Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Elimination of Begomoviruses in Cassava Meristems and Axillary Buds

Adonise F. Valam Zango, Innocent Zinga, Régis Dimitri Longué Soupké, Simplice Prosper Yandia, Brice Toko Marabana, Nicole Gado Yamba Kassa, Françoise R. Otabo, Emmanuel Kamba Mebourou, Kosh Komba Ephrem, Armand M’Villa, Guy Florent Ankogui, Semballa Silla, Joseph Mabanza

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430665

Aim: The production of healthy cuttings from a local cassava cultivar for cassava mosaic control.

Study design: The study was carried out at the In Vitro Culture Laboratory using the techniques of thermotherapy and culture of tissues and explants in a specific medium.

Place and duration: The study was carried out at the Laboratory of Biological and Agronomic Sciences for Development at the University of Bangui, Central African Republic from December 2017 to June 2018.

Methodology: A variety of cassava called six-month very susceptible to mosaic was used for this work. The cuttings used were infected by Cassava Mosaic Begomoviruses (CMBs) with high severity. It were subcultured in a room under the heat of 37 ° C to 40 ° C for two weeks. Explants and meristems were taken from the stems and the apices, respectively. These collected materials were treated and seeded on appropriate culture media. After the plants produced in vitro were acclimatized and the leaves were removed to check their phytosanitary state by the PCR technique.

Results: The rate of emergence of the acclimatized plants and the expression of the disease on the microplants were evaluated. The results show that 75% of the weaned vitro plants recovered under acclimatization. In addition, the acclimatized plants left growing in the greenhouse for four months remained asymptomatic. Molecular analysis by PCR showed that begomoviruses were not detected on meristem samples unlike samples from stem fragments.

Conclusion: The combination of thermotherapy technique associated with the culture of meristems constitutes an effective means useful for the sanitation of infected plant material.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Glufosinate in Sequential Application Systems with Dicamba on Palmer Amaranth

Grace Flusche Ogden, Peter A. Dotray

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430666

Aims: Determine the influence of sequential spray order and role of glufosinate when used in a system with dicamba to control Palmer amaranth at three different growth stages.

Study design:  Randomized complete block design with four replications

Place and duration of Study: A fallow, non-crop field at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Lubbock, Texas, during the 2018-2019 growing seasons

Methodology: Herbicides were applied to < 10 cm, 10 to 20 cm, and > 30 cm Palmer amaranth with a handheld 1.93m CO2-pressurized backpack calibrated to deliver 140 L ha-1 at 207 kPa. Palmer amaranth control was visually estimated on a scale of 0 (no control) to 100% (complete plant death) relative to the nontreated control. Palmer amaranth biomass and density were taken when all plots reached 50% or less control in 2019. Palmer amaranth control, biomass, and density were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Fisher’s Protected LSD at an alpha of 0.05.

Results: Palmer amaranth control decreased as Palmer amaranth size at initial application increased. A difference in efficacy based on herbicide order was observed for < 10 cm Palmer amaranth. Glufosinate followed by dicamba was less effective (76-83%) than dicamba followed by glufosinate (93-96%) at 2 of 4 rating dates following sequential applications in both years. Dicamba + acetochlor followed by glufosinate provided greater Palmer amaranth control than dicamba followed by dicamba at one or more rating dates across all weed sizes.

Conclusion: Glufosinate served as a complimentary partner in the dicamba-based system, and additional modes of action will be more effective to slow the development of resistance to group 4 herbicides when compared to repeated use of a group 4 herbicide used alone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Root Trainer on the Success of Grafting and the Survival Rate of Cashew Tree [Anacardium occidentale L.(Anacardiaceae)] in Field

Camille Kouakou, Kouakou Laurent Kouakou, Jonas Patrick Dao, Kouamé Kevin Koffi, Irié Arsène Zoro Bi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 21-30
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430669

