Open Access Original Research Article

Genotype x Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] in Cameroon

Dabandata Célestin, Ngalle Hermine Bille, Nsimi Mva Armand, Ndiang Zenabou, Likeng L. I. Ngue Bénoit- Constant, Joseph Martin Bell

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930582

A study was conducted to assess genotype x environment interaction and also to determine stability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) genotypes for nine traits in Cameroon. Eight okra genotypes (including five parents of Cameroon and three exotics) were evaluated across three different locations (Dibang, Yagoua and Yaounde) using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Each plot consisted of three rows of six plants each. Genotype x environment interaction has been evaluated using SAS Software.  There was considerable variation for all traits studied among both genotypes and environments. Five different methods of stability analysis have been used for the comparison of the genotypes and also to determine the most suitable stability parameter of okra. The stability in relation to the characters is independent of the genotypes. A total correspondence (r=1) exist between the general mean and the Pi performance for characters such as 50 % flowering and the fruit peduncle length. For, the procedure of Lin and Binns appeared to be more of a genotype performance measure, rather than a stability measure. The Wricke’s and Shukla’s procedures of stability statistic showed the highest significant positive correlation (P<0.01) with the majority of the studied character. That makes these procedures equivalent for ranking purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Thermal Power Pollution on Livestock: A Multivariate Analytical Interpretation from Confronting Social Ecology

S. K. Acharya, Sk Wasaful Quader, Arindam Ghosh, Monirul Haque, Kabita Mondal, Amitava Biswas

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930583

Thermal power stations are now considered as the foremost global concern as these are responsible to produce detrimental effects on the environment. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impact so proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. In this study, the perception of certain(60)farmers in 5 villages of Kolaghat block of Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India are recorded and analyzed on the basis of their knowledge and views about thermal power, environment and about their individual enterprises. There are 10 independent variables-ages (x1), education (x2), family Member (x3), income (x4), homestead land (x5), total Land (x6), land under Boroj (x7), input cost (x8), and livestock number (x9), distance of villages from Kolaghat Thermal Power Station (x10) and 1 dependable variables- 1) perceived impacts of Kolaghat Thermal Power Station on livestock(y3).It has been found that toxic elements and fly ash from Kolaghat Thermal Power Station have several consequences upon local environment, human, agriculture and livestock. It has also revealed that Kolaghat Thermal Power Station hampers the social ecology of the local areas. The study has further suggested several recommendations to cope with adverse environmental and ecological condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Characterization and Evaluation of Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) Genotypes in Western Tigray, Ethiopia

Yirga Belay Kindeya, Dargie Girmay, Alem Atsbiha, Asefa Abadi, Asefa Abadi, Weres Negash, Gebremedhin Gebregergies, Zerabruk Gebremedhn

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 25-37
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930584

The experiment was conducted to characterize and evaluate mung bean accessions, to identify diseases, shattering, lodging resistant and suitable for combine harvesting. The accessions sown in a plot area of 2.1 m by 5 m with 1 m, 1.5m between plots and blocks keeping inter and intra row spacing of 40 cm and 10 cm, respectively. 73 entries along with two checks summing up 75 genotypes evaluated at field condition for their yield and yield components characters during 2019 main cropping season using augmented RCBD design without replication. R-software were used to analyze different characters including the descriptive statistics and SPSS20 used to analyze clustering. Mean of different traits days to maturity (76.46±11.21,), shattering(0.93±0.14), lodging (2.71±2.03), root length(21.±5.54), root volume(201.05±43.76), pods/plant (16.81±6.38), nodule number( 16.22±1.96), Seed yield(10.64±4.01), seeds/pod (11.77±2.80) and 100sw(3.26±0.97) was recoded. The accessions recorded different range of parameters; nodule number (0 to71.75), root length (8 cm to 34.5), shattering (0 to 100), lodging (0% to 1-10%), number of seeds/pod (7 to 23), hundred seed weight (1.8 to 3.26 gram), root volume (4.71 to 230.46 CM) respectively this big variation among accessions of different traits helps to promote breeding programme in mung bean. The seed yield of genotypes ranged from ZURD01(3.88) to ILRI6831(19.79) qtha-1. Days to maturity was ranged from 61(ARKEBE) to 103(MEND01) after emergence. Three maturity groups; early (61 to 69days), medium (71 to 79 days) and late maturing (81 to 103days). Mean yield performance; cluster one had the highest mean yield (16.31qtha-1) followed by cluster two (12.43 qtha-1), cluster three (9.8), cluster four (6.65 qtha-1) and cluster five (1.21 qtha-1) respectively. The genotypes grouped in to three clusters based on their maturity and cluster one had the highest mean maturity days (91.74) followed by cluster two (75.97) and cluster three (66.37) respectively. The early, medium and late maturing genotypes recommended for moisture stress (350-500mm), optimum (600-800 mm) and high rain fall (900-2000 mm) areas respectively according to annual rain fall of the agro ecologies. Genotypes with high nodule number, high yielding, diseases resistance, better root length, shattering and lodging resistance will be important for variety development for mechanization, commercial production and further breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation and Shelf Life of Onion Varieties in Western Tigray, Ethiopia

