Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Effects of NPK on Flowering Characters of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) cv. Big Time Supreme

Harvindra Pal, R. S. Verma, R. B. Ram, Bhag Chand Shivran, Som Prakash

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630696

Aim: Gladiolus the most important cut flower crop and as it has great demand in national and international flower market it is worthwhile to apply the experimental trial on it, in respect to estimate the flowering characters of Gladiolus.

Place and duration of Study: The field experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Farm-I, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Lucknow, (U.P), India. During the 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 rabi seasons.

Results: Replicated thrice having twenty three treatments in each replication. The minimum days taken to emergence of spike (102.21 and 101.04 days), The maximum number of spikes per plant (1.29 and 1.30), The minimum days to first floret opening (109.25 and 110.25 days), The maximum duration of flowering (15.55 and 15.85 days), The highest length of spike (87.35 and 88.05 cm), The highest number of florets per spike (15.12 and 16.13), The maximum diameter of floret (9.25 and 9.42 cm) and The maximum length of floret (9.85 and 9.92 cm) with the application of N 20g + P 15g + K 15g (T16). Moreover, the treatment T16 showed the best results on flowering characters of gladiolus. Appeared as the best practice for better flowering and therefore it may be recommended to boost up flower production and quality of gladiolus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes against Collar Rot Disease Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.

Vishruta D. Babariya, Kedar Nath

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630697

Aims: Collar rot is a fast spreading and destructive disease and is becoming more serious at seedling stage causing rot at collar region especially in area where paddy based cropping system is followed. Lack of sources of resistant in present cultivar against Sclerotium rolfsii cause serious threat to chickpea production. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the chickpea genotypes against S. rolfsii to the identification of resistant sources for further breeding program.

Study Design: Randomized Block Design (RBD) with two replications were used.

Place and Duration of Study: Regional Rice Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Vyara, between October 2019 to April 2020.

Methodology: Pathogen was isolated from infected collar region of chickpea plant by directly transfer of sclerotia and infected bits on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. After purification, pathogen was identified by observed the colony character and sclerotia formation. The morphological characters viz., mycelial growth and mycelial characteristic were studied under high power magnification (40X) and sclerotia formation, shape and colour were studied under low power magnification (10X) from 10 days old culture. 39 chickpea genotypes were used for the studies. A field experiment was conducted during Rabi -2019-20 season. The inoculum was thoroughly broadcasted in soil @ 10g/ row. Germination per cent and disease incidence were observed.

Results: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) collar rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. was exhibited initial white fluffy mycelium appearance on potato dextrose agar medium. Microscopic view of mycelium was hyaline, branching, compact with septate and had a clamp connection. White sclerotia were formed after 4th days of incubation and later within 10 days after incubation it became mature and colour changed from brown to dark brown. Sclerotia appeared shiny due to presence of gummy material. Out of 39 chickpea genotypes only five viz., GJG-1713, GG-6, GJG-1509, Phule Vikram and JGK-1 were identified as moderate resistant against collar rot disease caused by S. rolfsii under inoculums inoculated rice fellow cropping system.

Conclusion: Chickpea genotypes viz., GJG-1713, GG-6, GJG-1509, Phule Vikram and JGK-1 were showed moderate resistant reaction against collar rot disease caused by S. rolfsii.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thidiazuron with Mineral Oil as Alternative Bud Break Promoter for Apple Trees

José Luiz Petri, André Amarildo Sezerino, Cristhian Leonardo Fenili, Gentil Carneiro Gabardo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 27-34
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630699

Aims: This work aims to evaluate the efficiency of Revent® 500 SC (Thidiazuron) concentrations as a bud breaker promoter in apple trees, cv. Maxi Gala and Supreme Fuji, through phenology, sprouting of buds, fruit set and production per plant.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were carried out in southern Brazil, municipality of Caçador / SC, during the seasons from 2017 to 2019, in the cultivars Fuji Suprema and Maxi Gala / Marubakaido / M9.

