Open Access Short Research Article

Nutritional Value and In sacco Rumen Degradability of Pod and Leaf Meals from Raintree (Samanea saman) in Comparison with a Commercial Dairy Feed

Chumpholchai Phreyamittrachaiya, Suntorn Wittayakun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 16-21
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830721

The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritive values and in sacco rumen degradability of pod and leaf meals, derived from raintree (Samanea saman), in comparison with a commercial dairy feed for decision making of smallholder dairy farmers for efficient management of local feed resources. Treatments were: raintree pod meal (RPM), raintree leaf meal (RLM), and commercial dairy feed (CDF). The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design. The results indicated that RPM, RLM, and CDF had the same amount of crude protein (CP) content (P =.17), whereas RLM was the highest in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents while CDF was the lowest in NDF and ADF (P =.001). Dry matter disappearances at various incubated times were the highest for RPM, followed by CDF, and RLM, respectively (P =.001). The rapidly soluble dry matter fraction (a) was the highest for RPM (P =.023), while the insoluble but fermentable fraction (b) was the highest for CDF (P =.001). The constant degradation rate of b (c) did not differ among treatments (P = .095). The potential degradability (PD) was the highest for CDF, compared with RPM, and RLM, respectively (P =.001). In contrast, the effective degradability (ED) parameters was the highest for RPM, followed by CDF and RLM, respectively (P =.001). Overall, this work demonstrated that RPM is more beneficial than RLM compared with CDF in nutritional values and degradability characteristics. Hence, RPM is recommended as an alternative local feed source for dairy cows raised by smallholder dairy farms in the tropics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Nutrient Concentration of Wheat Crop (Triticum aestivum L.)

Anuj Kumar, Uma Shankar Tiwari, Kamlesh Kumar Yadav, Pankaj Kumar Singh, . Sulekha, Ashesh Narayan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830720

A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season of 2013-14 and 2014-15 at Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur to evaluate the integrated nutrient management on nutrient concentration. The experiment was comprising sixteen  treatments viz. T1- control, T2- 100% RDF,T3- 100% RDF+S, T4- 100% RDF+S+Zn, T5- 100% RDF + S + Zn + bio-fertilizer (Azotobactor+ P.S.B.), T6- 100% RDF + 25% N through F.Y.M., T7- 100% RDF + 25% N through FYM + S, T8- 100% RDF + 25% N through FYM + S + Zn, T9-100% RDF. + 25% N through F.Y.M. + S + Zn + bio-fertilizer  (Azotobactor+ P.S.B.), T10-100% RDF + 25% N through vermi compost, T11- 100% RDF + 25 % N through vermicompost + S + Zn + bio-fertilizer (Azotobactor+ PSB), T12- 75 % RDF T13- 75 % RDF + 25 % N through FYM T14- 75% RDF + 25% N through vermi compost, T15-75% RDF + 25% N through FYM + S + Zn + bio-fertilizer (Azotobactor+ P.S.B.) and T16- 75% RDF + 25% N through vermi compost + S + Zn + bio-fertilizer (Azotobactor+ P.S.B.). Contents of N, P, K, S and Zn. Increased linearly and non-significantly except N content in grain and straw and Zn content at all the stages of crop growth in comparison to control. Highest concentration of N, P, K, S and Zn at late tillering, milking and at harvest in grain and straw was recorded with T11 (100% R.D.F. + 25% N through vermicompost+S + Zn + bio- fertilizers (Azotobactor+P.S.B.) followed by T9 (100% R.D.F. + 25% N through F.Y.M. + S + Zn+bio-fertilizers   (Azotobactor+P.S.B.) and minimum at control (T1) during both the years. Integration of sulphur, zinc, bio-fertilizers, FYM and vermicompost with 100% RDF and 75% RDF treatments also influences N, P, K, S and Zn content at all the stages of crop growth during both the years. It was also observed that integration of sulphur and zinc showed higher increases and its content also increase the concentration of others nutrients higher with 100% RDF treatments in comparison to 75% RDF treatments. The higher concentration of N, P, K, S and Zn to be attributed to higher availability and synergistic effects of these nutrients to each other at all the stages of crop growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mapping and Classification of Use Only in the Municipality of Ulianópolis-PA: Dynamics of the Landscape in the Hydrographic Micro-basin of the Cabeludo River

Maiara dos Santos Sousa, Letícia do Socorro Cunha, Renata Adelaide Pluta, Vanessa de Oliveira Faria, Karlene Fernandes de Almeida, Fabiana Tonin

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830723

The search for economic development, in its most varied production models, anthropic actions have caused great environmental impacts, changing the environment and consequently causing environmental risks in different ways. In this sense, this work aimed to map the use and occupation of land through the spatial temporal dynamics of the hydrographic landscape of the Rio Cabeludo, in the municipality of Ulianópolis - PA, using integrated techniques of remote sensing and geoprocessing. Through the images, the supervised classification of the area was carried out, using the ENVI software for digital image processing and ArcGIS software for the elaboration of the thematic map. Some classes were investigated, such as urban area, exposed soil, temporary tillage, permanent tillage, dense vegetation, scrub, pasture, hydrography, cloud, shade, it is noteworthy that not all classes were repeated in the analyzed period. The evaluation of the studied area showed that there were significant changes in some classes. The identified classes reflect the dynamics of agricultural activity and not commercial plantation areas or large tracts of land. The work showed the possibility and importance of using geoprocessing techniques to monitor the territory and manage the environment, enabling better forms of land occupation and use of natural resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Potassium Carbonate used to Improve Phytosanitary and Agronomic Parameters of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Crops

