Open Access Case study

Enterolithiasis in a 15 Year Old Dongola Breed Stallion

D. O. Omoniwa, B. A. Alaba, R. O. Okeke, W. A. Adanu, J. J. Kalang, O. O. Oladipo, R. A. M. Adedokun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530683

Equine enteroliths are mineral accumulations of magnesium-ammonium-phosphate (struvite) around a foreign object that form round, triangular, or flat stones inside the bowel usually over the course of multiple years. They form in the large colon of horses where they can remain for some time until they move and cause an obstruction in the large or small colon, resulting in colic. A 15year old Dongola stallion was presented with a bout of colic, history revealed that the horse repeatedly had been having recurrent bouts of colic. The animal was not responding to treatment rather it was getting worse. The horse died before surgical intervention could be carried out. At post mortem twenty enteroliths were discovered in the colon.

Open Access Short Research Article

Rooting of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi Cuttings as a Function of the Preparation Method and Indolebutyric Acid Concentrations

D. M. Spalenza, S. S. Berilli, N. P. Felberg, J. J. O. Gomes, R. F. Almeida, A. P. C. G. Berilli, L. Martinelli

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 7-16
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530685

Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi, popularly known in Brazil as pink pepper or aroeira, has become a new source of agricultural exploitation for some farmers, notably located in the north of the state of Espírito Santo, the largest producing region in the world. Once it was a species that has been historically exploited in an extractive manner, where only what nature offers is explored, the need for the generation of scientific knowledge to understand its genetic potential in all agronomic areas is evident, starting with the large spread in scale of this species. Therefore, the objective of the work was to study the effects of indolebutyric acid (IBA) on the physiology and quality of seedlings produced by cuttings of the species Schinus terebentifolia Raddi under different concentrations of this hormone and different ways of application. The experiment design was a factorial in randomized blocks, in the 2x7 arrangement, the first being composed of two forms of preparation of the hormone (dilution in acetone or in water) and the second composed by 7 concentrations of IBA (0 mg/L; 625 mg/L; 1250 mg/L; 2500 mg/L; 3000 mg/L; 3750 mg/L and 5000 mg/L) with 5 blocks and 5 plants in each treatment. The addition of IBA favored the development and physiological aspects of the seedlings, produced from the hormone prepared with both, water and acetone. The quality of seedlings induced with IBA diluted in water was compromised with the addition of the hormone, whereas in seedlings treated with IBA diluted in acetone, the estimated dose of 1750 mg/L of IBA, promoted the better quality index (IQD) of the seedlings.

Open Access Short Research Article

Determination of Genetic Association of Yield and Quality Traits in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea)

Binita Xalxo, Gabrial M. Lal, Sneha Debnath, Avneesh M. Tripathi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 75-83
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530692

The present investigation was carried out at the field Experimentation Centre, Department of genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, U.P. The experiment on 22 genotypes was laid out in Randomised Block Design with three replications. Observations were recorded on five randomly selected plants to each treatment and replication for 13 quantitative characters viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, days to 50 per cent pod setting, days to maturity, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight, harvest index, biological yield, seed yield per plant and one qualitative character protein content to estimate the variability, heritability. genetic advance, correlation and path coefficient analysis among yield. Maximum GCV and PCV were recorded for number of pods per plant and 100-seed weight. High genetic advance as percentage of mean recorded for number of pods per plant. High heritability was recorded for 100-seed weight. High genetic advance was recorded for 100-seed weight. Seed yield per plant had showed high positive significant correlation with biological yield per plant, harvest index, number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant at phenotypic and genotypic levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Post-Harvest Technologies for Improved Food Security: Case of Maize and Mangoes among Smallholder Farmers in Kerio Valley Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya

L. Chepwambok, W. Adede, D. Bunyatta, V. K. Mugalavai, A. O. Onkware

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 17-27
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530686

