Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic and Botanicals Priming on Seed Quality Parameter of Pigeonpea (Cajanuscajan (L.) Millspaugh)

A. Divij Reddy, A. K. Chaurasia, P. K. Shukla, Ram Pal Singh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730708

Presence of hard seed coats and several seed borne pathogens hinder the normal seedling establishment in legumes. Earlier seed enhancement is mainly achieved though synthetics and growth regulators. To evaluate the effect of organics and botanicals on quality parameters of the seed an experiment was conducted in Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences. Treatments in the experiment comprised of Panchagavya at 3%, 5% and 7% for 12 hrs., Beejamrutha at 5%, 7% and 9% for 12 hrs., Coconut water at 6% and 8% for 12hrs., Moringa leaf extract at 5% and 7% for 12hrs and Sea weed extract at 3% and 5% for 12hrs.Priming with the selected organics and botanicalsis found to enhance the quality parameters compared to untreated control. The treatment Panchagavya at 7% for duration of 12 hours was found to be superior compared to the other treatments in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Groundnut and Rice Activated Charcoals Addition on Oil Polluted Soil and Mobility of Heavy Metals in the Root and Shoot of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp in the Tropical Rainforest

Jimoh Abiodun Joseph, Akinwande Kayode Lawrence, Oladipo, Olufunmilayo Eunice

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 6-19
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730709

In Nigeria, spent oil destroys crops, contaminate farmland, aquaculture and drinking water. It also alters the soil properties, leads to deficit of water and oxygen, shortages of soil nutrients like N and P, adsorbs to soil particles and reduces porosity and aeration of soil. The study aims to determine the potential of groundnut hull (GAC) and rice husk (RAC) activated charcoal in biodegradation of spent lubrication oil in soil with reduction in mobility and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the tissues of the cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) plants. Experimental units were set up in a screen house containing cowpea seedlings planted in different soil treatments: polluted, unpolluted as well as RAC and GAC remediated polluted soil, each in 5 replicates. Mobility and bioaccumulation of the heavy metals in the root, shoot and seeds of the cowpea were analyzed. Cd, Cr and Pb were below detectable limit (BDL), Cu was 0.21 and Zn was 0.26 mg/kg in unpolluted soil while the levels of heavy metals were elevated in spent oil polluted soil: Cd 0.1, Cr 0.25, Pb 0.12, Cu 0.7 and Zn 0.63 mg/kg. RAC treatments significantly decreased the mobility and bioaccumulation of the heavy metals in the root (F3, 14 = 19.338, Sig = 0.00 (p < 0.05) so also, GAC significantly decreased the heavy metals mobilization and bioaccumulated in the cowpea roots (F3, 14 = 91.224, Sig = 0.000 (p < 0.05). RAC and GAC are potential effective and  low cost phytoremediation materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution to Natural Rubber Production without Exogenous Hormonal Stimulation

Obouayeba Samuel, Diarrassouba Moussa, Konan Djézou, Obouayeba Abba Pacôme, Soumahin Eric Francis, Koffi Antoine, Adou Bini Christophe, Ballo Espérance Kouadio

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 27-44
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730711

Rubber production and especially its increase absolutely depend on the activation of the latex-producing metabolism. Can the latex-producing metabolism activation mechanism developed by rubber tree lead to higher yield without exogenous hormonal stimulation? In order to verify this decisive hypothesis, several works, carried out for nine years in Southern Côte d’Ivoire, were conducted on some 15 clones (IRCA 18, IRCA 209, IRCA 111, IRCA 130, PB 235, PB 260, PB 280, PB 330, PB 310; GT 1, BPM 24, RRIC 100; PB 217 and PR 107) of the three metabolisms respectively, active, moderate and slow, with two main statistical designs. On a small scale, in a “one-tree plot” design, the same latex harvesting system, tapping in d4 with different hormonal stimulation regimes (0/y; 2/y; 4/y; 6/y; 8/y; 13/y; 18/y; 26/y, 39/y and 78/y), has been applied to all treatments. In a randomized complete block design, different tapping frequencies (d2, d3, d4, d5 and d6) and hormonal stimulation (0/y, 4/y, 8/y and 10/y) were applied. Whatever the stimulation regime, the average g.t-1.t-1 of the unstimulated control (56) of the active metabolism clones (PB 235, PB 310, IRCA 111 and IRCA 130) over 9 years was statistically the same order that of the stimulated patterns (54). The average g.t-1.t-1 of the control (60) was lower than that of the highest yielding stimulated patterns (67) of the clones (PB 330, PB 280, PB 260, IRCA 18 and IRCA 209). The average g.t-1.t-1of the unstimulated control (49) was significantly lower than that of the highest yielding stimulated treatment (57) of moderate metabolism clones (GT 1, BPM 24 and RRIC 100). The average g.t-1.t-1 of the unstimulated control (39) was significantly lower than that of the highest yielding stimulated treatment (70) of slow metabolism clones (PB 217 and PR 107). On a large scale and at tapping frequency (d2), the unstimulated latex harvesting system (d2 0/y) showed an average yield of (2341; 2266 and 1849 kg.ha-1.year-1 for the active, moderate and slow metabolisms, respectively) statistically comparable to those of the highest yielding tapping frequencies d3, d4, d5 and d6 all latex harvesting systems combined for the clones studied (2388; 2348 and 2256 kg.ha-1.year-1). These results show that it is possible to produce natural rubber without exogenous hormonal stimulation by judiciously playing on tapping intensity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Effectiveness of Selected Aspects of Extension Approaches Across Different Agro Ecological Zones