Methodology: The treatments were 1. Control (without application); 2. Mineral Oil (MO) 3.5% + Hydrogenated Cyanamide (HC) 0.35%; 3. MO 3.5% + HC 0.5%; 4. MO 3.5% + Thidiazuron (TDZ) 0.005%; 5. MO 3.5% + TDZ 0.01%; 6. MO 3.5% + TDZ 0.015%; 7.MO 3.5% + TDZ 0.02%; 8.MO 3.5% + TDZ 0.025%, applied in stages B and C. Several variables were evaluated such as phenology, sprouting of axillary and terminal buds, fruit set, production per plant and average fruit mass.

Results: All treatments with bud breakers advanced the phenological stages in relation to the control in the three years. In the sprouting of the axillary and terminal buds, all treatments were superior to the control. TDZ treatments showed higher sprouting of axillary buds in 2017/18 compared to standard treatments with hydrogenated cyanamide. In plant production, the treatment MO 3.5% + TDZ 0.02% was higher than the other treatments in the 2018/19 and 2019/20 seasons, in both cultivars. TDZ associated with mineral oil is efficient in inducing the sprouting of ‘Maxi Gala’ and ‘Fuji Suprema’ apple trees and can be used to recover sprouts from previous years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association Analysis of MBL1 Gene SNPs, Genotype and Haplotypes with Clinical Mastitis in Murrah Buffaloes

Shahid Ahmad Shergojry, Archana Verma, I. D. Gupta, Nazir Ahmad Mir

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 35-44
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630700

Mannose-binding lectins (MBL1) gene a most important constituent of immune response system of an organism, the primary role of this gene in the classical and lectin-activation pathways is to provide protection against various dieases or bacterial pathogens. In this study, eight novel SNPs identified in the promoter region of MBL1 gene were 154C>T, 235G>A, 252A>T, 265C>A, 268T>C, 282G>A, 431G>A and 551C>G, when compared to reference sequence of Bubalus bubalis  (NCBI accession number KC415281). Genomic DNA isolated from 200 lactating Murrah buffaloes was amplified for the targeted sequence of MBL1. PCR products were custom sequenced, edited and used for further analysis. The results indicated that only 551C>G polymorphism locus met Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (c2 (2df) = 4.4: P=0.11). Pair linkage disequilibrium analysis and haplotype construction of MBL1 gene were performed using SHEsis software. Pair linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed moderate to strong linkage disequilibrium between the eight SNPs loci A total of 17 haplotypes were generated from eight SNPs in promoter region of MBL1 gene. Association between eight SNPs of MBL1 gene in Murrah buffalo has been analyzed and relative risks of the alleles for clinical mastitis were estimated with an odds ratio. Allelic association analysis showed that T allele of 154C>T, A allele of 235G>A,  A allele of 252A>T,  A allele of 265C>A , T allele of 268T>C, A allele of 282G>A , A allele of 431G>A  and  G allele of 551C>G had significant association with increased risk of clinical mastitis (P< 0.01). Haplotype analysis showed that Hap15 (CAAATAAG) and Hap16 (TAAATAAG) i.e. the haplotypes containing all 8 “at-risk” alleles, were significantly associated with clinical mastitis (P< 0.01). Hap6 (CGAATAAC) and Hap8 (CGTCCGGC) were significantly associated with a lower risk of clinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes (P< 0.01).On the other hand, the Hap6 (CGAATAAC) and Hap8 (CGTCCGGC) which are unrepresented in affected group and without “at-risk” alleles were significantly associated with a lower risk for clinical mastitis (P<0.01).These findings indicated a MBL1 gene polymorphism could be used as genetic marker for mastitis resistance in Murrah buffaloes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Leaf Extract of Piliostigma Thonningii for Control of Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on Eggplant