Limited availability of improved post-harvest technologies or inappropriate use of available technologies leads to spoilage of food resulting to post-harvest losses. The losses contribute to food insecurity in the sense that availability and accessibility of food will be limited. Adoption of post-harvest harvest technologies boosts the agricultural sector, and has been seen as a pathway out of poverty and food insecurity. The study assessed the utilization of post-harvest technologies among smallholder farmers in Kerio Valley Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya and their correlation to food security. The main objective of the study was to determine factors that influenced adoption of post-harvest technologies for both maize and mango among the farmers. A cross sectional survey was used to collect data using self-administered questionnaire and interview schedules on 217 respondents. There was a significant relationship between gender (r- .264, P<0.001), age(r=.350, P<.05), education level(r=.956, P<.001), income(r=656, P<.001) and extension services(r=.907, P<.001) and adoption of post-harvest technologies. Adoption and use of improved post-harvest and processing technologies need to be promoted to curb post-harvest losses thus improving food security. In addition, there is need for intense extension services on post-harvest technologies to enhance awareness and adoption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Classification of Subsectors in the Agriculture Sector and Featured Agriculture Products in Badung District, Bali

Made Antara, Made Sri Sumarniasih

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 28-42
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530687

The research objectives were: (1) To classify the subsectors in the Agriculture sector in Badung District into prime subsectors, potential subsectors, developing subsectors, and underdeveloped subsectors; (2) Identifying featured products, locality and specialization in each subsector in the Agriculture sector in Badung District. The types of data collected are quantitative and qualitative data, sourced from secondary sources and primary sources. Data collection methods are documentation, observation, and interviews. The data analysis methods were Klassen Typology, Location Quotient (LQ), Localization Coefficient (α) and Specialization Coefficient (β). The results showed that the nine subsector in the Agriculture sector in Badung District can be classified into two classes, namely five subsectors including the developing subsectors, namely food crops, seasonal horticulture crops, annual horticulture crops, livestock and fisheries. Meanwhile, the four subsectors are included in the underdeveloped subsector, namely seasonal plantations, annual plantations, agriculture and hunting services, and forestry and logging. The main products in each developing subsector include: In the food crop subsector are lowland rice and soybean. In the livestock subsector are cows, goats, pigs, laying hens, broilers, village chickens, and ducks. In the fisheries subsector, are tuna, selar fish, snapper, yellow tail and shrimp.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Critical Analysis of Mode of Functioning of Women Collective Farming Groups in Palakkad District of Kerala State

T. Shahlas Binth, Basavaraj Hulagur, S. B. goudappa, Jagrati B. Deshmanya

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 43-48
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530688

Collective farming aims to bring significant changes among farmwomen through increased agricultural production and productivity. The present study was undertaken to analyse the ‘mode of functioning of different women collective farming groups’ in Palakkad district of Kerala during 2017-2018 by the ex-post-facto research design with a sample size of 90 groups. The result revealed that the majority (67.78%) of the collective women groups were formed by the support of local self- governing bodies. The groups concentrated on location-based farming activities and the reason might be that these groups were operating at the grassroots level obliviously they got full support from the local bodies. Freedom of participation in the group process was expressed by 65.56 per cent of the participants. Three-fourth (75.56%) of respondents expressed that decision-making in groups done with consensus brings strong coherence among the members. Attendance of members in group meetings/activities was expressed by 84.44 per cent of the respondents. Further, the function of record maintenance was expressed by 92.20 per cent of the respondents which helped them to analyse and review the past activities with existing ones. There was 84.44 per cent of benefits sharing among the group members equally and the remaining 15.56 per cent of them were keeping some amount as corpus fund for the group. In nutshell, to strengthen the women collective farming groups, one must facilitate the groups to acquire strong communication process, decision making and mutual trust, transparency in benefit sharing, risk taking etc., which will help the groups to take up agriculture and allied activities in a sustained manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) and Heat Treatments on Seed Germination of Rice: An Approach to Restore Seed Viability

Monoj Sutradhar, Subhasis Samanta, Brijesh Kumar Singh, Md. Nasim Ali, Nirmal Mandal

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 49-53
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530689

Dormancy in rice serves as a mechanism of survival by protecting the seed from germinating in the mother plants; however, it becomes a problem in germination during sowing in soil or under in vitro conditions. This study was conducted to determine the effect of heat treatment and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) treatment of seeds on dormancy alleviation. The seeds included both freshly harvested seeds and one-year-old stored seeds, which were tested for germination after different types of seed treatments. Both the treatments increased the germination percentage in seeds, however, it was lesser in the case of old seeds. The best results were obtained from 2% NaOCl treatment for 24 hrs in new seeds, i.e. 92.84±0.103 % germination percentage (GP). However, the higher GP in old seeds were obtained from 48 hrs of heat-treated seeds i.e. 82.9±0.509 % GP. The results of the experiment revealed that rice seeds start to lose viability within a year due to seed dormancy, but this can be reversed with proper measures. These methods of breaking seed dormancy can be considered effective to break seed dormancy and improve seed germination in rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Analysis of Krishi Bhagya Scheme in Agro-climatic Zone-3 of Karnataka

