Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Development and Implementation of Real Time Canal and Weather Monitoring Devices

N. V. Gowtham Deekshithulu, Joyita Mali, V. Vamsee Krishna, D. Surekha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130752

In the present study, canal depth, velocity and weather monitoring sensors are designed and implemented in the field irrigation laboratory, Aditya Engineering College, Surampalem, Andhra Pradesh, India. The depth sensor which is used in this project is HC-SR04 sensor and the velocity sensor is YF-S403. A method of data acquisition and transmission based on ThingSpeak IOT is proposed. To record weather data (i.e., temperature, humidity, rainfall depth and wind speed) DHT11 sensor, ultrasonic sensor and IR sensors are used. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of real time canal and weather monitoring devices. A structure of real time weather monitoring devices based on sensors and ThingSpeak IOT, a design was developed to realize the independent operation of sensors and wireless data transmission can help in minimizing the error in data collection. Arduino UNO is connected with canal depth and velocity sensor to generate the output, similarly NodeMCU is connected with weather monitoring device. The results revealed that observed sensor data showed good results when compared/calibrated with the existing conventional measurement system. In order to decrease the time and to get accurate value, it is recommended to consider the sensors for the proper use and to access weather data easily. The developed device worked satisfactorily with minimum or no errors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Edaphic Aptness of Subarid Soils to Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Production in Social Dynamics Context of Diffa, Niger

Boubacar M. Moussa, Laouali Abdou, Salamatou Abdourahamane Illiassou, Ali Mahamane

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130753

In the eastern Niger, vegetable crops such as lettuce are cultivated along the Komadougou Yobé river and near Lake Chad. Insecurity linked to terrorist groups prevents the exploitation of these areas and leads population to explore other lands. This study aims to find out whether sub-arid soils have in some places potentialities that can allow lettuce cultivation. A pedological survey was first carried out in the study area and some physicochemical soil parameters were analyzed. Then, a randomized experimental design with three cultivars (“Blonde de Paris”, “Iceberg Tahoma”, and “Iceberg edem”) and three replicates was carried out on soils which present favorable conditions for vegetable crops. The lettuce fresh mass was determined at harvest. The results show a significant influence of the geomorphological gradient on texture classes, nitrogen contents, pH values, cation exchange capacity and level of exchangeable bases. The lowland soils are more apt for vegetable crops like lettuce. The mean of lettuce fresh mass obtained for the three cultivars is 4.8±0.5 kg.m-². Iceberg Eden records the highest values and seems well adapted to eastern Niger.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Different Crop Establishment and Irrigation Methods on Growth and Growth Indices of Rice

T. Theerthana, P. S. Fathima, G. R. Denesh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 22-34
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130754

The increasing global demand for water in many sectors has become a universal concern. Challenge is to develop advanced production systems that allow rice production to be sustained in the face of waning water availability. With the intention to find the efficient water saving technology and establishment method, a field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya, University of Agricultural Sciences, and Bangalore during Kharif 2018. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three main plot irrigation treatments and five sub plot rice establishment treatments. The paddy variety used was ‘MTU 1001’. Objective was to study the irrigation and establishment methods on growth of rice. The results revealed that, continuous flooding recorded significantly higher plant height (80.67 cm) at harvest. Whereas, alternate wetting and drying (AWD) recorded higher leaf area index (5.06), CGR at 30 to 60 DAS, 60 to 90 DAS and 90 DAS to harvest (1.49,  3.50 and 2.47 g m-2 day-1, respectively), NAR at 30 to 60 DAS and 60 to 90 DAS (7.19 and 4.37 mg cm-2 day-1, respectively). Among establishment methods, manual transplanting recorded higher plant height (81.82 cm), LAI (5.70), DME (55.77), AGR at 30 DAS (0.36 g day-1), CGR at 30 to 60 DAS and 60 to 90 DAS (1.73 and 3.94 g m-2 day-1, respectively) and LAD at 30 to 60 DAS, 60 to 90 DAS and 90DAS to harvest (49.50, 128.70 and 272.80, respectively). However, mechanical transplanting recorded significantly more number of tillers m-2 (765.67), NAR at 30 to 60 DAS and 60 to 90 DAS (9.96 and 4.41 mg cm-2 day-1, respectively). AWD method of irrigation in mechanical transplanting and manual transplanting are found to be better among all other methods due to the higher growth and development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Suitability for Growing Horticultural Crops in Kanamadi South Sub-Watershed of Karnataka

Ashay D. Souza, P. L. Patil

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 35-47
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130755