Yirga Belay Kindeya, Shushay Chermet, Haile Zibelo, Asmelash Tuemay, Mehari Kassie, Alemayo Abraha, Abraha Weldu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930585

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is an important underground vegetable bulb crop of tropical and subtropical part of the world. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and conducted during 2016 to 2018 under irrigation condition at three testing sites. The experiment was designed to select high yielding and good shelf life varieties with the following specific objectives (1) to evaluate and select high yielding onion varieties, (2) to select the adaptable onion varieties and (3) to evaluate and select onion varieties having long shelf life. The study result showed that different variations were observed among the varieties; (29.82%) by environments, (21.94%) Genotype x Environment Interaction and genotypes (6.6. The high environmental variations and differential response of genotypes to the variable environments leading to inconsistency ranking of genotypes across years and locations. The highest yield was obtained  from Bombey red (440.3 kgha-1), followed by Nafis(395 kgha-1), Shendi(391 kgha-1), Nasik red(373 kgha-1) and Adama red(387 kgha-1) respectively. The highest %yield loss recorded from Adama red (28.30%) followed by Nafis (23.23%), Nasik red (22.90) Bombey red (22.48%) and Shendi (5.67%) respectively. Even though, the stability ranking of the varieties were varied among the stability parameters.  Nafis and Bombey red were found the most stable. While Nasik red, Adama red and Shendi unstable across years and locations.  From each of the onion varieties 5 kg was stored for three months and shelf life data recorded and analyzed using R software. Based on the study Shendi can store more than six months without any problem will be recommended and promoted for commercial production. Therefore, the stable varieties recommended and promoted for wider areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Lettuce Cultivars under Different Production Environments

Pedro Henrique Máximo de Souza Carvalho, Gertrudes Macário de Oliveira, Ruy de Carvalho Rocha, Josineide Ednalva Pereira, Tatiane dos Santos Carvalho, Ana Lívia Lopes de Vasconcelos Pereira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930586

Lettuce is a crop with high commercial and social importance, reaching from the macro to the Brazilian micro producer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of Elba and Rouge lettuce cultivars in terms of development and production, under different environments, for the edaphoclimatic conditions of Juazeiro, Bahia. The experimental design adopted was completely randomized, in a split plot scheme, with two production environments (shaded environment and full sun) in the plots, and two lettuce cultivars (Crespa, CV. 1 Elba and Roxa, CV. 2 Rouge) in the subplots. The variables analyzed were: plant height, plant diameter, average fresh weight, average dry weight, total productivity and water use efficiency. The cultivation system in a protected environment showed better development and high productivity for the two lettuce cultivars, when compared to the system in full sun. Cultivar 1 showed superior performance to cultivar 2, in all variables analyzed, in both cultivation systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Regeneration in Urban Fragment of Atlantic Forest, Pernambuco, Brazil

Débora de Melo Almeida, Leandro Dias de Lima, Paulo César da Silva Santos, Jeniffer Michele Pezzoti, Iara Cristina Araujo Rocha, Anderson Francisco da Silva, Lidiana Nayara Ralph, Ana Lícia Patriota Feliciano

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 66-79
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930588

Aims: Evaluate the phytosociological structure of natural regeneration, the ecological group and the species dispersion syndrome in an urban fragment of the Atlantic Forest, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Study Design: Systematic sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: Immaculate Catholic College Conceição do Recife (FICR), in the municipality of Recife, PE, in August 2019.

Methodology: In the survey, 10 plots of 5 m x 5 m were sampled, and all living individuals with height ≥ 1 m and circumference at 1.30 m from the soil were sampled < 15 cm. The structure of natural regeneration was analyzed based on phytosociological parameters and distribution of individuals in height classes. Species diversity was estimated using the Shannon diversity and Pielou equability indices.

Results: We sampled 236 individuals, belonging to 26 species. The estimated density and dominance were 9,940 ind.ha-1 and 5.27 m2.ha-1, respectively. The families with the highest species richness were Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Bignoniaceae. The species that stood out when considering density, frequency, dominance, importance value and natural regeneration were Protium heptaphyllum, Eschweilera ovata, Casearia javitensis, Brosimum guianense, Handroanthus sp.1, Xylopia frutescens, Thyrsodium spruceanum and Myrciaria ferruginea, being considered well adapted, showing efficiency in the development and establishment of new individuals. The Elaeis guineensis it was also among those that stood out the most, and it was necessary to monitor and control, because it is an invasive alien species. The indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou equability were 2.56 nats.ind.-1 and 0.76, respectively. In the area, the initial secondary species with zoochoric dispersal syndrome predominated. The distribution of the number of individuals for height classes occurred in the following order: C3 > C1 > C2.