H. K. Manohara, Basavaraj Hulagur, S. B. Goudappa, Zaheer Ahmed

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 71-74
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530691

India has been predominantly an agricultural country. The progress of India is very much dependent on the development of agriculture. In recent years, effect of climate change seen in the form of long dry spells and heavy rains in rainfed areas causing drought and floods, respectively. However, these vagaries can be overcome by adopting soil conservation measures, changing cropping pattern, rain water harvesting etc., The present study was undertaken ‘to know the utilization pattern of the components by the KBS beneficiaries’ in Bagalkot and Vijayapura districts of Karnataka during 2017-2018 by the ex-post-facto research design with the sample size of 120 beneficiaries. The results revealed that contour bunds were constructed to increase ground water table (6.67 %) and control erosion (5.83 %). The probable reason might be that, majority of them having semi-medium land holdings. So, they are not ready to reduce the area on their productive lands. All the beneficiaries were constructed farm ponds to harvest rain water to provide protective irrigations in critical stages of crops to get good yield, collected water is also used for providing drinking water for humans and animals (77.50 %). All the beneficiaries installed diesel pump set to lift water from farm pond. Diesel pump is available in lower price and is compulsory to get subsidy under this scheme. So, the poor farmers can able to purchase and used for own purpose. Forty per cent of beneficiaries providing irrigations to the crops through sprinkler irrigations once in two weeks. So, that not even a drop is wasted and crop gets the required quantity of water at the right time for better yield. Thirty-five per cent of beneficiaries growing capsicum and tomato (15.00 %) in poly house. This study implies that KBS is facilitating the farming community not only in increasing production and productivity, but also in conserving natural resources to the greater extent. Therefore, the replication of the KBS for the non-beneficiaries is most desired to transform the socio-economic condition of the farming community at large.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mineral Fertilizers from Soil Diagnosis Reduce the Decomposition Time of Cocoa Leaf Litter in the South-Western of Cote d'ivoire

Hypolith Koffi Kouadio, Alain Jacques Acka. Kotaix, Zoumana Konaté, Emmanuel Koffi Kassin, Stanislas Koffi Kouakou, Jean Noël Ehounou, Marise Evelyne Assi, Norbert Kouamé N'dri, Louis Koko, Sidiky Bakayoko

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 84-95
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530693

A study on soil mineral fertilization was carried out over three years in three cocoa farms in the Nawa region of south-western Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mineral fertilizers on the decomposition time of cocoa leaf litter. The experimental design was Fisher block with four treatments (T0, T1, T2, T3) repeated three times. The treatments were for T0, the control without fertilizer, for T1, NPK fertilizer 0-23-19, for T2, NPK fertilizer 0-15-15 + 17 CaO + 5 MgO + 1 B2O3 + 0.5 Zn and for T3, NPK fertilizer 4-10-10 + 19 CaO + 4 MgO + 0.8 B2O3 + 0.3 Zn. In each treatment, 3 plots of 1 m2 were delimited with a 1 cm2 mesh wire grid. The rate of decomposition of the cocoa leaf litter was made by measuring twice a year the weight loss of the ground litter contained in the plots. Comparison of the average decomposition rates between treatments showed that the fertilized soils had the best rates during the first 6 and 12 months of the trial. In Soubré, the T2 treatment (24.6±0.6%) in the 6th month and the T1 (72.6±6.6), T2 (82.4±1.6) and T3 (78.8±4.0%) treatments in the 12th month had the best decomposition rates. At Divo, treatment T1 (38.8±0.5%) in month 6 and treatments T1 (57.8±1.7%), T2 (67.9±10%) and T3 (66.9±7.7%) in month 12 were the best. At Méagui, decay rates did not differ between treatments throughout the trial. The application of mineral fertilizers resulting from soil diagnosis reduced the decomposition time of the cocoa leaf litter.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Auditing of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) Production with Agronomic Manipulations in Sodic Soils of Indo-gangetic Plains

