Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Legumes on Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Wheat in a Short Term Crop Rotation in Njoro Sub-County

P. A. Ooro, R. J. Birech, J. N. Malinga, E. Thuranira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330652

Aims: The study determined the effect of legumes in short term crop rotation (cereal – legumes cropping systems) on nitrogen use efficiency of wheat.

Study Design: A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used in a split-split-plot arrangement replicated three times. Three factors evaluated included water harvesting (WH), crop rotation (CR) and soil fertility management (SFM). The data obtained were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Genstat statistical package while the mean separation was performed using least significance differences (P =.05).

Place and Duration of Study: The trial was conducted at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) fields based in Njoro for three years between 2014 and 2016 during rainy seasons.

Methodology: The treatments consisted of four pre-crops in the rotation systems (CR1 = Dolichos lablab (L. purpureus) as a pre-crop; CR2 = Green pea (Pisum sativum) as a pre-crop; potato (Solanum tuberosum) as a pre-crop; and CR4 = continuous wheat (Triticum aestivum), two water harvesting (WH) strategies (WH = flat beds; and WH= tied ridges) and  six soil fertility management (SFM) strategies (SFM1 = untreated control; SFM2 = FYM at 5 t ha-1;  SFM3 = Green manure (Leucaena trichandra) at 2.5 t ha-1; SFM4 =  inorganic source at 25 kg N ha-1; SFM5 = inorganic source at  50 kg N ha-1; and SFM6 = Inorganic source at 75 kg N ha-1)..

Results: The results revealed that the value of NUE significantly (p < 0.001) increased when P. sativum and L. purpureus preceded wheat in the short term crop rotation system.  The value of NUE increased by 39% and 44%, when wheat was preceded L. purpureus and P. sativum, respectively, relative to S. tuberosum.  Under continuous wheat, NUE value was increased by 54.17% relative to potato as a pre-crop. Overall, the contribution of legumes (L. purpureus and P. sativum) as precursor crops was greater than those observed with potato and wheat as pre-crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth, Yield and Shattering Dynamics of Seeds of Twelve Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Accessions

P. K. Tandoh, B. K. Banful, I. A. Idun, E. A. Gaveh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 16-29
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330653

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is an important crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates with huge nutritional, economic and industrial benefits. The plant undergoes explosive shattering to disperse seeds after physiological maturity leading to high loss of seeds at the time of harvesting. A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different harvesting stages on the growth, yield and shattering dynamics of seeds of twelve Roselle accessions in the Department of Horticulture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi from March to November, 2019. A 3x12 factorial design in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used for the study, where factor one was harvesting stages at three levels (physiological maturity, one week after physiological maturity and two weeks after physiological maturity) and factor two was accessions at twelve levels. The study revealed that accession HS08 performed best in terms of growth (plant height, the number of leaves, number of branches and stem girth) and reproductive parameters (number of days to flowering) and accessions HS27 and HS08 produced the highest yield (number of pods, number of seeds per pod, and total seed yield). Harvesting of seeds at the physiological maturity stage happened to be the ideal time because seeds were harvested safely without any losses (0%) due to shattering as compared to the other harvesting stages. The study also established a very strong, positive and significant relationship between seed yield and number of leaves (r=0.7093) and the number of branches (r=0.9241). However, there was a strong but negative and significant relationship between seed yield and percentage seed shattering loss (r=-0.9633). There was a very strong, positive and significant relationship between number of leaves and stem girth (r=0.7769). The number of seeds per plant correlated positively with the number of pods (r=0.7358). A regression model which was given by the equation; Y (Seed yield)=670.96-0.3152 (Shattering loss), R2=0.9279, p<0.0000, indicated that shattering loss significantly affected seed yield to an extent that it contributed 93% of the variation in the seed yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Biochemical Quality Assessment of Commonly Consumed Jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) Varieties Available in Bangladesh

Nishita Rani Paul, Supti Mallick, H. M. Zakir, A. Rahman, Q. F. Quadir

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 30-41
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330654