Grafting is the most widespread vegetative propagation technique in cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.). Usually, cashew plant grafting are done on seedlings in plastic bags in nursery. In addition, to the low success rate, grafted plants have a low viability rate in field because main roots were broken during their transfer to the field. This study was carried out to evaluate the grafting success and survival rate of cashew seedlings planted in root trainer with different size (250 cc, 500 cc and 1000 cc). Each type of container was filled with two different growing substrates: coconut fiber and sawdust. Results showed that large size root trainers (1000 cc) have the highest percentage of graft success (96.67%). Rootstocks 45 days old presented the highest percentage of graft success in nursery (94.31%). The longest scions (12 cm) presented the minimum sprouting time (18.21 days). In the field, survival rate 100% of the grafted plants was recorded. In addition to the high survival rate ensured in field, root trainer is eco-friendly reusable and it light nature can prove a profitable technology for raising cashew elite plants regeneration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability, Association and Selection of Promising Characters for Breeding Creole Maize

Yrle da Rocha Fontinele, Vanderley Borges dos Santos, Luan de Oliveira Nascimento, Antônio Carnaúba de Aragão, Matheus Matos do Nascimento, Almecina Balbino Ferreira, Antonia Fabiana Barros de Lima, José Genivaldo do Vale Moreira, Dheme Rebouças de Araújo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 31-43
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430670

Genetic variability is the main characteristic when seeking to select promising genotypes for plant breeding. Thus, the objective of this work was to investigate the genetic variability in agronomic and morphological characteristics of traditional varieties of maize, in addition to determining the degree of association and the selection of variety and promising characters to be explored in programs of genetic breeding of Creole maize. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Acre (UFAC), Rio Branco - Acre, in the 2017/2018 harvest period. A randomized block design was used, with five replications. The treatments were four varieties of Creole maize (V1, V2, V3 and V4) from the Vale do Juruá region and another hybrid cultivar LG 3040 (HI). The morpho-agronomic characteristics were evaluated in the useful area of the plots: days to silking (DS), days to anthesis (DA), plant height (PH) and height ear insertion (HEI), stem diameter (SD), mass of ear (ME), length ear (LE), diameter ear (DE), total grain mass (TGM), mass of 100 grain (M100G), grain moisture (GM) and grain productivity (GP). The data were subjected to analysis of variance and comparison of means. The values of genotypic and phenotypic variance were also estimated, heritability in the broad sense, selection accuracy, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlation, in addition to the principal component analysis (PCA). Variations in characteristics were found between the varieties of Creole maize and their interrelations, showing greater influence of ME, PH, TGM, M100G, DE and GP in the expression of the phenotype. Therefore, it is concluded that there is genetic variability in the characteristics evaluated, with emphasis to V4 that showed superior performance allowing direct selection of the characteristics SD, ME, TGM and M100G to be incorporated into an breeding program.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breeding Resistance for Post Flowering Stalk rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) in Maize Identification of Resistance against Post Flowering Stalk Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) in Maize

M. Banoth, K. Prabhavathi, D. Bhadru, B. Mallaiah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 44-55
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430671

Maize is one of the most important staple food crops in the World. However, the yields of maize have been affected by various fungal infestations. Post flowering stalk rot is one of the devastating diseases and so, we planned our study to order to identify suitable resistance maize genotypes against post flowering stalk rot (PFSR) complex caused by Macrophomina phaseolina through in-vivo screening and toothpick method for creating artificial epiphytotics. A total of 20 maize inbreds were screened and crossed in Line × Tester mating design (15 × 5) during Kharif 2019, Six resistant inbred lines were identified and generated the 75 F1s (SCHs) at MRC, ARI, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. All these 20 parents and 75 F1s along with three checks were evaluated by raising the crop in disease sick plot accompanied by toothpick inoculation during Rabi, 2019-20, in a Randomized Block Design with two replications. The field screening of maize genotypes by the standard toothpick method which needs about 40 days for expression of plant drying symptoms due to PFSR and data are possible to record only at the time of crop harvesting using 1-9 rating scale of PFSR for scoring disease severity in-vivo condition by splitting the stem of each plant. As a result, most of the genotypes were exhibited disease reaction varying from resistant (score 2) to moderately resistant (score 5) against M. phaseolina. While studying the genetics of PFSR, we found that interaction of lines and testers were proportionally contributed towards resistant, and degree of dominance is preferably non-additive gene action, it shows that the magnitude of dominance was higher than additive effect indicating that PFSR resistance is largely governed by dominance effect i.e., non additive component is not fixable for resistance. It is also found that the resistant genotypes also exhibited highest significant positive heterosis and combining ability effects (GCA and SCA). A considerable yield reduction in grain yield (10.5 to 28.3%) over checks was observed in susceptible lines. Most of the genotypes were found resistant as the reduction in yield is low. Hybrids developed using such lines exhibited high yields which are promoted for extensive testing to know their stability before release as commercial hybrids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Total Nutrient Uptake Influenced by Soil Salinity, Phosphorus Sources and Biofertilizers in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