Conclusion: The area is in the intermediate stage of ecological succession, with moderate species richness. It is necessary to monitor the area, aiming at the control of the species Elaeis guineensis and native species with low natural regeneration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Richness and Diversity of the Edaphic Macrofauna in a Brazilian Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest

Cássio Ricardo Gonçalves da Costa, Marcos Gomes da Silva, Rayane Sley Melo da Cunha, Marcia Mayara de Sousa, Anne Carolline Maia Linhares, Sonaria de Sousa Silva, Ailson de Lima Marques, Debora Coelho de Moura, Regiane Farias Batista, José Ayron Moraes de Lima

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 80-85
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930589

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of seasonality on the diversity and richness of the edaphic macrofauna during the dry and rainy periods, in an area of Caatinga in the Brazilian semiarid region. Samples were collected in a sample grid, totaling 10 points, spaced 30 meters apart, in rainy and dry seasons. For quantitative assessment of macrofauna, the total number of organisms (species abundance) was measured, according to diversity. The diversity of the soil macrofauna for this research corresponds to the following order: Hymenoptera> Diptera> Aranaea> Orthoptera> Coleoptera, for the rainy and dry periods, with a greater predominance of the order Hymenoptera. The influence of seasonality was observed in relation to the richness and diversity of the region's macrofauna, with marked fluctuations between the rainy and dry periods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agro-Morphological Characterization of Three Cultivated Legumes: Two Varieties of Soybean (Glycine max L.) and One Variety of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.)

Koffi Bertin Yao, Kouassi Joseph Kouakou, Aya Viviane Yoboue, Tanoh Hilaire Kouakou

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 86-95
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930590

To contribute to the restoration of tropical soils fertility, the agro-morphological and yield characteristics of three cultivated legumes [two beige seeded varieties of soybean (Glycine max L.): one from  Côte d’Ivoire (BVCI) and the other, from Benin (BVB) and a green  seeded mungbean variety (Vigna radiata L)  from Côte d'Ivoire (MVCI)] were studied.  The legumes seeds were sown and the resulting plants were monitored until harvest. The data relating to the plants phenological, morphological and yield parameters were statistically processed through one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA 1).  The results of phenological observations indicated that the mungbean (MVCI) was earlier than both soybean varieties (BVCI followed by BVB). Morphologically, plants of the late soybean varieties (BVCI and BVB) were higher, more branched with a large wingspan, and produced more panicles than the early variety of mungbean (MVCI). In addition, mungbean variety (MVCI) produced long tapered pods containing small seeds while the soybean varieties produced shorter but wider pods containing large seeds.  In terms of yied, both late soybean varieties (BVCI and BVB) produced large dry biomass, more pods with higher seed yield, dry weight and 100 seed weight than the early variety of mungbean (MVCI).

Significance: The precocious nature of mungbean makes it an important plant for the fight against climate change, especially against drought. Due to their good branching and significant plant spread, both late varieties of soybean (BVCI and BVB) have high potential of being selected for soil protection and weed control, as well as for food production because of their high pod yield, seed and dry biomass. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae)] F1 Tokyo Variety Cultivated on Soil Amended with Two Types of Organic Fertilizers Commonly Used in Côte d'Ivoire

Kouakou Kouassi Joseph, Ako Olga Yolande Aké, Sika Ahoua Edmond, N’Goran Kouassi Patrice

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 96-101
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930591

Present study was conducted on experimental plot of University Nangui Abrogoua to evaluate effect of different rates of two types of organic fertilizers marketed in Côte d'Ivoire, Vital Plus and Fertinova, on crop agronomic performance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) F1 Tokyo variety. Sowing was done on beds of 2 m2. Vital Plus fertilizer, at rates of 2 Kg and 4 Kg per 2 m2, gives better results in terms of germination, flowering as well as fruit ripening. while at Fertinova fertilizer level, phenological parameters are delayed with all rates applied. All Fertinova rates delay phenological parameters, but prove to be more effective than Vital Plus in terms of growth and yield parameters at a rate of 6 kg per 2 m2. Results indicate that these two fertilizers have a high potential in fertility management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Ability, Heterosis and Gene Action for Grain Yield and Its Related Traits of Some WA-CMS with Tester Lines of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

M. I. Abo- Yousef, W. F. Ghidan, I. A. Talha, A. B. Elsehely, Dalia M. Tabl

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 102-123
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930592