A. Mamman, I. Umar, A. M. Malgwi, G. T. Ojo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630701

Extracts of Piliostigma thonningii were tested for their effectiveness in controlling Meloidogyne javanica eggs and juveniles in the laboratory and on eggplant cv ‘Yalon Data’. A thousand juveniles were placed in 12 petridishes and extracts of P.  thonningii (Crude extracts, 5 ml dilution and 10 ml dilution of the crude extracts) were dispensed into the petridishes. One thousand eggs of the M. javanica were placed in 12 petridishes and treated with the same extracts used on the juveniles. For the field experiment, 12 plots of size 2m x2m were prepared and planted with nine plants of eggplant cv ‘Yalon Data’. Seedlings of eggplants were transplanted after three weeks in the nursery to the field into holes drenched with 10 ml of the extracts used in the laboratory tests. Subsequent applications of extracts were done weekly for eight weeks. The results showed that the crude extract was the most effective against both the eggs (87.43 % hatch inhibition) and juveniles (90.23 % mortality). In the field, eggplants treated with the crude extract recorded the tallest plants ((124.78 cm -2017 and 125.00 cm-2018), highest number of fruits/plant (18.51-2017 and 19.55-2018), highest yield (50.45t/ha-2017 and 53.78t/ha-2018) and the lowest galling indices and final nematode population. It is therefore concluded that the crude extract of P.  thonningii can be employed for the control of M. javanica in the field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Developed Mixed Fruits Wine during Fermentation Process

Vikrant Kumar, Jaivir Singh, B. R. Singh, Neelash Chauhan, Suresh Chandra, M. K. Yadav, Vivek Kumar, Pankaj Kumar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630702

The mixture of fruits pulp containing low sugar and thus sugar level was adjust from 25 oBrix by using sugar solution. The pH level of mixture was adjusted at 4. The juice was yeast by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with 1%. The Specific gravity of mixed fruit wine showed an increasing trend for all the treatments with fermentation period up to 0, 10, 20 and 30 days. The TSS largely affects the various physic-chemical parameters of fermented wine. Sugar is the main substrate for fermentation of fruits juice into alcohol. The specific gravity of the wine was found to be decreased with increase in sugar percent. The highest value of alcohol content was found 17.43% (v/v) in T6 sample after last day of fermentation period with 1% of yeast concentration. It has been observed that the sample show the high alcoholic wine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Alternaria Species Isolated from Different Plants

Pooja Singh, Sushma Nema, Keerti Tantwai

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 61-71
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630703

Alternaria belongs to the family of Pleosporaceae, the order of Pleosporales, the class of Dothideomycetes in the phyllum of Ascomycota. This fungal genus is characterized by its ability to produce a number of enzymes able to injured many types of crops. The symptoms of Alternaria blight on different agricultural crops such as cabbage, cauliflower, coriander, fenugreek, brinjal, onion, faba bean, dahlia, dracaena, hollyhock, carrot, marigold, tomato and wheat were observed. Alternaria produces distinctive "bulls eye" patterned leaf spots in almost all the infected plants. Nineteen Alternaria isolates were obtained from fourteen infected plant samples. The observations were recorded from the seven day old culture for colony characteristics on PDA. Based on morphology 10 isolates of Alternaria alternata, two isolates Alternaria tenuissima and Alternaria longipes and one Alternaria porri, Alternaria brassicae, Alternaria brassicicola and Alternaria sp. were identified. Alternaria species grow rapidly and produced flat, downy to woolly grayish green to black colonies. All the isolates exhibited characteristics dark-coloured multicelled conidia with longitudinal and transverse septa (phaeo-dictyospores) and a beak or tapering apical cells. DNA isolation of all isolates of Alternaria was carried out using CTAB method. Isolated DNA was subjected to amplification with ITS1 and ITS4 primers in a thermal cycler. The amplified products ranged from 580-600bp. These amplified products were sequenced and identify the species of different Alternaria isolates using BLASTn in NCBI online. All the sequences were published in NCBI public domain. The resulting sequences of all isolates were compared to other sequences in the GenBank as 90-100% identical. Genetic variability was conducted by phylogenetic analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Proximate and Mineral Composition of Mutant Dolichos Lablab (Lablab purpureus L.) Accessions in Kenya

S. K. Kimno, M. G. Kinyua, K. C. Pkania, E. Chepkoech

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 72-80
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630704