Sushila Aechra, B. L. Yadav, Kiran Doodhwal, Rashmi Bhinda, Lali Jat

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 56-63
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430672

A pot experiment was laid out at Sri Karan Narendra College of Agriculture, Jobner in 2015 during kharif season using cowpea as a test crop to study the influence of soil salinity, phosphorus sources and biofertilizers on yield and total nutrient uptake by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). The experiment was tested in completely randomized design in which three levels of each salinity (EC 1.22, 4.0 and 6.0 dS/m), phosphorus (single super phosphate, di ammonium phosphate and phosphorus rich organic manure) and biofertilizers (control, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria + vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza) were used with three replications. The experimental data showed that soil salinity (EC 1.22 dS/m) recorded significantly higher yield and total nutrient uptake by cowpea in comparison to other treatments. But nitrogen content lowest recorded at EC 1.22 dS/m. Result further revealed that phosphorus source phosphorus rich organic manure recorded significantly maximum yield and total nutrient uptake by cowpea over rest of the treatments. Furthermore, seed inoculation with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria + vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza recorded the maximum yield and nutrient uptake by cowpea over rest of the treatments. It’s concluded that combination of EC 1.22 dS/m + phosphorus rich organic manure + Biofertilizers (phosphorus solubilizing bacteria + vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza) found superior in all these parameters over the control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Biopesticides and Pheromone Traps on Major Insect-Pests and Their Natural Enemies of Cabbage

Aklima Begum, Md. Abdul Latif, Mohammed Ali, Fatima Farhana

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 64-75
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430673

Aims: This study is aimed to know the effect of biopesticides on insect pests, predators and yield of cabbage.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out at a randomized complete block design with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Central farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh during the period from October 2018 to March 2019.

Methodology: The experiment was conducted with six treatments viz. T1= Spinosad @25 ml/ha at 7 days interval , T2= SNPV (Spodoptera litura nuclear polyhedrosis virus) @ 2.47/ha at 7days interval, T3= Spodolure trap @ 1/6 plot at 14 days interval, T4= Spodolure trap + Spinosad spray, T5= Spodolure trap + SNPV spray and T6= untreated control.

Results: The lowest infested leaves per five plants by flea beetle (0.33), tobacco cutworm (0.33), semi- looper (0.33), diamondback moth (1.33), aphid (7.50), was found in treatment (Spodolure trap + Spinosad).The population of natural enemies per plot was also recorded and highest population of lady bird beetle (8.00) and spider (8.60) was also observed from Spodolure trap + Spinosad treatment as compared to untreated control. The highest percentage of healthy plants (91.67), maximum weight of healthy cabbge head plant-1 (1.20 kg), marketable cabbage head plot-1 (19.48 kg) and marketable yield of healthy cabbage head (45.08 t ha-1) was found with Spodolure trap + Spinosad treatment.

Conclusion: It is concluded that Spodolure trap in combination with Spinosad spray may be effective practice for the management of cabbage insect pests.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical Evolution of Solutions in Response to the Contact of Water with Beans: Case Study of Soaking and Boiling

J. C. Fopoussi Tuebue, I. N. Tchinda

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 76-95
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430674