An understanding the nature and relative extent of gene actions and combining ability is useful for a breeder to develop superior rice hybrids. In this association, an attempt was made to identify good general and specific combiners for selecting better parents and better cross combinations for developing high yielding and short duration rice hybrids. Four cytoplasmic male sterile lines viz., IR69625A, IR70368A, IR58025A and IR79575A were crossed with ten elite testers, 40 hybrids along with their fourteen parents were evaluated for grain yield and its related traits at the experimental farm of Rice Research and Training Center, Sakha, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, during the rice-growing seasons of 2018 and 2019. The differences among genotypes, parents and crosses were highly significant for all studied traits. The specific combining ability (SCA) played the major role in determining inheritance traits, revealing that the largest part of the total genetic variability associated with most traits was a result of non-additive gene action. The parental line, IR58025A was demonstrated as a great general combiner for grain yield per plant and most of yield components and therefore could be utilized in future breeding programs to improve grain yield. HHZ12-SAL8-Y1-SAL1, HHZ5-Y7-Y2-SUB1 and HUA564 were seen as a good general combiner among testers for grain yield per plant and some studied traits. Four crosses, namely IR58025A / HHZ8-SAL9-DT2-Y2, IR70368A / WEED TOLERANT RICE1, IR70368A / HHZ12-SAL8-Y1-SAL1 and IR70368A / HHZ5-Y7-Y2-SUB1 exhibited significantly good specific combining ability effects for grain yield per plant. Hence, it can be seen that non-additive genetic effects are controlling the inheritance of the studied traits and indicated that selection for the traits inherited with this manner should be performed in the further generations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Source-sink Relationship and Their Influence on Yield Performance of YAU Promising Rice Lines

Myint Aye, Chan Nyein Thu, Nyo Mar Htwe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 124-135
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930593

Fifty YAU promising rice genotypes were used to evaluate source-sink relationship and yield performance in 2017 dry season. The experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Yezin Agricultural University, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. The spacing was 20 cm between row and 20 cm between plants in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The data on physiological traits, yield and yield component traits were collected and analyzed by using STAR and R program. Growth duration1 is positively and significantly correlated with the number of grains panicle-1, filled grains percentage, grain yield, panicle weight, dry weight at heading and harvesting, straw weight and LAI at harvesting, and increase of dry weight from heading to harvesting. Significant positive correlation was found between growth duration2 and decrease of LAI from heading to harvesting indicating that these traits are strongly influenced by source before heading. Significant correlations between yield and physiological and yield component traits were observed except LAI at harvesting and 1000-grain weight. Therefore, yield variation among YAU promising rice lines is more related with source size than with sink size. Decrease of LAI from heading to harvesting and dry weight at maturity exhibited positive direct effect on 1000-grain weight, filled grains percentage and grain number m-2 meaning the relative contribution of source components to the sink. The contribution of the decrease of LAI from heading to harvesting to the grain yield was much higher than that of number of grains, panicle weight and 1000-grain weight. This research finding will be useful for the plant breeder to consider the improvement of yield supporting traits in the breeding program.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selectivity and Sublethal Effects of Botanical Extracts to Pupae of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Joanina Gladenucci, Indiamara Marasca, José Carlos de Almeida Pernambuco Filho, Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim, Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bue

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 136-146
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930594

Aims: assess the effect of botanical extracts on pupae of the natural enemy Trichogramma pretiosum.

Study Design: evaluation of the selectivity and sublethal effect on T. pretiosum pupae.

Place and Duration of Study: Departamento de Proteção Vegetal e Horticultura da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas – Universidade Estadual Paulista ¨Júlio de Mesquita Filho¨ (FCA/UNESP) – Campus de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, carried out between March 2016 and April 2017.

Methodology: the experiment was conducted in laboratory, with eleven treatments: Rosmarinus officinalis, Mikania glomerata, Varronia curassavica, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Vermonia polyanthes, Plectranthus amboinicus, Tetradenia riparia, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon citratus, distilled water and chlorpyrifos, with the two last ones being the negative and positive controls, respectively. The plants were collected in the morning and had 100 g of each species separated and immersed in 300 ml of methyl alcohol for 24 hours in triple extraction. Posteriorly, the solvent was evaporated in rotavapor and the crude extract diluted in the proportion of 1000 mg to 250 mL of distilled water. The parasitism (%) was evaluated. The mortality of the parasitoids was classified in: class 1 – innocuous (E < 30%); class 2 – slightly harmful (30 ≤ E ≤ 79%); class 3 – moderately harmful (80 ≤ E ≤ 99%); class 4 – harmful (E > 99%); daily and accumulated parasitism, total of parasitized eggs and longevity were reported.

Results: Solely the extract of R. officinalis was selective to T. pretiosum pupae. Despite it, all tested extracts induced sublethal effects, with R. officinalis and C. citratus causing the highest damage. Although R. officinalis resulted in sublethal effects, it was the only extract which did not lead to the mortality of females of T. pretiosum.