Plant breeding through induced mutation technology is a potent method   to creating new variants of food crops with of desirable phenotypic, genetic and biochemical functions. It is a catalyst in developing improved crop varieties where classical hybridization or selection have limitations. It has been used to improve nutrition quality and higher yield in a number of legumes. Dolichos Lablab (Lablab purpureus L) is multipurpose legume that has not been exploited extensively for food nutritional properties through breeding. The purpose of the study was, therefore, to generate awareness that nutritional status of D. Lablab could be improved through mutation induction and be a good source of food components essential for good health. Twenty-four dolichos Lablab germplasms including 20 mutant accessions and 4 commercial genotypes were evaluated for proximate values and mineral contents in Kenya in 2021 based on Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Data analysis  was  based on least significant difference (P = .05).The   revealed  percent moisture,  ash crude fat,   crude fibre, crude proteins and total starch content ranged :  7.35% -11.84%, 1.09 -2.90%, 3.35% - 8.05% , 8.86 - 12.70% , 20.03% - 28.87% and 25.50% - 39.00% .The  mineral content of phosphorous (P), potassium(K) and calcium (Ca) ranged from  27mg - 57mg,  132mg -297mg  and  7mg - 19mg. A significant positive correlation between ash levels to P and K concentration and on P to K concentration. The result of analysis  ranked  9  (WT026, WT018 ,MT110 , BT188 , BT032, BT114, MT076 BT137,GT09) different  accessions  that positively  contributed to the nutritional content of the investigated  dolichos lablab accessions. Further research on the superior accessions can be done on yield potential, resistance to biotic and abiotic constrains, sensory preferences or used in bio fortification of existing genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Red and White Pigeon Peas (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp) in Broiler Chicks

A. F. Agboola, B. R. O. Omidiwura, I. O. Oluwatomini, R. O. Ahmed

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 81-90
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630705

This study evaluated the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of two varieties of pigeon pea in broiler chicks.

The experiment was carried out at the Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria between May and July, 2019. Two hundred and forty (240) one-day old Abor Acre plus-strain broiler chicks were fed a commercial broiler starter diet for 15 days. On day 16, the birds were weighed, tagged and randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments (Diet 1: Nitrogen Free Diet (NFD); Diet 2: Highly Digestible Protein (HDP); Diet 3: Red Pigeon Pea (RPP), Diet 4: White Pigeon Pea (WPP) with 6 replicates and 10 birds each in a randomized complete block design.

On day 21, birds were sacrificed and digesta collected from terminal ileum. The Endogenous Amino Acid Losses (EAAL), Apparent Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility (AIAAD), Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility (SIAAD) were estimated. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at P = .05.

Higher EAA flow (P < .001) was recorded in lysine and aspartic acid for NFD while endogenous alanine flow was higher in HDP. Arginine had the lowest apparent digestibility values for both WPP and RPP. Apparent digestibility values of histidine, phenylalanine, valine, aspartic acid, glycine, proline and serine in WPP were significantly (P = .05) higher than in RPP with their corresponding higher (P = .05) SID values. Arginine had the lowest SIAAD value when AIAAD was corrected with HDP or NFD. In conclusion, WPP had higher CP level as well as higher digestibility values for some amino acids than RPP. The method used for standardization did not affect SIAAD values corrected with NFD or HDP for WPP and RPP respectively. Therefore, either of the two methods can be used to correct for endogenous amino acid losses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Potassium on Soil Potassium Fractions and on Sugarcane Yield and Quality

A. Sireesha, CH. S. Ramalakshmi, T. Sreelatha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 91-97
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630706

