Open Access Original Research Article

Bermudagrass Control in Sugarcane in Brazil

Lucas Carvalho Cirilo, Antonio Luiz Cerdeira, Andrea Aparecida de Padua Mathias Azania, Lucas Ribeiro Beluci, João Eduardo Brandão Boneti, Vitor Simionato Bidóia, Carlos Alberto Mathias Azania

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1030741

Aims: Evaluation of the chemicals in controlling bermudagrass weed and effects on sugarcane selectivity.

Study Design: Chamber growth studies: completely randomized design with nine treatments with five replicates. Field studies: Randomized block design with nine treatments with five replicates

Place and Duration of Study: Instituto Agronômico, Centro de Cana, São Paulo State, Brazil, between February/2018 and December/2019.

Methodology: Bermudagrass chemical control was studied in growth chamber in pots. In the first stage, imazapyr, clomazone, indaziflam, sulfentrazone and the control treatment were studied. In the second stage, imazapyr, clomazone, indaziflam were applied and a treatment with no herbicides was maintained. After 75 days of imazapyr application and 38 days of clomazone and indaziflam, clomazone + indaziflam and clomazone + sulfentrazone were applied, in addition to the control treatment. Sugar cane selectivity study was carried out in the field. Before sugarcane planting, imazapyr, clomazone, indaziflam were applied. After planting, clomazone + indaziflam and clomazone + sulfentrazone were applied, in addition to the control treatment.

Results: Clomazone at 1050.0 g ha-1 applied as pre plant at 38 days before planting followed by clomazone at 1050.0 g ha-1 plus sulfentrazone at 650.0 g ha-1 applied 2 days after sugar cane planting was the best treatment for bermudagrass control and yield of the crop. Other viable options for control involved clomazone plus sulfentrazone used after imazapyr or indaziflam.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Organic Amendments and Mineral Fertilizers on the Growth of Vitroplants of the Great Dwarf Cultivar of Banana (Musa sp) Installed on a Ferralsol

Mazinga Kwey Michel, Banza Mukalay John, Kabwe Masangu Francis, Chuimika Mulumbati Magnifique, Kasongo Lenge Mukonzo Emery, Baboy Longanza Louis

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1030742

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, banana is the third largest source of starch after cassava and maize and is the primary fruit crop. However, its cultivation remains secondary due to its high mineral demand, the infertility of tropical soils (ferralsol) and the low income of farmers. The dynamics of mineral elements and the understanding of its influence on crop growth are a necessity for a better use of fertilizers and an optimal crop production.  The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of organo-mineral amendment inputs on banana growth and improvement of soil chemical properties. The experiment was set up in a randomised complete block design with 9 treatments spotted 6 times. The treatments consisted of T0 (unfertilized control) ; T1 : 250g NPK (10-20-10) +187.5g urea (46%) ; T2 : 500g NPK (10-20-10) + 375g urea (46%); T3 : 750g NPK (10-20-10) +562.5g urea (46%) ; T4 : 1000g NPK compound fertilizer (10-20-10) +750g urea (46%), T5 : 12 kg (chicken droppings) ; T6 : 18 kg (chicken droppings) ; T7 : 24 kg (chicken droppings) and T8 : 30 kg (chicken droppings) per plant. The vitroplant banana of the great dwarf cultivar were planted and vegetative parameters were observed. Before and during the trial, soil samples were taken from the surface layer for chemical analysis. The results show that the different doses applied to the soil significantly decreased the sodium content (p=0.008) after the trial. On the other hand, similar effects were observed on the other chemical parameters (K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Total C and Organic N) before and during the experiment. On the crop, the results show positive effects of organic amendments and mineral fertilization on the development of banana vitroplants. The mineral fertilizer treatments showed a high performance on the crop followed by the manure treatments compared to the control treatment which showed a low performance. However, positive relationships were obtained on soil mineral elements with some crop parameters. Based on these results, it should be noted that the use of organo-mineral amendments contributes to the growth of banana and the reduction of sodium in the soil through the presence of organic matter.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Low-Cost Filter in Field Condition