Conclusion: the tested botanical extracts are innocuous (class 1) or slightly harmful (class 2) to pupae of T. pretiosum, resulting in some sublethal effect that might spoil its efficiency in the Integrated Pest Control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Manuring on Growth and Yield of Tomato Varieties in Akure, a Rain Forest Zone of South West Nigeria

Oladitan Titilayo, Oluwasemire Olatunji, Agele Samuel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 147-157
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930595

Tomato a highly nutritious and income relevance crop. The optimum productivity is constrained by a number of factors such as soil fertility management. A field experiment was conducted at Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria between December 2012 to April 2013 (irrigated) and March – August 2013 (rainfed) to investigate the effect manuring on the growth and yield of tomato varieties. Four manuring sources (Organic, Organo-mineral, Urea and No fertilizer) and four tomato varieties (Beske, Ibadan local, Roma and UC) laid out as a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement and replicated three times. Results showed that manuring influenced on set of flowering in tomato, organic fertilizer prolonged day to anthesis (22.72 day) closely followed by organomineral (22.49 days) while control (no fertilizer) was earliest (20.88 days). Beske significantly showed earliness to flowering, Ibadan local and Roma were delayed but had similar flowering dates (P≤ 0.05). The varieties had distinct fruit yield responses to fertilizer application, fruit produced were in order of Beske, Ibadan local and UC (721.9;626.4) g;(683.6; 696.2) g; (550.0; 463.6) g (384.4; 431.5) g for rainfed and irrigation respectively. Varietal effect was significant on fruit yields for irrigated, Beske recorded heaviest fruit yield (6.03g) followed by Ibadan local (4.72), Roma (2.6) and UC (2.14). Harvested fruit among the varieties in both seasons were (3978.5t/ha;3484.9t/ha;1229.8t/ha and 985.2 t/ha) and (3947.2t/ha; 3452.8t/ha; 1197.8t/ha; 953.2t/ha) for Beske, Ibadan local, Roma and UC respectively. Fertilizer application were significant for both season on harvested fruits weight in magnitude order of Organomineral, organic fertilizer urea and control (3535.9;3503.9t/ha),organic fertilizer (2935.2;2903.2t/ha), Urea (2078.8;2047.4t/ha) and control (1128.0;1096.5t/ha). Beske and Ibadan local varieties performed better in the rainforest zone of Nigeria. Organic fertilizer sources complimented with mineral fertilizer timely applied with good agronomic managements are measures to enhance growth and yield performance of tomato.

Open Access Original Research Article

Boot Stage Forage Yield and Quality of Pearl Millet as Influenced by Organo-mineral Fertilizer Rates in Humid Rainforest Zone of Nigeria

A. J. Ajayi, G. O. Ajayi, S. I. Nwagbara

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 158-166
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930596

An experiment was conducted at the experimental site of Federal College of Agriculture, Akure to investigate the effects of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizer (OMF) on forage yield and quality of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L) R.Br). The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. Five levels of OMF at 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, 4t/ha and 100 kg/ha N.P.K. 15:15:15 were used. Pearl millet seeds were sown at the rate of 10 kg/ha. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the plant height, fresh and dry forage yield obtained at boot stage. The following ranges were obtained in the investigated traits among the fertilizer applications; plant height 1.08-2.54 m, fresh forage yield 24.37-59.10t/ha and dry matter yield of 4.25-10.67 t/ha. Quality parameters (CP, CF, EE, NFE and Ash) showed significant increase with higher levels of OMF applied. The ranges obtained were: CP 8.56-13.32%, EE 15.82-16.1%, EE 7.14-8.69%, Ash 11.46-16.07%, NFE 33.38-44.48 and moisture content 9.49-11.58%. The study concludes that organo-mineral fertilizer application at 4t/ha is particularly effective in improving the forage yield and quality of pearl millet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Growth Performance of Papaya Hybrids and their Parents under Reciprocal Crossing System

Suchismita Jena, T. R. Ahlawat, A. I. Patel, A. K. Pandey, Dharmishtha Patel, Abhijit Chaudhary

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 167-173
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930597

Papaya is a very popular fruit in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and has witnessed an increase in demand. This has fuelled an interest to develop region specific hybrids with desirable vegetative growth and vigour.  Hence a field experiment was carried out at College of horticulture and forestry, Navsari Agricultural University in Gujarat during 2018-2020 in randomized block design with three replications to know the mean performance of parents and hybrids for comparative growth performances of papaya. Wherein, thirty papaya hybrids were developed from six morphologically distinct parents through full diallel crossing technique and all the parents and hybrids were evaluated for their germination and growth parameters. The variability was distinct in all hybrids and parents for germination percentage, days taken to germination, periodical plant height and girth, number of leaves, petiole length and internodal distance. Amongst all the parents, Pusa Delicious, CO-8 and Lucknow Local exhibited improved germination, better vegetative growth and dwarf stature, respectively. Among the hybrids, Pusa Delicious x Lucknow Local was found to have dwarf stature with minimum internodal length however, the reciprocal cross: Lucknow Local x Pusa Delicious recorded maximum plant girth and number of leaves. Based on their mean performance, these parents can be used for further breeding programmes and hybrids could be exploited for cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Uttar Lakshmi: A Medium Duration High Yield Potential Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Variety

Bidhan Roy, Vikash Kumar, L. V. Subba Rao

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 174-183
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930598