Washington Ochola, Mary Orinda

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 53-66
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730713

Aims: Understanding how different agricultural organisations implement extension approaches across different Agricultural Ecological Zones is very critical for the success and impact in agricultural sector. This paper therefore assessed the effect of Agro-Ecological Zones on implementation of agricultural extension approaches to provide an insight into how to improve dissemination of improved technologies. 

Study Design: A cross-sectional survey combining quantitative and qualitative data collection methodologies was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in six counties of western Kenya: Nyamira, Kisii, Homa-bay, Migori, Kisumu, and Siaya counties. The study was conducted between September to December 2019.

Methodology: 12 agricultural institutions within the study area were sampled. A multi stage random sampling technique was used to identify 492 respondents comprising; 12 head of agriculture in the institutions, 120 extension personnel and 360 household heads across different Agricultural Ecological Zones (AEZs). Data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics.  The inferential statistics were set at the 0.05 level for significance. Kruskal Wallis test and Dunn-Bonferroni Post Hoc test were used to test significant differences on the implementation aspects of the extension approaches across the different AEZs.

Results: Climatic conditions, average age, land size, and value of household assets as factors of AEZs influenced how various aspects of agricultural extension approaches were implemented. Level of implementation of aspects influenced uptake of agricultural technologies. Kruskal Wallis test result (H (5) = 126.679, p value < 0.001) indicated that there were significant differences in the level at which smallholder farmers improved their agricultural practices in different AEZs.

Conclusion: For effective dissemination of agricultural technologies, farmer situation, specifically agro ecological zone must be taken into consideration when recommending extension dissemination approaches to be used. Multivariate analysis needs to be done to inform how to implement various aspects of extension approaches to achieve optimum results in terms of farmer behaviour change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Local Food on the Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fry Reared at the Peyrie Fish Farm Station in Gabon

Abdourhamane Ibrahim Toure, Gilbert Comlan Zougou Tovignon, Cédric Sima Obiang, Boris Obame Nkoghe, Antoine mitte Mbeang Beyeme, Louis Clément Obame Engonga, Bi Irié Arsène Zoro, Atcho Otchoumou, Benoît Boukila

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 67-75
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730714

To assess the effects of two rations on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fry, a study was carried out at the Peyrie fish farm station in Libreville, Gabon. To this effect, 3000 fry aged 14 days with 80 mg live weight were used. The animals were randomly distributed into six plastic tanks of 0.62 m3 each with three replications per treatment. They were fed the ration T, a ration formulated with fishmeal and broiler chick feed, and the commonly used ration (CR), within 4 weeks. Weight growth, mean weight gain (MWG), daily individual growth (DIG), specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), nutrient quotient (NQ), protein efficiency ratio (PER), quantity of feed distributed and manufacturing cost per kg of feed were evaluated. It appears that there is no significant difference (p> 0.05) between the growth parameters of the fry regardless of the ration (T and CR). Thus, at the end of the study, for the CR and the ration T, a final mean weight of 3.481 ± 1.02 g vs 3.409 ± 0.97 g respectively was obtained; a MWG of 3.401 ± 0.31 g vs 3.330 ± 0.23 g; a DIG of 20.24 ± 7.44 mg/day vs 19.82 ± 5.58 mg/day, a SGR of 1.54 ± 0.22% mg/day vs 1.49 ± 0.27% mg/day and a SR of 26.13 ± 4.44% vs 20.60 ± 1.47%. In addition, a NQ of 1.52 ± 1.08 vs 1.21 ± 0.65 and a PER of 1.41 ± 0.81 vs 1.84 ± 0.39 and the quantity of feed of 1.96 kg vs 1.77 kg were also determined. In view of all these results, the ration T can be recommended for feeding Clarias gariepinus fry at the age of 14 days.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Genetic Variability and Heritability in Cherry Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Var. cerasiforme) Genotypes