A study was conducted to determine major biochemical and mineral constituents in commonly consumed jujube varieties of Bangladesh. A total of 15 (4 local/deshi and 11 exotic) varieties of matured jujube fruits were collected from the different markets and local areas of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh, and analyzed for this study. The study results revealed that all studied physical properties were lower in local/deshi sour varieties of jujube, and BAU kul contained the maximum amount of flesh (edible part of fruits) along with flesh and seed ratio. Among the biochemical properties- titratable acidity, vitamin C, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total sugar and reducing sugar content varied from 0.178-2.769%, 33.28-98.63 mg/100 g flesh, 0.0019-0.0174 mg/g tissue, 0.0007-0.0148 mg/g tissue, 2.50-9.83% and 0.135-4.150%, respectively. The study results revealed that local/deshi varieties contained a comparatively higher amount of vitamin C and lower total sugar. However, BARI kuls contained significantly higher amounts of vitamin C and chlorophylls compared to other exotic varieties. The content of Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and S in jujube varieties ranged from 0.040-0.233%, 0.071-0.164%, 0.054-0.189%, 0.490-2.602%, 0.062-0.234% and 0.079-0.359%, respectively. Regarding major nutrients studied, Ca, Na, K, P, and S contents were higher in local/deshi sour varieties while Mg content was higher in exotic varieties. The study results concluded that most of the biochemical and mineral contents in local/deshi sour jujube fruits were higher, allowing breeders to develop new varieties and improve the quality of existing exotic cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Growth and Development of Helicoverpa armigera Hubner

D. V. Sravan Kumar, P. V. Krishnayya, M. Srinivasa Rao, P. Anil Kumar, V. Srinivasa Rao

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 42-54
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330655

Climate change is an imminent and inevitable circumstance largely driven by increase in CO2 and temperature. CO2 directly affects plants through positive effects on net photosynthetic rate. Higher temperature during the crop growth phase can diminish the yield, with a longer growing season. In the present study, adverse climate conditions i.e. elevated CO2 (550 ppm) and elevated temperatures (29, 31, 33 and 35 ± 1 °C) were simulated in carbon dioxide and temperature gradient chambers (CTG).  Growth and development of Helicoverpa armigera on non-Bt and Bt cotton leaves from those CTG chambers were recorded and correlated with foliar carbohydrates and proteins.It was found that protein content decreased by almost 42 % in non-Bt cotton and by 36 % in Bt cotton, while larval weight and duration decreased significantly with elevated conditions particularly in Bt cotton.  Relative Growth Rate (RGR) increased with eCO2+ eTemp and is relatively less in non-Bt cotton compared to Bt cotton by 4-13 mg g-1 day-1. Lower protein content is positively correlated significantly to larval growth rate (r = 0.9**). Effects of climate change on crops and their pests have to be further quantified precisely to develop plausible stress mitigation strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Diatomaceous Earth and Vitellaria paradoxa Seed Oil in Storage of Cowpea under Ventilated and Non-ventilated Conditions

M. O. Omobowale, O. P. Akomolafe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 70-81
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330658

Storage of cowpea is highly constrained by insect pest infestation and losses caused by the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus, F.) are high. Several methods have been used over the years to protect cowpea grains in storage, but the use of synthetic insecticides is very dominant and this has led to problems, such as the killing of non-target species, user hazards, harmful food residues, and evolution of resistance to chemicals. A search for alternative insect pest control methods which are relatively less harmful to the user and cheaper has become essential. The effectiveness of Diatomaceous earth (DE) and Vitellaria paradoxa seed oil (VPSO) for cowpea storage in polypropylene and jute bags under ventilated and non-ventilated storeroom conditions were investigated over three months period. Crude DE was applied at a dose rate of 1 g/kg of cowpea and a diluted concentration (10% v/v) of VPSO of 400 mL was mixed with 8 kg of cowpea. Live insect count, dead insect count, and germination percentage were assessed weekly while proximate analysis was carried out before and after storage. Mean live insect count increased in the ventilated store-room from 0.67±0.34 to 36.13±19.51insects/kg after 1 month and 3 months of storage respectively for untreated cowpea. Insect population in treated samples increased from 0.38±0.26to 24.78±23.33, and from 0.17±0.30 to 10.75±5.27 for DE and VPSO treated samples, respectively. In the non-ventilated storeroom, insect population increased from 0.33±0.26 to 36.96±19.09 for untreated cowpea, 0.17±0.20 to 33.08±30.07 for DE and 0.21±5.63 to 8.17±11.30 for VPSO treated cowpea. Based on insect count, both treatments were very effective in controlling cowpea weevil in the first two months of storage, however their potency reduced by the third month. The potency of DE deteriorated faster compared to VPSO however, DE treated cowpea was most effective for retaining seed germination in both ventilated and non-ventilated storerooms. Proximate analysis showed that cowpea treated with both treatments had similar nutrient composition after storage. Diatomaceous earth and Vitellaria paradoxa seed oil have potentials in their raw form for short term insect pest control in the storage of cowpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Indonesian Agricultural Exports: Trends and Competitiveness Analysis of Last 2 Decades