The suitability of the land resources in the watershed for various crops is necessary to choose the right crop and variety suitable for the area. In carrying out this assessment, the specific land requirements of a crop are compared with the characteristics of land resource mapped in the sub- watershed with this objective  investigation was carried to assess land suitability for growing horticultural crops in Kanamadi South sub-watershed of Vijayapura district of Karnataka. The soil survey was conducted using 1:7920 scale, LISS IV satellite imagery.  The soils were shallow to deep with clay loam to clay in texture. The soils were low in nitrogen and organic carbon, low to medium in phosphorus and sulphur, medium to high in potassium. Iron, copper, zinc and manganese were sufficient. Land suitability evaluation revealed that soils were moderately suitable for growing fruits such as guava (73.75% TGA), pomegranate (70.73% TGA), sapota (85.65% TGA). In case of flowers, major part of the study area was marginally suitable for crops such asrose (65.26% TGA) and jasmine (91.72% TGA). Around 11.55 per cent of the area was evaluated as unsuitable for growing fruit crops. The consideration of depth and nutrient status of soil in sub-watershed area is ideal to grow the horticultural crops like fruit crops with soil conservation measures to obtain food sustainability and nutrition level of people living the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Different Nitrogen Levels to the Grain Yield and Yield Components of Some Corn (Zea mays L.) Hybrids

Wisam Khald Sabri, Abdullah Oktem

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 48-60
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130756

Aims: The study was designed to elucidate the effect of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on five different maize cultivars.

Study Design:  A split plot experimental design in randomized complete blocks (RCBD) with three replicates. Arrangement of seven nitrogen levels and five single cross hybrids were compared. Main plots were nitrogen levels and subplots were varieties.

Place and Duration of Study: College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences at the University of Duhok, Iraq. The study was undertaken fromMarch– August 2021.

Methodology: At the present research, five single cross-hybrid corn varieties were used, which were: CADZ, DKC6050, DRACHMA, MYIMY and ZP6468D. Arrangement of seven nitrogen fertilizer levels were 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N ha−1. The following features were studied: plant height, leaf area index, thousand kernel weight, total grain yield, total chlorophyll, protein% and oil %.The collected data were projected to SAS software program for analysis. The significant differences between treatment means were calculated using Duncan’s multiple ranges.

Results: It was reveal that there were significant effect of different nitrogen fertilizer levels, maize genotypes as well as the interaction of nitrogen and genotype of maize (P<.01) for plant height, leaf area index, 1000 kernel weight, total grain yield, total chlorophyll and protein %. However, There were no significant differences between different maize genotypes as well as different nitrogen fertilizer levels (P>.05) with oil %, but the interaction of nitrogen and genotype of maize was significant (P<.01).

Conclusion: Increasing the amount of nitrogen had better effect on studied characteristics of different maize varieties, in which adding 300 kg nitrogen had optimum results. In considering the response of maize varieties to nitrogen, the best variety was DRACHMA genotype while the worst variety was CADZ genotype, however this hybrids was superior in some traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acclimatization of Tissue Culture Pineapple Plantlet Using Semi-Autotrophic Hydroponics Technique in Comparison with Other Conventional Substrates

Y. O. Olagunju, A. O. Aduloju, P. E. Akin-Idowu, C. O. Esuola

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130757

Aims: Previously conventional substrates consisting of topsoil mixtures have produced low yield and low survival rate of the tissue culture plantlets. Semi-Autotrophic Hydroponics (SAH) technique is being compared with Sawdust (SD) and Topsoil (TS) as a suitable method of acclimatization and further rooting of the plantlets. This research is aimed at optimizing the protocol for acclimatization of tissue culture pineapple plantlets.

Study Design:  Experimental Research Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Biotechnology Research Unit, Tissue Culture Laboratory, National Horticultural Research Institute, Jericho-Idi-Ishin, Ibadan. Feb 2021 – April 2021.

Methodology: The technique employed was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 10 samples per treatment in 6 replicates. 5 treatments were investigated in this research. Data analysis was done with the use of SAS statistical analysis software (p<0.05).

Fresh crowns of Ananas comosus (pineapple) were extracted and were cultivated in test tubes containing full MS media. The plantlets were sub-cultured twice, after which they were taken into the hardening chamber. The plantlets were acclimatized in the Semi-Autotrophic Hydroponics substrate and other substrates – Topsoil(TS), Sawdust(SD), Sawdust + Topsoil (3:1), and Sawdust + Topsoil (1:3).

Results: The result shows that the mean difference in Plant Height and Root Length for SAH substrate was significant as against other substrates used in this study (p<0.05) with SAH having the highest value of 3.50cm for plant height and 2.53cm for root length.  A 100% survival rate was observed for the plantlets grown SAH media as compared to the ones acclimatized on Topsoil and Sawdust combinations which showed a 50% survival rate. There was no significant difference in the number of leaves among all the groups of substrates.

Conclusion: In conclusion, SAH media is a very effective media for the hardening and acclimatization of micro-propagated plantlets.