternaria fungi variety in a citrus grove in Mexico.

Study Design: Field applications of pesticides were used to combat an infestation of the Alternaria fungus.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study took place in an orange citrus grove in Ciudad Fernandez, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, from October 2018 to August 2019.

Methodology: Field trials with five control treatments were applied to randomly selected rows of infected orange trees. The assessment of treatments was carried out using the multi-criteria decision method (MCDM) known as ELECTRE with six evaluation criteria: cost, effectiveness, toxicity (e.g., environmental impact), difficulty of preparation, ease of application, and expiration date.

Results: The results reveal that the best option to control the fungus of the Alternaria is the use of a biological product based on microorganisms, instead of standard options such as agrochemicals, or synthetic preparations known as “broths.” A sensitivity analysis reveals that the result may be affected by changing the weight of the criteria.

Conclusion: The best treatment is the biological product because it is the most effective treatment to control the fungi plague, it is not toxic or expensive, and it does not have a measurable impact on the environment. However, the results are sensitive to changes in the weight of the criteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Water Stress on Crop Yield and Water Productivity of Drip-irrigated Pepper (Capsicum Spp.) in Southwest Nigeria

Samuel D. Oluwagbayide, Muyiwa A. Okusanya, Anthony A. Amori, Joshua O. Akintade

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 131-143
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830579

This research presents the effects of water stress on crop yield and water productivity of two local varieties of pepper (Capsicum spp.) under various drip irrigation regimes in Southwest Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was conducted during the 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering of Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Nigeria.

The experiment was a 2 x 4 factorial experiments arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two varieties of pepper (Capsicum chinense and Capsicum frutescens) and four drip irrigation regimes: 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET100, 75, 50, 25) and replicated four times. The experiment was repeated in the second year late season. Water was applied from 3 weeks after transplanting (WAT) after which growth parameters, crop water productivity and crop yield were monitored and subjected to statistical analyses.

The water productivity, crop yield and other crop growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, fruit length and weight were higher during the two seasons for the two pepper varieties under ET100 and ET75 irrigation regimes compared with ET50 and ET25 respectively. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the growth parameters in all the treatments. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the water productivity components for ET100 and ET75 irrigation regimes. The best water productivity was observed for the ET75 drip irrigation regime.

Therefore, the ET75 regime was recommended for the two pepper varieties to ensure sustainable cultivation and production of the two varieties in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Maize Harvester for Developing Countries

Julus H. Vodounnou, Emmanuel A. Ajav, Gontrand C. Bagan, Victorin K. Chegnimonhan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 144-156
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830580

A small-scale maize harvester was designed and fabricated for developing countries and is composed of a harvester header, a chain conveyor, a drive power unit and a five-wheel tricycle. Fabrication of components was made and assembling of the devices on the tricycle was done. The performance evaluation of the small-scale maize harvester was done at 15% kernels moisture content (wet basis). Three rotational speeds of the engine, 1347, 1521 and 1937 rpm were used, while the forward velocity of the harvester was kept at an average of 0.617 The testing experiment revealed significant effect of physical properties of maize (p<0,05). The highest machine capacity was obtained at 0.05, while the highest driving efficiency was 97.30% and the highest picking and conveying efficiencies were 84.11% and 98.21%, respectively. However, it was observed that the machine noise level decreased with increase in engine speed. Also, the engine speed affected both picking and conveying efficiencies. The designed machine is found suitable for most smallholder farms.

Open Access Review Article

Bio-efficacy of Pre-emergent Herbicides for Weed Control in Maize: A Review on Weed Dynamics Evaluation

Sadaf Iqbal, Sheikh Tahir, Anchal Dass, M. A. Bhat, Zahida Rashid

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 13-23
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i830565

Maize has high yield potential due to its C4 metabolism and physiological characteristics; however, the excessive occurrence of weeds in maize field limits the full expression of the yield potential of this crop. Weeds constitute one of the major economically important problems for maize growers and if not uncontrolled, it can reduce its yield up to 86 per cent. The magnitude of losses largely depends upon the composition of weed flora, period of crop-weed competition and its intensity. In order to realize the yield potential of maize, weed management becomes indispensable. Describing the various aspects of the topic, especially the influence of using pre-emergent use of herbicides on associated weeds revealed that the use of atrazine and pendimetheline are highly important component of today’s weed management systems for maize with higher weed control efficiency, lowest weed density and dry weight. Atrazin @ 1.2 kg active ingredient per ha and pendimmethline @ 1.0 a.i. kg per ha are important in reducing weed emergence in early growth stages of maize.