K. Nagarajan, S. Ramya, T. Thangamani, A. Selvaperumal, T. Arthi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 20-26
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1030743

The parameters require for maintaining the crop's health and the integrity of the irrigation system has a relation with quality of irrigation water. In Micro irrigation appropriate filtration is very much important to prevent clogging. Filtration unit is one of the main components in micro irrigation system that too, Primary filter is more important to be installed along with the unit, when the water source is from open reservoir and other water sources. Though it is essential, the primary filter is not being installed by the farmers due to its high cost. Hence this study is an attempt to fabricate low-cost filter and to evaluate its performance with different filter media layer. A low-cost primary filter for drip irrigation system is fabricated. Different filter media layer like silex sand (fine silex, coarse silex), pebbles with different sizes are selected. The results revealed that the removal efficiency of filter using silex sand and pebbles were 71% in terms of turbidity, 78% in terms of total suspended solids removal at flow rate of 12 m3 /hr. This fabricated low-cost filter will be cost effective for small farm applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chlormequat Chloride on Vegetative Growth, Photosynthetic Activities, and its Residual Dissipation in Thompson Seedless Grapevines

S. D. Ramteke, S. R. Bhagwat, S. M. Khalate, A. H. Gavali, J. N. Kalbhor, T. S. Shelake, A. R. Langote

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 27-36
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1030744

Chlormequat chloride is one of the important plant growth regulators which is a highly stable gibberellins biosynthesis inhibitor used to inhibit vegetative growth and cell elongation. Considering the importance of plant growth inhibitors, the present investigation was carried out to understand the effect of Chlormequat chloride with its different concentrations on vegetative growth, photosynthetic activities and its residual dissipation in Grapevines at two different locations one at Pune, Maharashtra India and second at Nashik, Maharashtra, India during the year 2018-2019. Chlormequat chloride was applied as a foliar spray, where the whole vines were sprayed at concentration of   500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 ppm with untreated control as a water spray; as a treatments with different developmental stages Viz 5th, 7th, and 15th leaf stage after foundation pruning. Morphological observations were recorded at 45 days and 90 days after foundation as well as fruit pruning. Application of Chlormequat chloride recorded reduced shoot length and Internodal distance while increased in cane diameters, leaf thickness after both the pruning’s in this investigation Photosynthetic activity, yield per vines and percent fruitfulness had significantly influenced with the application of Chlormequat chloride in grapevines. The dissipation of Chlormequat chloride was stable and indicated a non- linear pattern of degradation. Thus, implied that simple first-order kinetics might not be adequate to explain the dissipation behaviour of Chlormequat chloride in grapes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Accelerated Aged Seed on Seed Quality Parameters of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) Under Laboratory Conditions

M. Linga Swami Sai Reddy, V. Saida Naik, Sujatha Kumari, C. H. Siva Naga Lakshmi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 37-44
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1030745

Availability of good quality seed at the time of planting is most important factor for successful production of any crop. This is because, good quality seed not only ensure proper emergence but rapid establishment of seedling in the field that enhance the seed yield.  

There are various factors such as temperature and moisture content which affect the quality of seed. Use of stored seed for sowing purposes results in poor yield due to physiological and biochemical changes during ageing.

Deterioration of seed quality during ageing is a natural phenomenon. This is caused by alterations in various physiological viz. seed germination, seedling length, seed vigor and biochemical parameters such as seed leachate, seed viability and dehydrogenase activity. Changes in these parameters adversely affect seed yield and related characters.

The present investigation on “Impact of accelerated ageing on the seed quality and yield contributing characters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties” was conducted at Seed Testing laboratory and research block of seed science and technology, BFIT, Department of  Agriculture

Uttara Khand during 2019-20. For this purpose four varieties of wheat viz. VL-802, VL-829, VL-892 and UP-1109 were subjected to accelerated ageing  at 450 C and 100 % relative humidity for 15, 30 and 45 days along with control. The experiment was laid out in CRD with three replications of each treatment.