Uttar Lakshmi was developed through hybridization between MTU 7029 and Annada followed by selection. It was developed at Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya and was recommended by ‘52nd Annual Rice Group Meeting 2017’ for release in Odisha, West Bengal and Tripura, subsequently it has been identified for release by the Variety Identification Committee in the 54th Annual Rice Group Meeting 2019. Consequently Uttar Lakshmi was notified by the ‘Central Variety Release Committee (F. No. 3-74/2019-SD.IV, Sl. No. 4, dated 06.01.2020, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, Government of India)’ for cultivation in Odisha, West Bengal and Tripura. The variety is suitable for Boro season, however it can be cultivated both in Boro (Rabi) and Kharif seasons. It is a medium duration rice variety, days to 50% flowering are 93 and 135 days during Kharif and Rabi seasons, respectively. Time of sowing is mid-November to mid-December during Boro season and May-June during Kharif season. Uttar Lakshmi bears short bold grains with 5.09 mm long kernel, 2.16 mm breadth and 2.27 length-breadth ratio. Hulling, milling and head rice recovery were 76.5%, 66.4% and 55.10%, respectively. Amylose content was 25.6% with medium gel consistency (51.50) indicates separable and soft cooked rice as preferred in India. Grain chalkiness very occasionally present. The variety is resistant to leaf blast, sheath root and bacterial leaf blight. It is also resistant to lodging and shattering. The average yield of Uttar Lakshmi is around 6.0 t/ha.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Novel Approach for the Determination of an Optimal Medium for Improving Rapid Micropropagation of Cucurbit Citrullus mucosospermus Fursa

Gnamien Yah Gwladys, Koné Tchoa, Yao Kouakou Abessika Georges, Yatty Kouadio Justin, Zoro Bi Irié Arsène, Baudoin Jean- Pierre

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 184-192
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930600

The search for a suitable medium for In vitro regeneration, whatever the species cultured, is always done by tests including successive steps of removal of components of the culture medium that do not give the expected results. This is the usual procedure. However, the effects of interactions are not taken into account. It is therefore with the aim of taking into account the interactions between the constituents of the culture medium in the formulation of the medium that motivated the present study. Therefore, in order to find the optimal composition with a minimum of experiments or trials, experimental planning was a particularly useful tool. The results of the experiments are analyzed and recommended response values are calculated. A Box-Behnken design wasused by varying three factors: MS mineral elements, sucrose and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Agar concentration has been kept constant. Shoot induction depended on the interaction between levels of sucrose, BAP and MS mineral elements in the medium. The optimum formulation for numerous shoots production is medium containing 1.5 strength of MS mineral elements, 35 g/l sucrose and 1 mg/l BAP solidified with 6 g/l agar. After 3 weeks of culture, 76.7% of the cotyledon explants (proximal parts) regenerated shoots with an average of 12 shoots per explant and a mean shoot length of 17 mm. Compared with the usual procedure, this procedure showed an increment of shoots number per explant and shoot length. The shoots regenerated were directly rooted. Overall, these results make a relevant contribution to the optimization of In vitro propagation of Citrullus mucosospermus Fursa oleaginous type and other hard to propagate related species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Fungal Isolates from Soils of Rice and Napier Grass

Thu Htet Naing, Tin Tun Naing, Yu Yu Min, Atsushi Yoshimura

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 193-203
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930601

Microbial diversity of cultivated soil is the key resource for maintaining the functional capacity of agricultural and natural ecosystem. The research aimed to study the prevalence of soil fungi from the soils of rice and napier grass fields. Soil samples were collected from the fields of rice in flooded condition and napier grass in the upland condition at the University farm. Soil fungi were cultured on RB media through the serial dilution method. A total of 13 isolates were cultured, in which 11 from the soil collected from rice cultivated field and 2 from napier grass field. Seven out of 11 isolates collected from rice and 2 from napier grass were selected and identified through the morphological characters such as colony color, mycelium diameter, color and segmentaiton, spore size and color. Mycelium growths were examined on the PDA and RB media. Fungal isolates collected in this study were morphologically identified/ characterized as Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, A. carbonarius, A. nidulans, Alternaria sp., Penicillium and Talaromyces. Fungal species differed among the soils were discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Traditional/Indigenous Vegetables of the Kingdom of Eswatini: Biodiversity and Their Importance: A Review

Michael T. Masarirambi, Kwanele A. Nxumalo, Emmanuel N. Kunene, Daniel V. Dlamini, Molyn Mpofu, Lokadhia Manwa, Diana M. Earnshaw, Gabriel C. Bwembya

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 204-215
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930602

Traditional (indigenous) vegetables of the Kingdom of Eswatini are important for their contribution to human nutrition. They are major sources of vitamins and minerals. They provide fibre which is required for the proper functioning of the human digestive system. Traditional vegetables are important economically however, no assessments have been done in the Kingdom of Eswatini to measure their contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP). A traditional vegetable concern provides employment and thus income, and ensuring food and nutritional security, and hence striving to attain sustainable development goals (SDGs) pertaining to human health, nutrition, food security and biodiversity. Traditional vegetables are infested relatively less by insect pests and diseases. They relatively out compete weeds in terms of resources essential for growth and development. In food, traditional vegetables provide interesting colour, texture and variety. Despite the immense importance of traditional vegetables, they have been neglected and regarded as poor man's food with no research prioritisation. The objective of this study was to explore their present status, prioritize consumer education, explore their importance as climate smart vegetables and to document their contribution to biodiversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Curd Yield and Seed Production of Cauliflower

Sonia Rashid Sony, Farzana Islam, Mahmoda Akter, Md. Saidur Rahman, Md. Mofizur Rahman

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 216-225
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930603

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the interaction effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on curd yield and seed production of cauliflower.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out at a randomized complete block design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Research farm of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, from September 2016 to March 2017.