Angrej Ali, B. P. Singh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 96-113
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530694

This study investigated the energy input-output relationship in biomass production of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) grown in Sodic soils of Indo-Gangetic plains with agronomic manipulations of plant spacing (90 x 75 cm, 75 x 75 cm, 75 x 75 cm) and NPK fertilizers (0, 60:40:40, 80:60:60, 100:80:80 N:P2O5:K2O kg ha-1). Results indicated that total input energy requirements in various treatments ranged from 16784.72 MJ ha-1 in 90 x 75 cm spacing without NPK fertilizers to 24395.04 MJ ha-1 in case of 75 x 60 cm spacing with NPK  at 100:80:80 kg ha-1. Irrespective of agronomic manipulations, share of non-renewable energy in total input energy was very high (64.56%) and the percentage proportions of direct and indirect energies in the total input energy were 75.56 and 24.13%, respectively. Among various inputs, diesel accounted for the greatest proportion (40.44%) of total input energy, followed by water (32%), fertilizers (19.28%) and these three inputs constituted 92.08% of total input energy. Crop raised at 75 x 60 cm spacing with NPK at 100:80:80 kg ha-1 resulted the highest output energy (80863 MJ ha-1), net energy return (56529.91 MJ ha-1) and energy use efficiency (3.22); however, the results obtained at 75 x 60 cm spacing with NPK at 100:80:80 kg ha-1 were comparable. The best energy productivity (0.43) was achieved with 75 x 75 cm spacing and 100:80:80 kg NPK ha-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bionomics and Importance of an Emerging Pest Pseudotheraptus devastans (Distant) (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in the Cocoa Orchards of Côte d'Ivoire

Norbert N’Dri Kouamé, François Kouamé N’Guessan, Pierre Walet N’Guessan, Alain Jacques Acka Kotaix, Yao Tano

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 114-121
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530695

The cocoa tree is a very important plant in Côte d'Ivoire (formerly known as Ivory Coast) with a production of 2,15 million  tons. In spite of this performance, cocoa production is attacked by several pests of which the emerging ones are Pseudotheraptus devastans (Distant). These insects  attack  cherelles,  pods, gourmands and young shoots. This study aims to locate these pests and determine their importance in the different cocoa production areas. The device used is total  randomization. The leaching carried out in the orchard revealed the presence of P.devastans in all the cocoa producing districts. The means were 0,02 ± 0,00 to 2,35 ± 0,38 P. devastans  / tree.  The  districts of Sassandra-Marahoué, Comoé and Montagnes recorded  more  P.devastans.  However, the districts of Bas-Sassandra, Lagunes et Lacs had fewer P.devastans.

Open Access Review Article

Evaluation of Pesticide Application Equipment Efficiency for Pests Control and Safety of the users, a Review

O. M. Azeez

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 54-70
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i530690

The technical state of the equipment used for pesticide application could guarantee effectiveness of pesticide and the safety of the users. Different types of nozzles and the portable, tractor-drawn and aerial equipment are deployed through alternative methods of application. In particular, more vital information is needed to ensure better choice of equipment, especially the nozzles, and calibration to ensure the correct dosage is applied. More concern for inherent danger has engendered health and safety legislation leading towards linking packaging of pesticides with the application equipment to provide a closed transfer system minimizing operator exposure.  Synthetic pesticides are extensively deployed in the control of harmful pests and thus prevent crop yield losses or product damage in modern agriculture. Therefore pesticide of high biological activity usually exhibited long persistence in the environment and caused undesirable effects to human health. However, farmers may be exposed to the effect of pesticides even when performing activities not directly related to pesticide use. Hence, farmers can face major exposure from manual direct spray, drift from neighboring fields, or by contact with pesticide residues on the treated crop or soil. Production of cash crop is still dependent on pesticides to attain acceptable levels of high crop yield. However, poor insecticide coverage resulting from the use of inefficient application equipment, wrong timing, irregularity and wrong technique of spraying are capable of accelerating the rate at which insects develop resistance to insecticides. Hence, along with the screening of new insecticides, fungicides and herbicides, new spraying pumps are usually evaluated by the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), for their efficiency before they are recommended for use in the application of cocoa pesticides and spraying equipment in Nigeria.