Under the laboratory conditions, every treatment showed significant difference for seed quality parameters after accelerated ageing. Variety VL-892 had more capability to maintain the seed quality attributes after 15, 30 and 45 days of accelerated ageing period as considered  being good storer under ambient condition. Whereas VL-829 and UP-1109 showed potential for medium-term   storage and VL-802 variety had poor storing potential based on the seed quality and yield parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Utilisation Pattern of Soil Health Card’s Recommendation on Sali Rice Cultivation in Assam

Lohita Rabha, Utpal Barman

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1030746

Aims: The present study was undertaken to examine the utilisation pattern of Soil Health Card’s (SHC) recommendation by the farmers on sali rice cultivation in Assam.

Study Design: The numbers of respondents were selected by proportional allocation to size to make it 150 and the relevant data were cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken at Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat. Respondents were selected from the Darrang district of Assam during the period 2017-18.

Methodology: Descriptive as well as inferential statistical tools were employed in order to attain the objective of the study. The data was analysed by using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Chi-square test.

Results: The result revealed that 56.67 per cent of the respondents were unable to read the content of SHC, and 82.00 per cent of the respondents did not understand the content of SHC. Moreover, 74.66 per cent of farmers did not apply fertilisers and other nutrients as per the SHC recommendation. The chi-square test showed that application of urea, Diammonium Phosphate, Singe Super Phosphate and Muriate of Potash had a higher association with increased age, education, landholding, and gross annual income of respondents.

Conclusion: The SHC scheme could not bring any positive changes to sali rice in the initial year at Darrang district. Thus, the study has suggested initiating the mass awareness campaign regularly using the concept of social marketing for judicious application of fertilisers and nutrients based on the SHC report. It is also necessary to provide technical backstopping to farmers on SHC recommendation and application to make agriculture productive, profitable, and sustainable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carfentrazone Plus Pyroxasulfone Combinations for Weed Control in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

W. James Grichar, Peter A. Dotray, Todd Baughman

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 52-63
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1030747

Aims: To determine peanut response and weed control following the use of carfentrazone plus pyroxasulfone (C + P).

Study Design:  Randomized complete block design with 3-4 reps depending on location.

Place and Duration of Study: Studies were conducted during the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons in south Texas near Yoakum (29.276o N, 97.123o W), the High Plains of Texas near Lamesa (32.769o N, 101.977o W) or Brownfield (33.104o N, 102.161o W), and southwestern Oklahoma near Ft. Cobb (35.091o N, 98.275o W).

Methodology: Plots were infested with naturally occurring weed populations. Pendimethalin was applied either preplant incorporated (PPI) or preemergence (PRE). Early postemergence (EPOST) applications varied according to weather conditions and peanut growth at each location. Postemergence (POST) treatments were applied 26 to 58 days after planting. Weed control and peanut stunting were visually estimated on a scale of 0 to 100 (0 indicating no control or plant death and 100 indicating complete control or plant death).

Results: Peanut stunting with C + P was only noted at the High Plains and Oklahoma locations in 2015 but not 2016. Urochloa texana (Buckl.) control with C + P (PRE) varied from 75 to 93%. POST applications provided inconsistent control.  Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. control with C + P (PRE) was at least 78% season-long while POST applications were inconsistent (24 to 100%).  Pendimethalin plus C + P controlled Cucumis melo L. var. Dudaim Naud. at least 80% late-season. Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. control was excellent season-long (> 80%) in 2015 but poor (< 60%) in 2016.  Reduced peanut yields were noted with C + P in Oklahoma in 2015 to excessive season-long injury.   