A Field experiment was conducted on effect of various levels of potassium application on soil potassium fractions and sugarcane yield at Regional Agricultural research station, Anakapalle, Andhra Pradesh. The experiment comprised six treatments and four replications in Randomized Block Design. The treatments comprised of T1:Control (0 K), T2:50% Recommended dose of Potassium (60 kg K/ha),T3:75% Recommended dose of Potassium (90 kg K/ha),T4:100% Recommended dose of Potassium (120 kg K/ha),T5:125% Recommended dose of Potassium (150 kg K/ha) and T6:150% Recommended dose of Potassium (180 kg K/ha). Results revealed that number of milliable cane, cane yield (t/ha) and sugar yield (t/ha) was found to be significantly high with treatment receiving 150% recommended dose of fertilizers (79855, 82.12 t/ha and 12.04 t/ha respectively), however, it was statistically on par with the treatments receiving  125% recommended dose of potassium fertilizers(79855,82.12 t/ha and 12.04 t/ha respectively) and 100% recommended dose of potassium fertilizers application (79315,81.86 t/ha and 11.57 t/ha respectively). Increasing levels of K significantly increased all the K fractions. However, highest value of water soluble K (29.5 mg kg-1 at 0-15 cm depth and 31.6 mg kg-1 at 15-30 cm ) exchangeable K (205 mg kg-1 at 0-15 cm depth and 228 mg kg-1 at 15-30 cm depth) non-exchangeable K (854 mg kg-1 at 0-15 cm depth and 971 mg kg-1 at 15-30 cm depth), lattice K (2110and 2381 mg kg-1 at 0-15 and 15-30 cm ) and total K (3267 and 3718 mg kg-1) were recorded with the application of with the application of 150% recommended dose of potassium application (180 kg ha-1) followed by application of 125% recommended dose of potassium application (150 kg ha-1) . The sequential order of dominance of different fractions of K were lattice K>nonexchangeable K> exchangeable K and water soluble K. The per cent contribution of different fractions of K to total K were followed in the order of lattice K (64.02 to 74.94% at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depth), non-exchangeabl K (15.46 to 17.79% at 0-15 and 26.4 to 27.43 % 15-30 cm depth), exchangeable K (6.32 to 8.39% and 5.60 to 7.69% at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depth), and water soluble K (0.81-0.90% and 0.69 to 0.85% at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depth) There exists positive and significant correlation among various K fractions indicating dynamic equilibrium.

Open Access Review Article

Cultural Control: A Sustainable Method of Pest and Disease Control

Belmiro Saburo Shimada, Marcos Vinícius Simon, Letícia do Socorro Cunha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 19-26
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630698

Agriculture is composed of many factors that alter its production, are of an environmental and management nature, and in terms of management, pests and diseases are of great importance, as they cause a lot of damage to the crop, at different times, and the control of these is essential. pests and diseases to ensure that the plant can reach its production potential. With the concern for a more sustainable production, agriculture has diversified through transformations in the technological and information scopes, which helped to increase the production of production systems. However, only biological and plant-based controls did not guarantee such a large control of pests and diseases, and to complement the control, and to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture, cultural control was used. This cultural control, together with its sustainable management of pests and diseases, using biological control methods and the base of plant origin, brought new forms of pest and disease control, helping in management, and providing a more sustainable production environment. In addition to these benefits, cultural control is of great importance in the control of pests and diseases, as its control comes as a preventive practice, providing a diversity of the system, and a better control of pests and diseases by breaking cycles, culture, pests and diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Food Production and Quality in Agriculture in 2018 and 2019

Belmiro Saburo Shimada, Marcos Vinícius Simon, Letícia do Socorro Cunha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 98-105
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i630707

Food is the basis of human survival, and one of the Brazilian sectors that stands out the most is the agricultural sector, which in 2019 fed about 728,658 million people in the world. food, which has been taking care to produce quality and safe food. The objective of this work is to carry out a brief literature review on food production and quality in agriculture in 2018 and 2019, describing and characterizing the importance of agriculture in food production and food quality. This study was developed following the methodology based on literature review and relevant research on food production and quality in agriculture in 2018 and 2019, with the aim of characterizing the importance of agriculture in the production and quality of food. Many changes occur in the production of food in agriculture through the adopted technologies, enabling the large production of food that the country has, being one of the largest producers. However, it is still insufficient to supply food for the entire population, making agriculture an essential link for food, but it has been experiencing difficulties in increasing its production, due to environmental and management factors, impacting crop yields, and how the consumer started to demand a higher quality and safer food, care is needed in the production of quality and safe food. Agriculture is essential for feeding the population and the food sector depends on its production, in the years 2018 and 2019 it is clear that crop productivity still has to increase, and due to consumer demands, food production is necessary quality and insurance.