Kouamé Koffi Gaston, Kassi Koffi Fernand Jean-Martial, Kouamé Konan Didier, Yao Kouadio Jacques-Edouard, Fiéni Kouassi Kra Dimitri, Koné Daouda

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 46-55
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830725

Aims: The present study aims to evaluate the effect of potassium carbonate (58 p.c) on agronomic and phytosanitary parameters in tomato crops.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out from May to September 2020 at N'gattakro, a village near the international airport in the city of Yamoussoukro, center region of Côte d’Ivoire.

Methodology: Five doses of potassium carbonate (PC:T1= 2 Kg/ha; T2 = 3 Kg/ha; T3 = 4 Kg/ha; T4 = 5 Kg/ha; T5 = 6 Kg/ha), a reference control (TR1= IVORY (mancozeb 80%) and an untreated control were tested in a Fisher's complete block design with 4 replicates in a commercial garden plot. 

Results: As results T4 and T5 potassium carbonate improved the tomato yield. These doses promoted the yield of 5.02±0.09 and 6.92±0.16 t/ha compared to the control (3.405±0.1 t/ha). Moreover, at these doses, there was a low manifestation of toxicity. In addition, 6kg/ha of PC showed a fusarium wilt infection rate of 1.38±0.71% compared to 3.62±0.90% for the control. Conclusion: Potassium carbonate (58%) at 6 kg/ha can be an alternative solution to chemical control of fungal diseases in tomato cropping.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cutting Size on the Performance of Exogenous Auxin IBA in Vegetative Propagation of Rubus erythroclados Mart. ex Hook. f.

Júlio Tagliari Balestrin, Talissa Baroni, Juliana Marcia Rogalski

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 56-66
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830726

Aim: The climbing shrub Rubus erythroclados Mart. ex Hook. f. (amora-verde) has great food (fruits) and medicinal (leaves) potential. However, this species remains understudied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between cutting size and IBA concentration in the vegetative propagation of R. erythroclados by stem cuttings.

Study Design: The experimental design used was completely randomized in a 3x5 factorial combination. The cutting size factor was represented by three levels (10, 15 and 20 cm) and IBA concentration factor by five levels (0, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000 and 4,000 mg L-1).

Results: There was an interaction between the factors in 13 of the 19 variables analyzed, being: live cuttings at 30 and 60 days, live cuttings with callus formation, sprouted cuttings at 30, 60 and 90 days, rooted cuttings, shoot number, shoot diameter, root number, root length, length of the largest root and root diameter. Size increase of the R. erythroclados cuttings caused a decrease in the phytotoxic effect of IBA in the development of the aerial part. The effect of IBA in response to rooting induction, in the larger size of R. erythroclados cuttings, required an increase in IBA concentration compared to the cuttings of shorter size.

Conclusion: Cuttings of 10 and 15 cm treated with 1,000 mg L-1 of IBA showed greater rooting (20.0%) compared to the other treatments, being, therefore, indicated for the vegetative propagation of R. erythroclados by stem cuttings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Chilling Accumulation for Blackberry (Rubus sp.) Using Mathematical Models

Silvia Carpenedo, Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira, Rodrigo Cezar Franzon

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 67-75
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830727

As the climate change takes place, the cultivation of temperate climate crops in subtropical areas has become a challenge. The success of fruit crops, such as blackberry, in certain areas depends basically on its chilling requirement and the chilling accumulation in those areas. Usually the models used to predict those accumulations presents widely variable results being necessary to test the models in the location where the species is cultivated. The objective of this work was to estimate the chilling requirement for bud break of   blackberry cultivars Caingangue, BRS Cainguá, Guarani, Tupy, BRS Xavante, BRS Xingu, Brazos, Cherokee and Choctaw, using the models of Utah, Positive Utah, Low Chill, Taiwan, Chilling Hours ≤7.2°C, Chilling Hours ≤11°C, and Dynamic and both temperature and phenological data from 2010 to 2019. The results showed a high variability in cold accumulation for all studied cultivars in all tested models. None of the models performed perfectly to estimate chilling requirement however, the Taiwan and the Utah Positive models can be used to provide a rough estimate of this requirement. On the other hand, Utah and Low Chill      models are clearly not suitable for estimating blackberry chilling requirement. The estimated    chilling requirement showed that all the studied cultivars are well adapted to the climatic       conditions of the southern Rio Grande do Sul, which is emphasized by their good productivity in most of the years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Broadening Genetic Base of Rice and Identification of Pre-Breeding Lines for Resistance to Brown Plant Hopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål.)