Afroza Akhter, Ambreen Nabi, Baseerat Afroza, Zahoor Ahmad Dar, Ajaz Ahmad Malik, Gowhar Ali, Sabia Akhter, Sayed Azrah Indrabi, Amreena Sultan, Insha Javeed

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 76-81
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730715

Twenty-nine genotypes of cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme) were evaluated for their genetic variability and heritability. A wide range of genetic variability was observed for twenty traits of cherry tomato genotypes. The analysis of variance was significant for all the characters indicating genetic variability in the genotypes under the study except number of locules per fruit. The highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation were observed for lycopene (43.12, 42.94), total carotenoids (42.82, 42.51), average fruit weight (42.52, 42.50), fruit yield per hectare (42.29, 42.24). In general Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) was marginally higher than the corresponding Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV) indicating the less influence of environment in the expression of traits under study. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percentage of mean was observed for almost all characters indicating that most of the traits studied were mainly controlled by additive gene effect and thus selection may be effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inoculum Level and Inoculation Method Influences on the Pathogenic Activities of Meloidogyne incognita in Studied Model Plant Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)

Yadom Y. F. R. Kouakou, Kouamé Daniel Kra, Hortense Atta Diallo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 82-92
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730716

Agricultural activities such as watering crops with nematode-infested water from wells and boreholes, and using infected plant debris as manure or mulch increase root-knot nematode infection. So, this study aims at assessing the influence of the inoculation method and inoculum level of Meloidogyne incognita on the development of root galls on okra plants. Two M. incognita inoculation methods (suspension of individuals and galled root explants) and six inoculum levels (0, 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 second-stage larvae/plant) were studied. The gall index, total numbers and reproductive factor of M. incognita were used to assess the effect of treatments on root gall development. Unlike the reproductive factor, gall index and the total numbers of M. incognita increased with their inoculum level. The pathogenic activities of M. incognita were most significant when crop soils were infested with galled root explants. However, an inverse relationship was found between the inoculum levels of M. incognita and the okra plant’s development. It is reflected by negative correlation coefficients ranging from -0.90 to -0.62. It is therefore important to burn roots infected with root-knot nematodes left in fields so that they do not act as an inoculum for crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sowing Dates, Phosphorous and Potassium Fertilizer Rates on Phenological, Growth and Yield Aspects of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L) in Hamelmalo Subzone, Eritrea

Bahran Kinfe, G. Sethumadhava Rao

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 93-102
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730717

The field experiment was conducted, in the fields of Hamelmalo Agricultural College, to evaluate the response of sowing-dates and PK (Phosphorous and Potassium) fertilizer levels on phenological aspects, yield and yield components of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L). The experiment was done through a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) where each treatment was replicated three times. The two factors were: sowing-dates which was composed of three sowing dates; namely, middle kiremti (end of July i.e., mid-summer), late kiremti (middle of August- late-summer) and early qewee (early September-early autumn) and P: K fertilizers which was composed of five rates (0kg/ha, 125 kg/ha (75:50), 150 kg/ha (90:60), 175 kg/ha (105:70) and 200 kg/ha (120:80). Results showed that, the highest significant mean values of leaf area (389.4cm2), leaf numbers (28.2) were recorded from middle kiremti sowing date coupled with 320kg/ha and 175kg/ha PK rates respectively. Besides this the highest significant values of both number of fruits (43.8) and total yield (15.26t/ha) were obtained from highest PK rate coupled with late kiremti and middle kiremti respectively.  The sole effects of the PK rates as well as the sowing dates were found to be significant on all the parameters mentioned above including individual fruit weight.  It is therefore the sowing during late kiremti coupled with application of 200kg/ha kg/ha was the best for getting the best economic returns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Effect of Gamma Ray Induced Mutations on Morpho-Agronomic Traits of Dolichos Lablab (Lablab purpureus l.) Sweet

S. K. Kimno, M. G. Kinyua, K. C. PKania, E. Chepkoech, A. K. Ego

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 103-113
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730718

Lablab purpureus (L.) Synonym Dolichos lablab (L.) Sweet; is a minor and an important multipurpose legume. Despite this it classified as an orphaned crop hence few studies on its improvement have been undertaken. Limited studies have been carried out on use of mutation on dolichos improvement.  Four elite Lablab genotypes coded G1, B1, M5 and W7 were mutagenized with two doses of gamma radiation 300Gy and 400 Gy with objective to study the effect of mutation on various agronomical traits at M2 generation. Data on effect of irradiation on lablab was collected 10 randomly selected plants of on each plot .The traits evaluated were leaf length, leaf width, number of raceme per plant, raceme length, pod length, pod width, plant height, dry seed yield per plant and seed length  and seed width. For these traits mean of mutant plants was significantly different from mean of control plants at    P≤0.05. Mutant accessions of B1, M5 and W7 genotypes exhibited wide mutation spectra after mutagenesis of albino, leafiness, upright single stem, seedless pod, short dwarf pod, variegated leaf, variation in flower colour, variation in growth habit, leaf shape, seed colour. Gamma irradiation doses of 300 Gy and 400 Gy were potent in mutagenesis of the studied dolichos lablab. The agronomically diverse mutants are an important resource for dolichos improvement through breeding and genetic studies. Mutants with variegated leafs and flower colour can be used in the landscaping while those different seed colour could be used in the improvement of sensory and cooking qualities of other native dolichos lablab beans.