P. Soumya, R. A. Yeledhalli

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 82-89
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330659

The study aims to evaluate the patterns and competitiveness of Indonesian agricultural exports. The research period covered for this report is from 2000 to 2018. The study is focused on the compound growth rate and the revealed comparative advantage. In terms of quantity, the compound growth rate for agricultural commodities exports from Indonesia is 8.78 percent, and in terms of volume, it is 12.33 percent. According to the report, there is a need to expand the export market by meeting the requirements set by import countries. Seven agricultural commodities groups showed revealed comparative advantage throughout the study period, five showed revealed comparative advantage by the end of the study period, and seventeen showed revealed comparative disadvantage throughout the study period. The study proposed a need to promote the export of agricultural commodities having revealed comparative advantage during the entire or at the end of the period of study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Pink Bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Flowers (Rosette) of Bt Cotton in Andhra Pradesh, India

A. Appala Raju, G. M. V. Prasada Rao, V. Chinna Babu Naik, C. H. Chiranjeevi, A. K. Patibanda, V. Srinivasa Rao

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 90-97
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330660

The pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) has recently emerged as a serious menace on Bt cotton in India. Extensive roving surveys were conducted in 12 locations of three major cotton growing districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, to assess the level of pink bollworm infestation in Bt cotton during 2018-19 and 2019-20. The dynamics and severity of flower damage due to pink bollworm during the 60-135 days’ crop period were evaluated based on a random sampling of flowers. Survey results revealed a widespread infestation of pink bollworm on Bt cotton flowers across the surveyed sites in a range of 11.8-19.50%. With the advancement of the crop season, a progressive increase in the flower damage was observed till 120 DAS then declined. Reasons for the enhanced flower damage and implications are discussed in this article.

Open Access Original Research Article

Insecticidal Activity of Powder and Essential Oils of Vepris heterophylla (Rutaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae) Towards Callosobruchus maculatus F. walp (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on Post-Harvest Vigna unguiculata (Fabaceae) in the Far-North Region of Cameroon

Matseu Sakou Gerardine Noël, Ngatanko Illiassa, Kouninki Habiba, Nukenine Nchiwan Elias

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 98-112
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330661

The bioinsecticidal effect of powders and essential oils of S. aromaticum (L.) flower buds and V. heterophylla (Engl.) leaves against adult cowpea weevil C. maculatus was studied. Powders were tested by direct contact only while essential oils were tested by direct contact and indirect contact (inhalation and repellency). In 500 mL glass jars, the individual and combined powders were applied to 100 g of cowpea seeds at 0.5 g, 1 g, 1.5 g and 2 g doses for both leaves and flower buds of V. heterophylla and S. aromaticum respectively. The essential oils were also applied individually and after equilibrium combination on 50 g of cowpea at 4 µL/mL, 8 µL/mL, 12 µL/mL, 16 µL/mL. All the infestations were then achieved by adding 20 bruchids of 48 h old. The essential oil obtained was purified and analyzed with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). 72 h after the individual treatment, 100% mortality was obtained at 2 g dose for V. heterophylla and 0.5 g dose for S. aromaticum compared to the control jars (1%). The combined powders were found to be more effective with 100% of mortality at a dose 1 g after 48 h of exposure. For essential oils, 100% and 90% of mortality were obtained respectively at 8 µL/mL dose for S. aromaticum (160 µL/kg) and 16 µL/mL dose for V. heterophylla (320 µL/kg) 72 h after treatment. In addition, the essential oil of S. aromaticum showed relatively higher repellant properties with an average repellency percentage of PR = 89.37% than that of V. heterophylla (PR = 70.62%). 100% of mortality was induced after inhalation of essential oils of S. aromaticum and V. heterophylla at doses 10 µL and 40 µL respectively after 72 h of exposure time. Results obtained from the GC-MS showed that the major components in the essential oil of S. aromaticum were eugenol (83.40%) while that of V. heterophylla were Spathulenol (23.66%), Beta-Caryophyllene oxide (16.46%) and 6-Isopropenyl-4 (16.30%). The powders and essential oils of the tested plants applied individually or after equilibrium combination showed interesting prospects for controlling Callosobruchus maculatus and effectively preserving cowpea seeds in storage warehouses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Pearl Millet, Microbial Population and System Productivity in Pearl Millet Based Cropping Systems