Methodology: The experiment consisted of two factors comprising three levels of nitrogen (270, 220,170 kg ha-1) and three levels of phosphorus (160,130,100 kg ha-1) with control of each nutrient. There were 10 treatment combinations resulting in 30 unit plots where each plot had two rows of 6 plants. Nitrogen and Phosphorus fertilizer were applied as per treatment in the form of Urea and TSP as a top dressing in two equal splits at the time of transplanting and 15 days after transplanting.

Results: All the characters related to growth and yield of cauliflower showed significant variation by nitrogen and phosphorus levels at different days after transplanting. Among the different treatment combinations, N270P160 produced maximum plant height (50 cm), leaf area (700 cm2), plant weight (1003 g), curd diameter (18.3 cm), marketable curd weight (601 g) and marketable curd yield (18.5 t) at harvesting compared to control where nitrogen and phosphorus were not used. Moreover, the largest number of leaves (21.3) and curd weight (346 g) was observed by treatment combinations N220P160 at harvesting. For seed production, the highest number of siliqua plant -1 (1461), 1000 seed weight (4 g), seed yield plant-1 (41.1 g) seed yield ha-1 (1.5 t) and germination (97.7%)was also found from N270P160while the maximum number of seeds siliqua-1(20.5) was revealed by N220P160 compared to control treatment. Considering a different point of view, treatment combinations N270P160 can be marked more convenient for cauliflower production than others.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the combinations of nitrogen (270 kg ha-1) and phosphorus (160 kg ha-1) would be appropriate for curd yield and seed production of cauliflower.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Evaluation of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nitrogen under Striga Infestation in Western Kenya

Robert O. Nyambati, Duncan G. Odhiambo, Cornelius C. Serrem, Caleb O. Othieno

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 226-234
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930604

Due to escalating cost of imported fertilizers, there is renewed interest in the use of local nutrient resources in managing soil fertility in Kenya. The effect of integrated use of urea and Calliandra or maize stover on maize yields, financial benefits was assessed in a field experiment carried at Nyabeda in western Kenya. Urea and Calliandra or maize stover were combined in a way to supply N at 75 kg ha-1 from both sources in 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, 0:100, 0:0 ratios arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 12 treatments replicated four times in five consecutive seasons. Gross margins and benefit cost ratios were used for the analysis.

Overall, maize stover (30 kg N ha-1) combined with urea (45 kg N ha-1) and Calliandra ( 45 kg N ha-1) combined with urea (30 kg N ha-1) gave the highest mean total biomass yields of 8.3 and 7.9 t ha-1 respectively. The two treatments out yielded the control by 89 and 80% respectively. The control and sole maize stover (75 kg N ha-1) had the lowest yields across all the seasons.

The highest net benefits (71 USD) were recorded under maize stover (45 kg N ha-1) combined with urea (30 kg N ha-1) followed by Calliandra (30 kg N ha-1) combined with urea (45 kg N ha-1) at (68 USD). Sole application of maize stover gave the lowest benefit (-553 USD). Calliandra (30 kg N ha-1) combined with urea (45 kg N ha-1) was the only treatment that had a benefit: cost ratio approaching 2, and therefore, the most likely of the tested technologies to be adopted by farmers. These results suggest that the use of both Calliandra and maize stover with modest amount of inorganic fertilizers (urea) is more profitable than sole use of either of the two N sources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] under Organic and Inorganic Nutrient Management in Semi- Arid Tropical Conditions in Central India

Jyoti Bangre, Bharat Singh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 235-242
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930605

Soybean is an important leguminous and oilseed crop of India and extensively grown all over Madhya Pradesh due to its wide adaptability to agro-climatic conditions. However a continuous decline in soybean productivity has been observed and nutrient imbalance is one of the important identified factors. The present study was conducted to explore the nutrient management option for sustained productivity of soybean. The performance of soybean crop under various nutrient management practices was studied with 9 different combinations of five levels of nitrogen (0, 20, 30, 40 and 60 kg ha-1), five levels of phosphorous (0, 13, 20, 26 and 35 kg ha-1), two levels of farm yard manure (0 and 6t ha-1) and two levels of crop residue (0 and 5t ha-1) replicated thrice. These combinations were T1-N0P0 (unfertilized control); T2-N20P13; T3-N30P20; T4-N40P26; T5-N60P35; T6-FYM6t+T2; T7-Residues 5t+T2; T8-FYM @ 6t ha-1 and T9-Crop residues 5t ha-1. The performance of soybean and change in soil properties were studied. The results revealed that, the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer application positively influenced the plant height, number of branches, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, yield and test weight of soybean. Further, the combined application of FYM and inorganic fertilizers improved the soil organic carbon and nutrient availability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Composted Substrate Types on the Growth Performance of Sour Sop (Annona muricata)