Open Access Review Article

Crop Rotation: A Sustainable Practice for the Management of Diseases

Belmiro Saburo Shimada, Marcos Vinícius Simon, Inglid Laís Batista Cunha de Souza, Fabiana Tonin

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 20-26
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730710

The management and environmental impacts influence agricultural production, diseases, in turn, can interfere and cause damage to the crop at different times and parts of the plant, due to economic loss, it is necessary to use disease control methods. To maintain sustainable agricultural production, disease management is necessary. Many methods are adopted in agriculture during its development, and led to the implementation of various production systems, including the no-till system, which helped boost production. However, no-tillage was found to have several soil conservation problems, making it necessary to adopt another practice in this system, which is crop rotation, which emerged as a sustainable means of soil conservation, bringing several benefits. Crop rotation is the planned and orderly alternation of different crops in a given period of time and in the same area, making the development and survival of pests and pathogens that affect crops difficult. Along with sustainable disease management using biological control and methods plant-based, allowed for better disease management in agriculture and provided a more sustainable production environment. Crop rotation is important in disease control because it can be a preventive practice to provide diversity to the system through breakage cycles. The control of these diseases can be done through the biological control of pests and plant extracts.

Open Access Review Article

Problems of Chemical Control in Agriculture: An Environmental Perspective

Belmiro Saburo Shimada, Marcos Vinícius Simon, Vinícius Bueno da Silva, Diego Sidney de Oliveira Nunes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730712

Introduction: In the environment, agriculture has been causing several environmental problems due to the use of chemicals in agriculture, and mainly of agrochemicals, causing serious damage to the environment and the environment in which we live. The use of chemical products occurred due to many factors, which caused their consumption to increase, and one of them is the high demand for food due to the increase in the population.

Aims: The aim of this work is to carry out a brief literature review on the problems of chemical control in agriculture: an environmental perspective, describing its importance in the agricultural sector.

Literature Review: The control of pests, diseases and weeds, chemical control is essential, and before agriculture took a turn in sustainable rural development, the use of agrochemicals was common, and it was not seen as something that brings many problems. However, with the search for sustainability, and sustainable rural development, since the high consumption of pesticides was caused by agriculture, it was necessary to adopt other methods of controlling pests, diseases, and weeds. Even with the benefits of using chemical control, current agriculture seeks its use when other methods are not possible, as the use of pesticides causes many problems for the environment, for human health and for food.

Final considerations: As a result, other methods have been adopted, such as cultural and biological control, so that, in this way, the use of pesticides in agriculture is reduced, and problems in different sectors of society are avoided, providing a more sustainable environment.

Open Access Review Article

Application Technology in the use of Correctives in Corn Culture

Belmiro Saburo Shimada, Marcos Vinícius Simon, Inglid Laís Batista Cunha de Souza, Fabiana Tonin

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 114-120
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i730719

Corn is one of the most cultivated cereals in the world and is used for various purposes and its production is linked to its economic importance, requiring the use of means and methods that enable the increase of its production and one of them is the correction of the ground. The objective of this work is to carry out a brief literature review on the application technology in the use of correctives in the corn crop, highlighting the benefits of its use and the need for its use in the crop. The present study was developed based on a literature review and relevant research on the technology of application of correctives in corn crop, highlighting the benefits of its use and the need for its use in corn crop. Agriculture went through a long development, improving its production system and application technology came with one of the alternatives helping to maintain and improve soil quality, enabling the application of correctives in the soil with greater efficiency. The need for soil correction has to do with the relationship between the plant and the soil, highlighting the acidity, which in many cases is a problem for the cultivation of crops. The use of correctives to correct soil acidity brings many benefits to the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil, reduces fertilizer losses caused by leaching, provides calcium and magnesium to the soil adjusting the soil profile so that plants can benefit from available nutrients. Thus, application technology is essential for the corn crop and for the entire production system, even more in the application of correctives, as acidity is one of the causes of yield limitations. Thus, application technology favors soil correction, ensuring the benefits provided by proper application, becoming a means of increasing crop productivity and corn as well, due to the various productive aspects provided by the correct application in the soil.