A. Sowjanya, CH. Pulla Rao, CH. Sujani Rao

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 113-124
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330662

The present study evaluated the use of various phosphorus management practices with and without PSB on pearl millet and its residual effect on succeeding pulse crops like green gram, blackgram and chickpea. It was conducted at agricultural college farm, Bapatla during both kharif and rabi seasons of 2017-18 and 2018-19. The treatments consisted of T1: No Phosphorus, T2: 50% RDP T3: 75% RDP, T4: 100% RDP, T5: 50% RDP + seed inoculation with PSB, T6 :75% RDP + seed inoculation with PSB, T7 : 100% RDP + seed inoculation with PSB in RBD design with three replications in kharif pearl millet crop. The results indicated that, the treatment T7 (100% RDP + seed inoculation with PSB) recorded significantly the highest growth parameters like LAI, CGR, RGR and NAR at different phenological stages of crop growth period and yield of pearl millet (2996 kg ha-1 and 2876 kg ha-1 during 2017 and 2018 respectively) and it was at par with T4 (100% RDP). Similarly, the total fungi, bacteria and rhizobium counts were increased with increase in fertilizer level and PSB treated plots (T7, T6 and T5) when compared to un-inoculated PSB plots (T4, T3 and T2). The highest number of bacteria (46.2  and 49.2  cfu per gram soil), fungi (25.4 and 24.4 cfu per gram soil) and rhizobium (33.5 and 34.4cfu per gram soil)  was found in the treatment T7 (100% RDP+ seed inoculation with PSB) during 2017-18 and 2018-19, respectively. Among the different kharif residual treatments, the highest pearl millet equivalent yield of rabi crops was recorded with residual effect of 100 % RDP + PSB (M7).

Open Access Original Research Article

Dates of Sowing and Residual Nitrogen Levels on Growth, Yield and Uptake in Sorghum under Zero-till Conditions in Coastal Belts of India

B. Vibhajam Sagal Kiran, V. R. K. Murthy, M. Sree Rekha, P. R. K. Prasad

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 125-132
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330663

A field experiment was conducted during rabi seasons of 2017-18 and 2018-19 at College farm, Agricultural College, Bapatla, situated at 8 km away from the Bay of Bengal in the Krishna Agro-climatic Zone of Andhra Pradesh state of India to study the influence of dates of sowing and residue levels of nitrogen on growth, yield and uptake of sorghum under zero- till conditions in coastal rice fallows. The experiment was designed in RDB with factorial concept and replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of three dates of sowing (Factor-1): S1: 49 MW (5th December); S2: 50 MW (15th December); S3: 52 MW (25th December) and four residual nitrogen levels (Factor-2) applied to the previous rice crop: N1-60 kg, N2-80 kg, N3-100 kg and N4-120 kg N ha-1. Sorghum was grown as a residual crop under zero tillage in rice fallows. Significant higher improvement in drymatter (10395 and 10269 kg ha-1), length of spike (24.8 and 24.5 cm), grain (3839 and 3602 kg ha-1) and stover yields (7446 and 7298 kg ha-1) and nitrogen uptake by grain (51.9 and 42.9 kg N ha-1) and stover (42.0 and 39.9 kg N ha-1) was recorded in early date of sowing i.e. 49 MW in both the seasons 2017-18 and 2018-19, respectively, and among the residue nitrogen levels 120 kg N ha-1 showed highest drymatter (10661 and 10484 kg ha-1), length of spike (25.0 and 24.8 cm), grain (4078 and 3815 kg ha-1) and stover yields (7518 and 7443 kg ha-1) and nitrogen uptake by grain (54.6 and 46.6 kg N ha-1) and stover (44.3 and 42.1 kg N ha-1) compared to other nitrogen levels in both the seasons. Based on above results, early sowing of sorghum with high residue nitrogen levels could be recommended to small and marginal farmers in coastal belts of India for higher productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Leaves of Five Sweet Potato Varieties for Their Nutrient, Mineral and Phytochemical Properties

Ayimbire Abonuusum, Asumboya Gabriel, Abdul-Rahaman Saibu Salifu, Christina Abi Atinga, Akazotiyele Richard, Bodieu Marcellinus

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 133-148
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330664

Aim: To determine the nutrients, minerals and phytochemicals contained in leaves of five sweet potato varieties.