Prakash Chandra Rath, Lotan Kumar Bose, Nitiprasad Namdeorao Jambhulkar, Hata Nath Subudhi, Meera Kumari Kar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 76-80
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830728

Pre-breeding includes basic research to achieve wide crosses and facilitate the use of exotic materials or wild relatives for both qualitative and quantitative traits. The main objective is to provide breeders with more ‘attractive’ PGR that are easier to use, i.e. resistance sources in acceptable genetic background; or inbreeding tolerant forms of out crossing species for hybrid breeding. Forty seven pre-breeding lines were evaluated against Brown Plant Hopper under glasshouse condition over a period of two years (2018 and 2019). Out of these, two pre-breeding lines were moderately resistant to BPH having score 3. Two pre-breeding lines were moderately susceptible to BPH having score 5, five lines were susceptible having score 7 and rest thirty nine pre-breeding lines were highly susceptible to BPH with a score of 9.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Tithonia diversifolia, Alchornea cordifolia, and Mezoneuron benthamianum on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculuntum) Nursery in Daloa (Côte d’Ivoire)

Yah N’ Guettia Marie, Koffi Ahébé Marie Hélène, Zadjei N’goran Anderson, Akaffou Doffou Sélastique, Atta Taky Hortense Diallo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 81-91
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830729

Aims: Research of alternative solutions to the use of synthetic pesticides.

Study Design : Randomized block.

Place and Duration of Study: Jean Lorougnon Guédé University (Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire), January to February 2020.

Methodology: Extracts of Alchornea cordifolia, Tithonia diversifolia and Mezoneuron benthamianum were evaluated in vitro and in the nursery at 5 g/l, 15 g/l and 25 g/l. In vitro, the blotting paper method was used on tomato seed germination. In the nursery, the powdery extracts were added to the nursery soil bags with four treatments (5 g/l, 15 g/l, 25 g/l and control) and six bags per treatment with five tomato seeds per bag. Germination rate, number of leaves, height and the health status of the plants as well as the incidence and severity of root galls were evaluated. The results showed that in vitro the control had the highest average germination rate (98.5%) followed by T. diversifolia (43.03 to 98.5%), A. cordifolia (35.33 to 68.67%) and M. benthamianum (37.66 to 67.55%). However, in the nursery, T. diversifolial recorded the highest average treated seed germination (38 to 78.33%) and seedling emergence (12.78 to 38.33%) rates compared to the other treatments. Concerning growth parameters, the number of leaves (5.38 to 13.21) and height (5.71 to 15.64 cm) of tomato plants were influenced by the extracts type and concentration. The incidence of root galls was low for treated plants (0-60%) compared to controls (100%). The severity of the galls was significantly reduced by the extracts, however the extracts of T. diversifolia were the most effective. Extracts were more effective at low concentrations in improving agromorphological parameters of tomato, in contrast to the incidence and severity of galls which were reduced at high concentrations. Results suggest that these locally available plants could be used as biofertilizers and control method against root-knot nematodes.

Open Access Review Article

Analysis on the Effect of Different Mulberry Varieties on the Commercial Parameters of Mulberry Silkworm (Bombyx mori): A Review

Rubia Bukhari, Kalpna Sudan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830722

Sericulture is a commerce that involves the cultivation of mulberry plant species, the raising of silkworms, and the manufacture of silk. It is a sustainable, eco-friendly, and agricultural focused commerce. It is one of the largest employment industries, and it has played a significant role in rural opportunities and financial progress. The silkworm is the greatest mulberry assessor since different mulberry   types differ in numerous characteristics. Criteria for assessment have been created using a bioassay of silkworm larvae. The impact of a specific mulberry variety on a certain silkworm hybrid may be assessed based on growth/development, survival, and eventually cocoon generation, which directly influences silk productivity.

Open Access Review Article

The Importance of Nitrogen in Corn Culture

Belmiro Saburo Shimada, Marcos Vinícius Simon, Vinícius Bueno da Silva, Diego Sidney de Oliveira Nunes, Isabela Miranda Litaiff

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i830724

Corn is one of the most cultivated cereals in the world and is used for various purposes and its production is linked to its economic importance, requiring the use of means and methods that enable the increase of its production, and one of them is fertilization with nitrogen. The objective of this work is to carry out a brief literature review on the importance of nitrogen for the corn crop, highlighting the benefits of its use and the need for its use in the crop. Plants need many nutrients for their development, and nitrogen is one of the main nutrients, being important for many chemical and physical functions in the plant. In addition, nitrogen is necessary in the corn crop, as it is a nutrient that is required in large amounts and has a great impact on crop production. Nitrogen has many benefits in the corn crop, as it is essential to the plant and to many crops, providing benefits throughout the plant, ensuring an increase in production components. However, the importance of nitrogen in the crop, refers to the plant, its use in the corn crop and the benefits provided, which generate positive results for its use, increasing various components of crop production, demonstrating that it is important for the crop, in its development and in the increase of maize productivity. Thus, it is noted that nitrogen is very important for the development of corn, composes several chemical and physical functions of the plant, it is necessary in the corn crop due to its requirement, provides many benefits to the crop, increasing production components and has many good results with its use in corn.