Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrients on Post Harvest Life of Cut Flowers of Hybrid Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii B.) cv. Shimmer

Bishnupada Giri, Sashikala Beura

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230639

The present investigation was carried out in premises of Biotechnology cum Tissue Culture Centre, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The objective of the study was to standardize suitable integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on post harvest life of gerbera cut flowers. Four leaved tissue culture plantlets of gerbera cv. Shimmer a hybrid suitable for protected cultivation were used for planting. Experiment was laid down in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with eight treatments combination and three replications per treatment. The treatments of different combination of vermicompost, biofertilizer, chemical fertilizer and macro and micro nutrients spray were used. The biofertilizers were applied after incubation with vermicompost for 7 days. Recommended dose of fertilizer were applied 3 month after planting as top dressing and subsequently as per treatment. Treatment combination of 75% Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF) + vermicompost + Phosphorus Solublising Bacteria (PSB) + Azotobacter/Azospirillum + macro and micronutrient spray recorded maximum percent gain in weight of flower stalk, maximum percent gain in stalk length in vase, maximum percent gain in flower diameter, highest solution uptake in vase and longest vase life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seedbed Types and time of Vine Harvesting on Shoot and Tuber Yields of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] in South-south, Nigeria

Lesi Dike Gbaraneh, Victoria Wilson

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 9-20
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230640

A field experiment was conducted at Rivers Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (RIART), Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria with the objective of evaluating the influence of seedbed types and vine harvesting time on shoot and tuber yields of sweet potato and make recommendations for optimal and sustainable production. The treatments consisted of three seedbed types (ridge, flat, and mound), and four vine harvesting time (8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after planting). The experiment was laid out as a 3 x 4 in factorial arrangement fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The results revealed that planting of sweet potato on ridge produced the highest root tuber yield followed by mound seedbeds; planting on flat seedbed produced the highest shoot (vine) and lowest tuber yields. While planting on ridge seedbed and harvesting the vines 16 weeks after planting (when about 80% of the growth phase of the plant was completed) produced optimum shoot yield which could be used as fodder with no significant effect on root tuber yield. In general, vine harvesting during active growth phase of the sweet potato plant seriously depressed tuber yield more than it affected shoot production. These results therefore stand as our recommendations for sweet potato production in the South-south zone of Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Eleusine indica and Digitaria insularis with Herbicides in Association with Cover Plants

Gustavo da Cunha Ramos, Paulo Henrique Vieira dos Santos, Bruna Ferrari Schendenffeldt, Andréia Cristina Silva Hirata, Patricia Andrea Monquero

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 21-32
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230641

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the control of Eleusine indica Gaertn. and Digitaria insularis (L.) Fedde through the combination of soil cover with green manure straw and herbicides applied in pre-emergence.

Study Design: Each weed species was evaluated in different experiments. The experiments were set up in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design and arranged in a factorial scheme (5×4)+2, with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Center of Agricultural Sciences, São Paulo, Brazil, from May 2019 to May 2020.

Methodology: Seeds of Digitaria insularis and Eulesine indica were sown at a depth of 1 cm from the soil surface. Then, the pots were watered, and the straw of Cajanus cajan, Sorghum bicolor, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Crotalaria breviflora was deposited on the surface. The pre-emergence herbicides trifluralin (900 g ai ha−1), pendimethalin (1200 g ai ha−1), clomazone (1000 g ai ha−1), and s-metolachlor (1920 g ai ha−1) were applied one day after the weed seeds were sown. The percentage of weed control was evaluated at 10, 20, and 30 days after emergence (DAE). The plant shoot was cut at 30 DAE and the weight of dry biomass was determined. The control without herbicide and with soil cover crop and no herbicide and no soil cover were also evaluated.

Results: Sorghum bicolor, Cajanus cajan, and Crotalaria breviflora were the most effective in controlling Eleusine indica when no herbicide was applied. Only Sorghum bicolor showed a satisfactory control of Digitaria insularis without the use of chemical management (above 80%). The association of pre-emergence herbicides with soil cover showed high control of weeds.

Conclusion: The results showed that the association between chemical and cultural methods is an effective alternative to control Eulesine indica and Digitaria insularis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of NaCI on Seed Germination, Content of Photosynthetic Pigments, Sugars, and Activity of Photosystem II in Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaves

K. R. Tagieva, I. V. Azizov

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 33-37
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230643

The effect of 50 and 100 mmol NaCl concentrations on seed germination, the content of green pigments in seedlings, and on the activity of photosystem 2 in seedlings of maize varieties Zagatala 420, Zagatala 514, Zagatala 68 and Gurur and hybrid Gurur x Zagatala 68 was studied. Plant seeds were germinated under laboratory conditions in Petri dishes and pots with soil using 50 and 100 mmol of sodium chloride solutions. In two-week old seedlings determined the number of photosynthetic pigments and the activity of photosystem II. High concentrations (100 mmol) of NaCl reduced seed germination, pigments number, and photosystem II activity. At a salt concentration of 100 mmol, an increase in the carbohydrate content was noted. Varieties Gurur and Zagatala 68 and their hybrid “Gurur x Zagatala 68” were more tolerant compared to varieties Zagatala 420, and Zagatala 514.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Digger for Ginger Crop

. Narender, Atul Kumar Shrivastava

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 38-43
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230644

The ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome is harvested manually by different types of spade, fork or bullock drawn plow. These methods consume more time, cause drudgery, losses and low field capacity. Therefore a tractor drawn digger was evaluated for ginger crop. The performance parameters (exposed, cut, bruised and digging efficiency) of the digger were studied at 3 forward speeds and 3 blade angles. The performance of the digger was found satisfactory in respect of digging efficiency of 98.01%, and undug crop of 2.38 % at an average depth of operation of 15.75 cm. The damage was 1.98 per cent which was much low as compared to manual digging of ginger crop (9.73%). The machine takes 7.4 hours to dig one-hectare area of ginger crop with field efficiency of 87.82%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Characteristics of Five Different Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in the Guinea Savanna Ecological Zone of Ghana

Abonuusum Ayimbire, Gabriel Asumboya, Christina Abi Atinga, Richard Akazotiyele, Bodieu Marcellinus

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 44-55
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230645

Aim: To determine the growth characteristics of five sweet potato varieties on different soil types as well as how they each relates to tuber yield. This investigation will help guide farmers from resource-limited areas to select varieties that grow well in austere soils to produce good yield of tubers, thereby boosting global food security. 

Study Design: Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five treatments and three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Experimental field of Bolgatanga Technical University for five months.

Methodology: Planting was done by inserting 10 cm length of each 30 cm long soft wood vine cutting into the soil, followed by watering. Five vine cuttings planted per ridge at a spacing of 60cm. Vine cuttings were transplanted in the same order on each ridge. There were 15 plants per treatment, so seventy-five (75) for the five treatments.

Results: Analysis of the soil showed sandy loamy soil with suitable pH of 6.05. The Orange flesh and Agric white varieties had the largest and smallest leaf areas of 177.76 cm2 and 110.74 cm2 respectively. Leaf area was positively correlated with root tuber mass in only the Red local variety (r = 0.026). Petiole length of the Orange flesh variety (19.08 cm) was significantly longer than that of the Agric white (13.55 cm, p = 0.02), Agric orange flesh (13.85 cm, p = 0.04), Red skin (11.84 cm, p = 0.00) and Red local (12.18 cm, p = 0.00) varieties. Petiole length was positively correlated with tuber yield in only the Orange flesh variety (r = 204). The Red skin (174.28 cm) and Red local (172.46 cm) varieties had the longest vines than all the rest, though not statistically significant (p = 0.241). Root tuber yield of the five varieties were Agric white (1.22 Kg), Agric orange flesh (1.40 Kg), Red skin (4.27 Kg), Red local (2.96 Kg) and Orange flesh (5.72 Kg), which were significantly different from each other (p=0.05).  

Conclusion: The Orange flesh variety had the largest leaf area, longest petioles and the highest root tuber mass. On the other hand, the Agric white variety recorded the least Leaf area, Vine length and Tuber mass while the Red skin variety had the shortest Petioles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energetic Analysis of Rice Processing Plant: A Case Study of Hisar District in Haryana

Parmod Sharma, . Yadvika, Kanishk Verma, Y. K. Yadav, . Ravi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 56-61
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230646

A study was conducted to find out electrical and manual energy use pattern in post harvest rice processing operation in modern rice Plant at Hisar district of Haryana. Planting capacity of rice Plant is 200 tons per day and Plant operated 20 hours in one day. The processing operation adopted in modern rice Plant viz, parboiling, drying, polishing & dehusking, sorting & grading and packaging. In processing of rice, modern rice Plant utilized total electrical and manual energy were 64965.5 and 987.84 MJ/day. It was found that the electrical energy consumption of Plant in parboiling 10010.88, drying 16663.80, polishing & dehusking 22936.32, sorting & grading 14445.09 and packaging 1054.18 MJ/day were required. Operation wise manual energy used during the parboiling & drying 235.2, polishing & dehusking 188.16, sorting & grading 94.08 and packaging 470.40 MJ/day.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Assessment of Rice- Wheat Cropping Systems in Agro-Climatic Zone-1 of Haryana State