Study Design: The study was carried out in the dry season from November 2018 to March 2019, using a randomized complete block design (RCBD).During planting, 10 cm length of each 30 cm long soft wood vine cutting was inserted into the soil and immediately watered. A space of 60cm was left between the plants and there were five vine cuttings planted per ridge. The order of planting the vine cuttings was the same on each replicate ridge. Each treatment had three replications with each replicate having five plants to give a total of75 vine cuttings in all. Leaves of the sweet potato varieties; Agric white (AW), Agric orange flesh (AO), Red skin (RS), Orange flesh (OF) and Red local (RL) were parceled; each variety in a separate parcel, appropriately labelled and sent to the Food Science Laboratory of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, for analysis.

Study Site: The sweet potatoes were cultivated in the experimental field of Ecological Agriculture Department, Bolgatanga Technical Universityin Bolgatanga Municipality of Upper East Region, Ghana.

Methodology: Proximate analysis was done and nutrient content expressed in percentages (%). Concentrations of the minerals iron (Fe), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and magnesium in milligrams per kilogram (Mg/Kg) were determined. Total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the concentrations of carotenoids and Flavonoids were also estimated and expressed in Mg/Kg. Antioxidant properties of the leaves was determined and reported in mg/Kg.

Results: Proximate analysis of the leaves show that all five sweet potato varieties are very nutritious. Leaves of AW variety recorded the highest protein (6.17± 0.43%) and carbohydrates (8.61 ± 0.32%). The content of crude fibre is generally high in leaves of all varieties, ranging from1.42 ± 0.50% in AO to 2.42 ± 0.18% in OF. The proportion of fat in all the varieties is similar, averaging 2,096 ± 0.046%, with the highest of 2.25 ± 0.06% in AO. The two orange flesh varieties, OF and AO, had the highest and higher concentrations of iron (Fe) of 2,020.41 and 467.11 mg/Kg respectively. Magnesium (Mg) is the element that occurred in highest concentration of all the minerals, with an average concentration of 7,991.02 mg/Kg. The OF variety contained the highest concentration of total phenol of 875.00 ± 95.86 mg/Kg. With an average of 4,915.00 ± 166.00 mg/Kg, the concentration of flavonoids in all five varieties in the current study is similar. The concentration of total carotene decreased in the order RL>RS>AW>AO>OF, with the RL variety containing 124.22 ± 10.00 mg/Kg while the OF one possessed 49.39 ± 2.00 mg/Kg. The content pattern of beta carotene was RL> RS> AW> OF> AO, with RL variety containing 4.56 ± .03mg/Kg as AO had 1.57 ± 0.53 mg/Kg. The capacity of phytochemicals in the sweet potato varieties to scavenge and inhibit free radicals as well as reactive oxygen species [using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay] was highest in the OF variety (51.073%).

Conclusion: Leaves of the five sweet potato varieties studied are rich in diverse nutrients and phytochemicals. Therefore, encouraging the growth and consumption of both leaves and root tubers is a cheaper means of reducing malnutrition and enhancing good public health. It is therefore, essential for more investigations to establish the nutrient content and nutrachemical capabilities of both roots and leaves of the different varieties of sweet potato in the different environments so as to equip the general public with appropriate information to guide dieting choices.

Open Access Review Article

Retracted: Climate Resilient Vegetable Farming: A Review

. Shilpa, Priyanka Bijalwan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 55-69
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i330657

Climate change is one of the global challenges faced by the mankind today with the continuously rising temperature, triggering a host of extreme weather events such as heat waves, drought, and flooding. These climate induced challenges are manifesting themselves rapidly, causing socio-economic insecurities and health challenges, particularly in marginalized communities. There is increasing evidence of indirect associations between climate change and the rise in the rates of malnutrition, poor health, hunger and starvation, as well as food and water insecurity. In addition, climate-change impacts have put an additional pressure on already stressed natural resource base, reducing the resilience of agro-ecosystems that are, in part, providing food and nutritional security in rural communities. Tackling these challenges requires a paradigm shift from the current incremental adaptation strategies towards transformative alternatives that also place an equal emphasis on human nutrition and health, as well as environmental sustainability. In the context of marginalized farming communities, a transformative adaptation strategy is defined as one that causes a disruptive, but desirable and sustainable change to the social– ecological state of the system. In the context of this paper, the inclusion of adaptable nutrient dense vegetable crops into marginalized agricultural systems and dominant food systems is considered part of transformative adaptation.

Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal after receipt of written complains. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 02nd July-2021. Related policy is available here: