Open Access Short communication

Multiple Sequence Alignment Reveals Diversity among Eight African Bush Mango (Irvingia gabonensis Aubry-Lecomte ex O’Rorke) Cultivars

U. G. Adebo, J. O. Matthew

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 91-96
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130635

Multiple sequence analysis is one of the most widely used model in estimating similarity among genotypes. In a bid to access useful information for the utilization of bush mango genetic resources, nucleotide sequences of eight bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) cultivars were sourced for and retrieved form NCBI data base, and evaluated for diversity and similarity using computational biology approach.

The highest alignment score (26.18), depicting the highest similarity, was between two pairs of sequence combinations; BM07:BM58 and BM12:BM69 respectively, while the least score (19.43) was between BM01: BM13. The phylogenetic tree broadly divided the cultivars into four distinct groups; BM07, BM58 (cluster one), BM01 (cluster 2), BM15, BM13 and BM35 (cluster 3), and BM12, BM69 (cluster 4), while the sequences obtained from the analysis revealed only few fully conserved regions, with the single nucleotides A, and T, which were consistent throughout the evolution.

Results obtained from this study indicate that the bush mango cultivars are divergent and can be useful genetic resources for bush mango improvement through breeding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bayesian Analysis of Factors Influencing Milk Productivity of Small-hold Dairy Buffalo Farmers in South Luzon, Philippines

Thelma Saludes, `, Hironobu Takeshita

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130625

This study analyzed the factors influencing milk productivity of smallholder dairy buffalo farmers in South Luzon, Philippines. We used a cross-sectional data collected from 61 dairy buffalo farmers. This is the first local study to apply a Bayesian approach. The empirical results revealed that among the socio-economic, farm, and technology characteristics investigated, the household size have a positive effect, the number of lactating dairy buffalo negative effect, and the technology adoption of data recording a positive effect on milk productivity of dairy buffalo farmers rendering these factors significant in the analysis of productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Variance Components and Genetic Parameters in F1 Progenies of Coffea canephora Pierre x C. congensis Froehner

Kouassi M. Ouattara, Yapo A. Antoine, Nguetta A. Simon-Pierre, Okoma M. Pamela, Gba Kossia M. Karine, Legnate N. Hyacinthe, Keli Z. Jules, Akaffou D. Sélastique

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130627

The diploid species Coffea congensis is of interest in improving the organoleptic quality of                        C. canephora. F1 crosses of C. canephora x C. congensis named Congusta in 3 x 5 factorial design have been carried out. The work aimed to assess the genetic parameters in the hybrids in order to integrate them into the selection schemes under way in Côte d'Ivoire.  The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. Each cross was represented by a minimum of 29 plants and a maximum of 55 plants. The spacing used was 3 x 1.5 m. Male genotypes C. congensis brought little improvement in offspring regardless of their insignificant additive gene effect in the hybrids. Low heritabilities were found for vegetative vigor traits DICO, GAT and NPLA ranging from 0.13 to 0.23 in the narrow sense and from 0.18 to 0.32 in the broad sense. For production, the narrow sense heritabilities were stable during the first three years of harvest with values ​​between 0.23 and 0.25 whereas the broad sense heritability was irregular. The estimation GCA and SCA showed that all the traits except RCAR had ratio between both effects above 1. The study of correlations between traits showed insignificant correlations between production and vegetative traits, with coefficients below 0.30. However, The selection of 83 high-producing trees from 14 out of 15 studied families make it possible to create good vegetative trees linked to high yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Postharvest Fungal Rots of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam.) in Southwest Nigeria and their Control with Sawdust Extracts

F. Beckley, S. O. Awoyemi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 24-33
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130628

A study was conducted in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Southwest, Nigeria to evaluate the incidence and pathogenicity of postharvest fungal rots of sweetpotato and their control with extracts of sawdust from some tropical trees.  Survey of rotted tubers was conducted in 18 markets across the three AEZs: humid rainforest (HF), derived savannah (DS), and southern guinea savannah (SGS). Fungi associated with rotted tubers were isolated, identified and their pathogenicity determined. In vitro fungitoxicity of Anogeissus leiocarpus, Gmelina arborea and Cola nitida sawdust extracts were assessed in an experiment laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replicates. Six fungi species found to be associated with rot on tubers were Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium oxalicum and Fusarium oxysporum. Highest (35%) rot incidence was observed in HF zone with R. stolonifer as the most prevalent. Botryodiplodia theobromae was most prevalent (68.75%, 54.54%) in SGS and DS zones respectively. All the six isolated fungi were pathogenic to sweetpotato but induced varying levels of rot severity. Botryodiplodia theobromae, R. stolonifer or A. niger induced complete (100%) rot of inoculated tubers. Sawdust extracts reduced mycelial growth of test pathogens at three sawdust concentrations (50 g/L, 75 g/L and 100 g/L) tested. Inhibition of fungal growth increased with extract concentration. Anogeissus leiocarpus sawdust extract at 100 g/L exhibited highest range of mycelial growth inhibition (8.80 - 73.0%) across tested pathogens. Gmelina arborea sawdust extract at 100 g/L significantly inhibited (p<0.05) mycelial growth of B. theobromae, P. oxalicum and T. viride while C. nitida exhibited strong fungitoxicity to F. oxysporum at 100 g/L. Application of the sawdust extracts at 50 g/L, 75 g/L and 100 g/L concentrations has the potential to minimize postharvest fungal rot of sweetpotato.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Response to Delayed Applications of Preemergence Herbicides Applied 3 or 6 Day after Emergence

W. James Grichar, Jack J. Rose, Peter A. Dotray, Joyce A. Tredaway, Muthukumar Bagavathiannan, Mark W. Shankle, D. Ray Langham

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 34-50
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130630

Aims: Field studies were conducted to determine sesame response to the pre-emergence herbicides (acetochlor at 1.7 kg ai ha-1; S-metolachlor at 0.72, 1.43, and 2.86 kg ai ha-1; dimethenamid-P at 0.84 kg ai ha-1; pethoxamid at 0.22 kg ai ha-1; pyroxasulfone at 0.09 kg ai ha-1and bicyclopyrone at 0.12 and 0.24 kg ai ha-1) applied 3 or 6 days after 50% emergence.

Study Design:  Randomized complete block design with 3-4 reps depending on location.

Place and Duration of Study: Sesame growing areas of Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas during the 2016 through 2018 growing seasons.

Methodology: Treatments consisted of a factorial arrangement of herbicide treatments at two early POST application timings. A non-treated control was included for comparison. Crop oil concentrate (Agridex®, Helena, Collierville, TN 38017) at 1.0% v/v was added to all herbicide treatments. Plot size was either five rows (76 cm apart) by 9.1 m or four rows (101 cm apart) by 7.3 m depending on location. Only the two middle rows were sprayed and the other rows were untreated and served as buffers. Sesame cultivars were seeded approximately 1.0 to 2.0 cm deep at 9 kg/ha at all locations. Injury was evaluated early-season, 7 to 27 days after herbicide application (DAA), and later, 28 to 147 DAA, based on a scale of 0 (no sesame injury) to 100 (complete sesame death). Injury consisted of stuntingand leaf chlorosis and/or necrosis.

Results: All herbicides tested resulted in significant injury to sesame at some location and application timing. None of the herbicides evaluated are safe to use early POST on sesame without causing significant injury. 

Conclusion: The ability of sesame to recover from significant injury and compensate for injury led to no yield loss in many instances. However, levels of injury observed are not acceptable by growers and will not allow the use of these herbicides soon after sesame emergence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Growth and Yield of NERICA and PNR Rice Lines in Rainfed Ecosystem in the Eastern Interland of Kinshasa, DR Congo

Mitashi Kimvula Jules, Lukula Lukwera Firmin

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 51-62
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130631

The developing countries are rife with blatant pauperization. The agricultural sector, provider of food and a strong economy, has been in the hands of artisanal farmers for several decades. As a result, the yield is low to meet the needs of a rapidly growing population. Thus, in order to help support food security in tropical countries including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a study was conducted on the comparison of growth and yield of 15 lines / varieties of rice under natural conditions. On the Bateke plateau (Kinshasa, DRC) during season B, from January to June 2004. The number of tillers per plant, the number of tassels per plant, the height and flowering at 50% plant, the weight of a thousand kernels as well as the yield in kg / ha were used as observation variables to evaluate the performance of the plant. Each variety under study for 4 months following a randomized full block device with 3 replicates.From our observations, it emerges that although season B was less productive than season A, a few lines / varieties of rice have shown very distinct performances. Indeed, the varieties NERICA 7, P8.20.B3. 2.1. C1, PNR 1, NERICA 5 showed good height growth while NERICA 7, P10. 100. B1. N1B1, P10. 77. B2. N2. B3, P10. 51. B1. N1. gave a high dry grain yield.Therefore, given their high yield in dry grains, these lines / varieties would be a better substitute for the varieties already in circulation (PNR 1, IRAT 112, and IRAT 341) to increase the country's rice production and thus overcome the problem of low yield experienced by the DRCongo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining the Maximum Rate of Potassium Fertilizer on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Production in Southeastern Côte d'Ivoire

Kouame Konan, Kassi Koffi Fernand Jean–Martial, Kone Boaké

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 63-74
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130632

In the southeastern of Côte d'Ivoire, ferralsols are characterized by poverty in exchangeable bases, especially potassium, which appears to be the predominant mineral element for oil palm cultivation.   In this study, we used improved palm cultivars treated with different rates of potassium fertilizer to determin the effect on oil palms. The experiments were conducted on the CNRA station in La Mé and PALMCI in Ehania (Côte d’Ivoire), following a system block system design comprising of five treatments and four repetitions. Treatments included 5 rates of potassium fertilizer (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5) corresponding to 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 3 kg of KCl/tree/year. This study indicates that the different rates of KCl applied, had influence on    all of the experimental parameters, namely: yields (TR) and its components (NR; PR and PMR). Yields on the Ehania plantation were significantly higher than those on La Mé. Yield ranged from 18.8 Tons/ha/year (T1) to 22.1 Tons/ha/year (T3) in La Mé, and from 21.2 to 25.6 tons/ha/year in Ehania. The theoretical maximum rates were 2.4 kg of KCl/tree/year in La Mé, compared to 1.9 kg/tree/year on the Ehania plantation. Therefore, these rates will be used in the future extension of potassium fertilizer, in the cultivation of oil palm, in the southeastern of Côte d'Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rice Production under the System of Rice Intensification and Conventional Methods: Which is more Profitable in Ghana?

Vincent Abankwah, Lucy Asantewaa Tutu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 75-83
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130633

Some studies consider the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method of rice production as more profitable than the Conventional method. Others, however, claim that there is no significant difference in yields between the two methods. The mixed representation of the economic value of the two methods of rice production by various authorities demands an empirical examination of the profitability of the two methods in Ghana. The study was, therefore, designed to identify which of the two methods of rice production is more profitable in Ghana. Two-stage sampling technique was used to select 220 farmers, comprising 110 farmers under each of the two methods of rice production which are predominant in Ejura-Sekyedumase Municipality and Sekyere East District of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The data collected from farmers were summarized using descriptive statistics including arithmetic mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, frequencies and percentages. Gross margin and gross profit ratio were used to estimate profitability per acre of rice production under each method. The study revealed that, while farmers under the SRI method obtain GH¢60.68 for every GH¢100.00 sale of rice, farmers under the conventional method obtained GH¢44.04 per every GH¢100.00. The study, therefore, concludes that SRI method of rice production, though a little more costly, is more profitable resulting from a higher yield brought on by the adoption of best agronomic practices associated with the method. Based on the empirical results, the study recommends for the promotion of the System of Rice Intensification method of production in Ghana through awareness creation, extension services and training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Propagation by Stem Cuttings of Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. (Crem): An Alternative for Production of Seed Tubers

Júlio Tagliari Balestrin, Tiago Lodi de Souza, Alan Serafini Betto, Daniela da Silva, Juliana Marcia Rogalski

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 84-90
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130634

The herbaceous vine Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. (Tropaeolaceae), popularly known as crem, has great potential for use, especially its tubers. However, there is still a lack of studies regarding this species. The objective of this study was to test the viability of propagation by stem cuttings for the production of T. pentaphyllum seed tubers. Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse under controlled conditions. In both experiments, experimental design was completely randomized. In the first one, five treatments were evaluated (stem cuttings with 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm) with three replicates, each one with 10 stem cuttings. In the second experiment, three treatments were evaluated (stem cuttings positions: apical, middle and basal), with four replications, each one with 10 stem cuttings. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). Stem cuttings with 15 cm length had the highest rate of tuber formation (20.0%) and produced tubers with highest mass (3.2 g). Cuttings from the middle portion of the stem had the highest rooting (52.5%) and tuber formation (45.0%) rates. Thus, cuttings with 15 cm length from the middle portion of the stem are indicated for propagation by cuttings of T. pentaphyllum. Considering the potential for the use of this species in the future, the results found in this study are very important, since the propagation by cuttings would enable the production of a large amount of seed tubers in a short period of time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Jatropha and Neem Oil Combination on Pink Hibiscus Mealybug

Anderson Mathias Holtz, Ana Beatriz Mamedes Piffer, Filipe Garcia Holtz, José Romário de Carvalho, Ronilda Lana Aguiar, Fernanda Pereira Andrade, Dirceu Pratissoli, Vergilio Borghi Neto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 97-103
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130636

Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) is a polyphagous pest species reported in about 350 species of host plants worldwide. The chemical control method is still the most used for the control of agricultural pests. In view of this, we aim to evaluate the potential of the concentration of oils extracted from the species Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha) on M. hirsutus, aiming at a management alternative for the pest. The experiments were carried out in air-conditioned chambers at a temperature of 25 ± 1ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 10% and a photophase of 12h. The concentration 3% (v v-1) (defined in preliminary dilution tests) was used in the tests, with 11 interaction ratios between the oils. Mortality was assessed daily up to 72 hours after spraying. The application was carried out in two ways: indirect - on the food and walking surface; and direct - about insects. The indirect application caused higher levels of mortality in relation to the direct application. However, there was no significant difference between the concentrations for the indirect application. In the form of direct application, the combination of 60:40% neem oil and jatropha oil was the treatment that provided the highest mortality of the M. hirsutus (86.21%). The combinations between neem and jatropha oils demonstrated the potential to control M. hirsutus in both routes of application, being an alternative for the management of this pest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Gap Analysis in Major Field Crops of Tamil Nadu

A. Divakaran, V. Keerthana, M. Udhayakumar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 104-113
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130637

Agriculture plays a vital role in Indian economy, contributes 13% of gross domestic product and provides employment opportunities to more than 50% of work force.  In India 60% of land area are arable leads to second largest country in terms of total arable land area. The technology development rate is 2 percent and farm productivity rate only increase by 0.3 percent in major crops. It implied that outreach of technology from lab to land have several constraints. In this study, yields gaps of major field crops are calculated with the data provided by the joint directorate of Tamil Nadu, to find, to which extent the advancement in agriculture is helpful and it is found out that the yield gap II of selected varieties of major crops are high. It shows the deviation from the potential yield of the variety with the actual yield obtained by the farmer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effects of Rice and Melon Wastes on Sitophillus Zeamais, Storage Pest of Maize Grains in Nigeria

R. T. Olorunmota, T. I. Ofuya, J. E. Idoko, B. A. Ogundeji

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 114-123
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i130638

World’s calories supply from maize accounts for 20% but global postharvest grain loss caused by insect pests was estimated to be 10%. Control is mostly by synthetic insecticides with consequences such as insect resurgence and resistance and negative effect on non- target organisms. Maize grain losses to weevils are so enormous that effective local solution has to be sought. Thus this research aimed at assessing the effectiveness of powders and ash of rice husk and melon shell in controlling Sitophillus zeamais (Mots) in stored maize. Four treatments, Rice husk powder (RHP), Rice husk ash (RHA), Melon shell powder (MSP) and Melon shell ash (MSA) were applied at eight levels of 0 - 2.0 g 20 g-1 maize grain in three replicates. Five pairs (males and females) of freshly emerged S. zeamais were introduced into each treatment. Mortality test was carried out on the insects at 48 and 96 hours after introduction. Germination test was conducted on  ten randomly selected grains after weevil emergence. Significantly higher (p≤0.05) mortality was recorded in treated seeds than the control. Virtually 100% mortality of S. zeamais was attained in both RHA and MSA treated maize in 96hrs at all application rates. Mean adult emergence in maize treated with both RHA and MSA were zero, with no weight loss like those of grains treated with standard control of P. guinensis. Also maize grain treated with Rice husk ash (RHA) and Melon shell ash (MSA) recorded a mean WPI of zero irrespective of application rates as in P. guinensis. The mean percentage germination of maize grain was significantly higher (p≤0.05) in P. guinensis than those recorded on treatments, while germination of treated maize is higher than the control. Thus rice husk and melon shell are effective alternatives to insecticides against S. zeamais in stored maize.