The present paper aims to highlight the physical evolution of solutions from soaking and beans cooking process. This is motivated by the desire to shed light on the particular behavior of the bean end-of-cooking solutions when they are incorporated into the soil. For that purpose, solutions from soaking were produced by putting in contact 2kg of sorted and quickly washed beans seed with 8kg of water with known physical characteristics. Concerning the solutions from cooked beans, they were produced by putting on fire the pot containing the mixture of the water from soaking and bean seeds. The beans were a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris L.,known as “Meringue”. The cooking process was done without salts. The samples of solutions were collected as follow: 30 and 60 minutes respectively after the beginning of the soaking, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after the beginning of the cooking process of the beans soaked during 60 minutes. After each sampling, the equal volume of the solution collected was replaced with the water used for the cooking process. The color of the water used for the cooking process is translucent. Concerning solutions from soaking, their coloration are gradually reddish. Solutions from soaking and cooking process became abruptly dark red. From 60 minutes of the cooking process after soaking, the dark red coloration turn to strong brown. The solution handled in the case of the present study, from soaking and cooking the beans are gradually enriched in flakes compared to the situation noticed in the water used for the cooking process. But, the enrichment becomes abruptly high with the beginning of the cooking process after the process of soaking. In terms of consequence, their physical parameters studied in the present case study all increase in the same manner, notably the mass, the volumetric mass, and the density of the different solutions. The infiltration tests made including the water used for the different processes, solutions form the end of cooking the beans, and human urine show that the infiltration rate of the water from cooked beans is very low compared to that of the water used for the processes and human urine. The total infiltration of solution of the end of cooking the bean reveals on the infiltration surface the presence of a film of a matter bearing molds, generated by the progressive settling of this solution. The correlations established between the different parameters followed up here are highly positive. But in detail, the influence of an under laid parameter, known here as temperature, has been identified as being the responsible of the questioned behavior of the parameters taken in pairs in the case of correlation studies made. Finally, from this work, it emerges that the specific behavior of the bean end-of-cooking solution when it is introduced into the soil is justified by its progressive enrichment in organic matter during the cooking process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction effect of Spacing and Nutrient Levels on N, P and K Content and Uptake of Isabgol Plant (Planatago ovata forsk) under Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka

M. Eragegowda, A. P. Mallikarjuna Gowda, T. N. Pushpa, B. N. Maruthiprasad, M. N. Thimmegowda, G. R. Smitha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 96-102
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430675

The experiment was laid out in a Factorial Randomized Block Design with sixteen treatments and replicated three times. There was no significant difference among the treatments with respect to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of leaves under different levels of planting geometry and interaction effect. But different nutrient levels had significant influence in the N, P and K content in isabgol plant. Higher N (3.76%), P (0.7%) and K (3.59 %) content in the leaves was observed when plants supplied with 75 %  RDF (37.5:18.75:22.50 + 7.5 t FYM). The maximum uptake of N (229.11 kg /ha), P (43.98 kg /ha) and K (218.46 kg /ha) was found at row spacing of 22.5 cm, which was significantly superior to other spacing levels.Nutrients had significantly influenced the N, P and K uptake. The 75 % RDF (37.5:18.75:22.50 + 7.5 t FYM) level recorded maximum uptake of N (166.36 kg /ha), P (32.13 kg /ha) and K (158.39 kg /ha), which was significantly superior to all other nutrient levels.Among the interactions, 22.5 cm row spacing + 75 % RDF (37.5:18.75:22.50 + 7.5 t FYM) recorded significantly maximum N, P and K uptake (252.05, 49.31 and 238.85 kg/ha respectively).

Where, RDF= recommended dose of fertlizer, FYM = Farm yard manure

Open Access Original Research Article

Suitability of Rice Transplanters and Weeders in Different Soil Types

S. Vallal Kannan, A. Veeramani, M. Hemalatha, S. Elamathi, C. Umamageswari, N. Satheesh Kumar, S. R. Shri Rangasami

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 103-113
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430676

Aim: To evaluate the performance of existing models of rice transplanters in different soil types, to evaluate the performance of existing models of power weeder in different soil types, and to reduce the cost of cultivation and enhance the rice production and profitability.

Study design: Strip plot design with different soil types as main-plot treatments(3),existing models of rice transplanter(5)  as sub-plot treatment and existing models of power weeder(3) as sub-sub-plot treatments.

Place and duration: Experiments were conducted in six locations of delta zones  of Tamil Nadu representing three soil types’ viz., sandy clay loam, sandy loam, and clay loam during samba season(2019 & 2020) with  the medium duration rice variety ‘TKM 13.

Methodology: Transplanter machine related parameters of actual field efficiency, theoretical capacity and field efficiency and  weeder  machine related parameters of field capacity and field efficiency and weed control efficiency was observed in different soil types. Suitability of transplanter and weeder combination on rice growth and yield parameters and yield, reduction of cost of cultivation and increase in net return and net income were observed and calculated.