Conclusion: The premix of C + P has potential for use in peanut especially for control of many small-seeded annual broadleaf weeds that continue to plague many peanut growers across the southwest.  For effective broad-spectrum annual weed control season-long, the addition of pendimethalin to PRE applications will be required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Morphological Quality of Hybrid Seeds and the Vegetative Development of Plants from the Two Reproductive Systems of Elite Dura Genitors from Oil Palm (Elaeisguineensis Jacq) Seed Fields in Côte d'Ivoire

Ekra Kouamé Tano, Oulo Alla N'nan, Jean-Noël Konan, Désiré Allou, Eugène Kouakou Konan, Assanvo Simon-Pierre N'guetta

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 64-72
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1030748

The production of quality oil palm plant material (Elaeisguineensis Jacq.) necessarily involves the creation of seed fields made up of elite Dura parents. Two methods of reproduction of these elite Duragenitors were adopted for the establishment of current seed fields by the National Center for Agronomic Research (CNRA). The first group is made up of elite first-cycle parents who have undergone two successive generations of [(G1) AF] AF type self-fertilization, noted AFAF. The second group is composed of genitors having undergone a prior self-fertilization followed by AFSIB-type recombination cycle of recombination between genitors of the type (G1 × G2) AF, noted AFSIB. This study involves evaluation of morphological quality of seeds from the two breeding systems of the parents and their quality of vegetative development. For this, the seeds from 553 Dura parents distributed among eight (8) descendants and grouped within the category C1001 F were used.The resultsderived from this study have shown that the seeds obtained from the parents through double self-fertilization of AFAF-type parents are characterized by a thin shell and a high percentage of germination. After the elimination of the abnormal plants at the end of the nursery, various traits viz.circumference at the crown, height of the plants and the number of leaves emitted from the plants on the healthy plants showed that the plants resulting from the seeds obtained from self-fertilization followed by AFSIB-type recombination showed good vegetative development and vigor compared to those of AFAF type respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Views of Farmers on the Structure of Private Extension Service Organization

Madhusmita Sahoo, Reema Barik, Indira Priyadarsini Pattnaik, Santosh Kumar Rout

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 73-76
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1030749

The present study was conducted during the year 2018-2020 in Khordha district of Odisha to know the “views of farmers on the structure of private extension service organisation”. The number of respondents were selected by proportional and random sampling method. Descriptive as well as inferential statistical tools were employed to attain the objective of the study. the data was analysed by using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and correlation test. The study reveals that as much as (90%) of the respondents have expressed an opinion that the private extension service organization should be a registered one. Further 63.33% of the respondents believe that the state government should have control over private extension service organization in some other form to avoid exploitation. 90% of the respondents have the ranked training as the first requirement. 73.33% of the respondents have expressed that the extension service organizations should provide information’s to the farmers once a fortnight. 93.33% of the respondents have preferred that the block headquarter should be the operational area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Endogenous Farmer Practices of Adaptation to Climate Variability in the Town of Banikoara, Benin

Adjahossou Vidédji Naéssé, A. Adekambi Souleïmane, Adjahossou Baï Sêdami, Djego Julien Gaudence Mahutin

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 77-89
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1030750

Background: Agriculture is an activity that provides more than 70% of employment in sub-Saharan African countries. However, climate variability has significant negative impacts on agricultural productivity, particularly in countries such as Benin that are highly dependent on rainfall. The objective of this research is to highlight the different perceptions and endogenous strategies of adaptation to climate variability adopted by farmers. It took place in Benin's largest cotton production area, the commune of Banikoara located in the northern region of the country.

Methodology: The surveys were conducted on a sample of 120 farmers randomly selected in four (4) villages, all of which are large agricultural producers, i.e. 30 farmers per village. In addition to descriptive statistics based on the calculation of proportions and averages, a multivariate probit model was estimated in order to identify the factors that influence the choice of endogenous adaptation strategies to climate variability.

Results: Approximately 50% of the respondents stated that they had practiced early seeding in order to cope with the consequences of climatic variability, 38% stated that they practiced ridge tillage, 28% indicated that they practiced late seeding while 15% declared that they practiced agroforestry. The results show that farmers use different combinations of endogenous strategies to drastically mitigate the adverse consequences of climate variability. Each farmer takes a number of parameters into account when defining the strategy to adopt.