O. A. Onawumi, A. I. Oluwaponle, N. C. Isienyi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 243-249
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930606

The increasing demand for the “Miracle Tree”, Annona muricata, also known as Sour sop has led to the need for increased production. However, the importance of appropriate growing media for the propagation of this seedling cannot be over emphasized. This experiment was conducted in 2019 at the screen house of the Soil and Tree Department of Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Oyo State to evaluate the effect of different composted media on the growth Annona muricata L (Sour sop). The experiment was laid out in Complete Randomized Design with sixteen (16) treatments and three replicates. Data on growth parameters were collected and analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at 5% probability level. It was observed that treatment A2 (80: 20; soil: OF; v/v) performed significantly higher in, number of leaves, plant height and stem girth followed by treatment A3 (60:40; soil: OF; v/v). This study concluded that the growing media or treatment A2 (80: 20; soil: OF; v/v) was optimum for the growth of Annona muricata.

Open Access Original Research Article

Piscicidal and Prophylaxis Potentials of Neem (Azadirachta indica L) Extract in Yolk Fry of African Catfish, (Clarias gariepinus)

Oyediran Olusegun Oyebola, Josephine Oluseyi Adebayo, Adegboyega Justino Oshinowo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 250-261
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930607

The study aimed to investigate the lethal range and suitable concentration of Neem leaf extract for prophylaxis use in early life stage of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) by discovering safe dosage, capable of ensuring improved fry survival in the presence of virulent microbial pathogens.

Powdered Neem leaf weight 465.00±0.50 g was soaked in ethanol for 72 hours using standard laboratory procedure for metabolite extraction. Extract was freeze-dried through sublimation process. Freeze-dried extracts were characterised for presence and quantity (mg/g) of 12 antimicrobial related metabolites. 100 each of day-old yolk-fry Clarias gariepinus were immersed in each of 0 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 35 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 45 mg/L, and 50 mg/L freeze-dried extracts, and in each of pre-LC50 Neem concentrations plus 1 x 10-4 Aeromonas hydrophila (ATCC 19750) inoculum in 24 hours; to respectively determine toxicity range (LC50 and LC100) and survival during prophylaxis.

Neem leaf yielded 2.94±0.55% freeze-dried extracts. Qualitatively, 58.33% of tested phytochemicals/metabolites were negative, while Saponin, Tannin, Alkaloid, Flavonoid, and Phenol, representing 41.66%tests were positive. Metabolites’ quantity ranged 3.13±0.13mg/g(Phenol) - 14.97±0.15 mg/g(Tannin). Fry in 0-15 mg/L extract did not reach LC50 in 24 hours. LC50 occurred in 20-35 mg/L at 21-23 hours and 40-50 mg/L at 17-18 hours, LC100 occurred in 40-50 mg/L at 19-23  hour. 0%neem+fry had 100.0±0.0% survival in 24 hours. Survival ranged 0.0±0.0 (16-24 hours) - 100.0±0.0%(4-8hours) in 0neem+Fry+Aeromonas; 0.0±0.0(20-24hours) – 100.0±0.0 (4-8 hours) in 5 mg/L neem+Fry+Aeromonas; 0.0±0.0 (20-24 hours) – 100.0±0.0 (4-8 hours) in 10 mg/L neem+Fry+Aeromonas and 30.0±5.5 (24 hours) - 100.0±0.0 (4-8 hours) in 15 mg/L neem+Fry+Aeromonas.

Neem extract contain antimicrobial related metabolites, which is toxic to at least half C. gariepinus yolk fry population at >15mg/L concentrations. Fry survival in virulent A. hydrophila laden rearing medium was slightly improved at 15mg/L concentration.

Open Access Review Article

Fermentation of Traditional African Cassava Based Foods: Microorganisms Role in Nutritional and Safety Value

Niguse Hotessa Halake, Bhaskarrao Chinthapalli

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 56-65
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i930587

Cassava is a drought-tolerant, crop grown in tropical and subtropical areas. For decades the communities of Africa have developed their process to ferment and use cassava. Ikivunde, Inyange, kivunde, Mokopa, Chikwangue, Meduame-M-bong, Cossette, Gari, Attiéké, and Agbelima are the main indigenous fermented cassava based food products from east, west and central Africa respectively. Lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and molds are the main microorganism involve in the fermentation of cassava-based food products and contribute to the production of biochemical compounds such as folates, several organic acids, volatiles organics compound, and others compounds. Role of different microorganisms in food preservation, increase in protein content, aroma, flavor enhancement, decreases in anti-nutrients, and cyanogen reduction as the elevated impact of the fermentation process.