Results: Among growth and yield parameters, the 6 row yanmar transplanter along with conoweeding combination were recorded higher tillers and productive tillers (16.28 &20.65/hill), number of filled grains (113&145/panicle) seed yield (5922 &5733kg/ha) respectively in sandy clay loam and sandy loam soil.  Similarly, higher net return(Rs.70195/ha& Rs.55343/ha)) and BCR(2.62& BCR(2.28) in sandy clay loam  and  sandy loam soil respectively. Furthermore, they achieved additional grain yield of 1769 kg/ha and 1873 kg/ha with the additional net profit of Rs.37027/ha& Rs.34813/ha in sandy clay loam and sandy loam soil respectively. Yanmar 8 row transplanter along with single row power weeder combination were recorded higher productive tillers (15.25/hill), filled grains(122/panicle)  and seed yield (5506 kg/ha)  with higher net return (Rs.58175/ha) and BCR(2.32) in clay  loam soil. Furthermore, they achieved with an additional grain yield of 1121 kg/ha with additional net profit of Rs.24618/ha and net income change of Rs.24618/ha  in clay loam soil compared to farmers practice.

Conclusion: Cultivation of rice by using 6 row yanmar transplanter and weeding by cono weeder along with agronomic practices is important to achieve higher yield performance and net return and BCR in sandy clay loam soil and sandy loam soil.  Cultivation of rice by using 8 row Yanmar transplanter for transplanting and single row power weeder for weeding operation along with recommended agronomic practices is important to achieve higher yield performance and net return and BCR in clay loam soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Non Linear Models and Artificial Neural Network to Describe the Liveweight from Birth to Maturity in Female Jersey Cattle

D. O. Omoniwa, J. E. T. Akinsola, R. O. Okeke, J. M. Madu, D. S. Bunjah Umar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 114-119
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430681

Evaluation of growth data is an important strategy to manage gross feed requirement in female Jersey cattle in the New Derived Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria. Two non-linear functions (Gompertz and Logistic) and Neural network models were used to fit liveweight (LW)-age data using the non linear procedure of JMP statistical software. Data used for this study were collected from 150 Jersey female cattle in Shonga Dairy Farm, Kwara, State from 2010-2018. The Neural network function showedthe best goodness of fit. Both the Gompertz and Logistic functions overestimated LW at birth, 3, 36, 48, 60 and 72months respectively. NN function overestimated the LW at 0, 3, 24, 36 and 72 months. The Gompertzfunction had the best estimation of asymptotic weight (649.51 kg) with average absolute growth rate (0.061 kg/day).The inflection point was 15.95, 9.55 and 34.5 months in Logistic, Gompertz and neural network models, respectively. A strong and positive correlation was observed between asymptote and inflection point in Gompertz functions. The metrics of goodness of fit criteria (R2 and RMSE), showed that NN with multilayer perceptron was superior to the other models but Gompertz model, was best in its ability to approximate complex functions of growth curve parametersin female Jersey cattle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of PhenoCam Measurements and Image Analysis to Inform the ALMANAC Process-based Simulation Model

Jacqueline Jacot, James R. Kiniry, Amber S. Williams, Addison Coronel, Jianzhong Su, Gretchen R. Miller, Binayak Mohanty, Amartya Saha, Nuria Gomez-Casanovas, Jane M. F. Johnson, Dawn M. Browning

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 120-144
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i430684

Near-surface remote sensing has been used to document seasonal growth patterns (i.e. phenology) for plant communities in diverse habitats. Phenology from this source may only apply to the area within the images. Meanwhile ecosystem models can accommodate variable weather and landscape differences to plant growth, but accuracy is improved by adding ground-truthed inputs. The objective of this study was to use PhenoCam data, image analysis, and Beer’s law with established extinction coefficients to compare leaf area index (LAI) development in the ALMANAC model for diverse plant types and environments. Results indicate that PhenoCam time series imagery can be used to improve leaf area development in ALMANAC by adjusting parameter values to better match LAI derived values in new diverse environments. Soybeans, mesquite, and maize produced the most successful match between the model simulations and PhenoCam data out of the eight species simulated. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first independent evaluation of the ALMANAC process-based plant growth model with imagery in agroecosystems available from the PhenoCam network. The results show how PhenoCam data can make a valuable contribution to validate process-based models, making these models much more realistic and allows for expansion of PhenoCam influence.