Parmod Sharma, . Yadvika, Kanishk Verma, Y. K. Yadav, . Ravi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 62-69
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230647

The aim of study to examined the operation-wise and source wise energy use in wheat and rice crop production.  Present study was conducted in four districts of Haryana namely Kurukshetra, Karnal, Kaithal and Sonipat, which are situated at the bank of Yamuna canal and comes under agro climatic zone-1. In this study total 1080 farmers from 120 villages in different categories (360 from each group) were interviewed and information on various input in wheat and rice crop production was collected during winter and rainy seasons consecutive two years i.e. 2018-19 and 2019-20. Based on the collected information, all the cultural practices in wheat and rice crop production were identified and converted into energy by using standard energy equivalents. Results showed that total operation-wise energy expenditure by large, medium and small farmer's was 43693.82, 42557.21 and 41915.70 MJ/ha respectively in rice crop production. In case of wheat crop cultivation total operation-wise energy consumed by large, medium and small farmer's was 26472.74, 26576.39 and 25644.18 MJ/ha respectively. In both the crop production irrigation and fertilizer share more than 75 % of the total energy.  Fertilizer alone accounted approximately 40 % 0f total energy followed by irrigation and it was also estimated that large group farmer's consumed more energy as compared to medium and small categories farmers in cultivation of rice and wheat crop. Total source-wise energy expenditure  by large, medium and small farmer's was 39402.40, 36579.49 and 36332.21.70 MJ/ha  respectively in rice crop production. In case of wheat crop cultivation total source-wise energy consumed by large, medium and small farmer's was 19969.47, 20486.03 and 20180.73 MJ/ha respectively. From the study it was concluded that energy consumption has a positive relationship with the yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Knowledge and Perception on CommonBeans Production Constraints and their Mitigation Methods in the Humid Rainforest and Highland Savanna of Cameroon

Henry A. Andukwa, Nelson N. Ntonifor

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 70-85
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230648

Background: Common beans, Phaseolus vulgaris is one of the most important plant protein sources in many African countries including Cameroon. It is a major source to smallholder farmers and some large-scale farmers. Common beans also fixes atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with rhizobia thus improving soil fertility. Despite the importance of this major food and cash crop, its production in Cameroon is constrained by several abiotic and biotic factors. Therefore it was hypothesized that bean farmers in the study regions have knowledge on; (1) the various factors that hamper bean production; (2) the planting periods/seasons that the various constraints are more important; (3) they have their own indigenous methods of mitigating these constraints but would prefer more appropriate methods if available.

Aims: To document when farmers plant beans,how they handled the crop when matured, and if they faced problems with rot/mould, insects orany other constraints in their beans and how they manage these problems.

Study Design: Random interviewing of beans farmers.

Place and Duration of Study: Interviewed farmers in Buea and Dschang of the humid rainforest and highland agro-ecological zones of Cameroonrespectively from January 2017 to December 2017.

Methodology: A semi-structural questionnaire was administered to 519 randomly selected bean farmers in two agro-ecological zones; the humid rainforest and highland savanna. A total of 163 from Bueain the south west (humid rainforest) and 356 from Dschang in the west (highland savanna) were randomly interviewed to document the farmers’ perceptions on various constraints hampering beansproduction, when these are most limiting and the various methods they use to mitigate them.

Results: Farmers in both agro-ecological zones lacked adequate land surface area for bean production and suffered from low yields. In the highland savanna or west region, 166 (45.98%) and 119 (75.32%) in the humid rainforest or south west region grew beans in farms of sizes <1Ha. Only 2 (1.27%) of bean farmers in the South West and 35 (9.69%) in the West produced beans on farms >2Ha. Most farmers in the west 267 (73.96%) and 139 (87.97%) in the south west produced only 1-3 bags of 50kg each of beans/ha.The farmers faced problems with mold/rot and insect pests; the mold/rot was the most nagging for beans that matured during the rainy season while insect pests was the major constraint for the dry season beans. The mold/rot was controlled mainly by the adjustment of the planting dates of beans while different types of insecticides were used against the insect pests. Farmers also face problems in having adequate/appropriate staking materials for the climbing or indeterminate bean varieties.

Conclusion: Considering that farmers face the actual daily challenges of bean production. Their knowledge and perceptions of the production constraints of this crop are quintessential and should count in defining research priorities aimed at mitigating the problems in order to increase beans production. Therefore, there is need for research to test and/or validate these farmers knowledge and perceptions about bean production constraints as a prelude to vulgarizing the effective control/management options.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Micronutrient Managment on Growth and Yield Attributes in Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) CV. PRG176] in Kalahandi District of Odisha

H. N. Malik, U. Naik, U. Sahoo, A. Panda, A. Phonglosa, R. Bhattacharya, F. H. Rahman

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 86-93
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230649

Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) is grown worldwide for its protein-rich seed. However, low availability of soil boron adversely affects the seed yield of pigeon pea. The present study was therefore conducted to assess the Influence of micronutrients mainly boron on crop growth and yield of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.)  cv. PRG176. Field experiment was conducted at farmer’s field, Pipalpada and Boria of district Kalahandi of Odisha state. Boron as boric acid at 200, 300 and 400 ppm was given as foliar spray with 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) with ZnSO4 @ 25 kg/ha and plant height, growth rates and  yield attributes were estimated. The results revealed that combined application of 100% RDF, ZnSO4 (25 kg/ha) and Boron (300 ppm) recorded the highest plant height (324.84 cm) at 180 days after sowing (DAS), highest dry matter accumulation (759.30g/m2) at 180 DAS and best crop growth rate (6.65 g/m2/day) during 90-180 DAS and highest relative growth rate (0.052 g/m2/day) during 30-90 DAS. Similarly these combination of treatment resulted in maximum number of branches plant-1 (10.30), pods branch-1 (19.67) pods plant-1 (202.33), seeds pod-1 (3.0) and grain yield (1702.64 kg ha-1), gross return (₹102150/ha), net return (₹ 61650/ha) and return per rupee investment (₹ 2.52) in pigeon pea cv.PRG176.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Assessment of the Agro-physiological Advantages of Upward Tapping in Relation to the Downward Tapping of the GT 1 and PB 260 Rubber Clones [Hevea brasiliensis, Muell. arg. (Euphorbiaceae)] in Southwest Côte d'Ivoire

A. P. Moro, B. Y. C. Adou, M. Diarrassouba, D. Konan, E. F. Soumahin, T. H. Kouakou, S. Obouayeba

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 94-104
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230650

The downward tapping on virgin bark of the lower panel (BO) is immediately followed by the upward tapping on virgin bark of the upper panel (HO), consecutively. To determine the agro-physiological advantages of one tapping over another, a study of the downward and upward tapping of the GT 1 and PB 260 clones of Hevea brasiliensis was carried out in southwestern Côte d'Ivoire. For this purpose, the rubber trees were tapped in a downward half-spiral (S/2) at the opening for nine consecutive years, followed by upward quarter-spiral tapping (S/4U) for four consecutive years. The agronomic parameters (rubber production and vegetative growth), tapping panel dryness and the latex micro-diagnosis, were evaluated. For GT 1 clone, the transition from the downward tapping panels to the upward tapping panels resulted rubber productivity gain of 35%. Meanwhile for PB 260, rubber productivity gain was 37%. Regardless of the clone and tapping direction, the higher the rubber productivity of a respective tapping panel, the lower the isodiametric growth of the tree trunk was recorded. Latex harvesting systems, and clone’s combination, did not influence the tapping panel dryness or the physiological profile of the trees. Finally, it should be concluded that upward tapping is more productive than downward tapping, but the quantification of the gains in this rubber production depends on the clone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata L.) to Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer

P. Yaw Debrah, C. Afriyie-Debrah, F. Nuhu, P. Francisco Ribeiro, E. Agyei Obeng

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 105-114
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230651

Aim: The experiment was conducted in the Kintampo North Municipality during the 2017 cropping season from August to November to evaluate the response of cabbage to different soil amendments.

Methods: It was a single factor experiment laid out in a Randomized Complete Block design with three replications. The five treatments which includes NPK 15-15-15, poultry manure, cow dung and goat manure and a control.

Results: Parameters measured were plant height, number of leaves, leave length, canopy diameter, head diameter and head weight. Generally, all treatments performed better than the control used in the study.

Conclusions: Poultry manure performed similar to NPK 15-15-15, and were superior to all other treatments in all parameters measured. Cow dung and goat manure performed fairly well in the parameters measured.

Recommendation: The study therefore recommends the application of poultry manure for improved growth, yield maximization and sustainable cabbage production.  Application of cow dung and goat manure can also be adopted for appreciable yields of cabbage.