The study aimed to measure the competitiveness of the Sudanese sheep export from 2001/02 to 2006/07. The study depended mainly on primary data which was collected through questionnaire. Also, secondary data was collected from relevant sources related to topics of the study. The data was analyzed using Policy Analysis Matrix Technique. The results showed that there was a competitiveness of Sudanese sheep, but the economic profitability was greater than the financial one. This means that direct and indirect taxes were imposed on sheep. The conclusion of the study summarized that Sudanese sheep appeared to be profitable and competitive but it was suffered from taxes imposed by the Sudanese Government.
The root knot nematodes are included within the genus Meloidogyne Goldi, 1892 and belong to a relatively small but important polyphagous group of highly adapted obligate plant pathogens. Typically, they are distributed worldwide and parasitize nearly every species of higher plant. Due to their endoparasitic way of living and feeding, root knot nematodes disrupt the physiology of the plant and may reduce crop yield and product quality and, therefore, are of great economic importance and make control necessary. Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to determine yield loss of cowpea (cv. ART98-12) due to natural infestation by M. incognita using Carbofuran 3G at 2kg a.i./ha and untreated as check. The yield of cowpea was found to be higher with the application of nematicide-Carbofuran 3G at 2kg a.i. /ha. The percentage increase over control was 39.0 and 33.0% in the years 2008 and 2009, respectively. A significant reduction in the yield of cowpea in untreated plots was mainly attributed to direct damage of the root system by the feeding of root-knot nematode, M. incognita. The root knot nematode population in carbofuran treated plots was significantly lower than in check in the two years, also at harvest. In the check the nematodes reproduced many folds during the cropping season. Higher nematode population in the untreated check decreased plant growth and consequently reduced the number of harvested seeds and other agronomic parameters.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crop in Nigerian agriculture. The crop occupies a crucial place than other cereal crops since it is used as food, feed, fodder and other industrial raw material. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative study on the productivity of hybrid and open-pollinated maize, with the participation of farmers in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna state. Precisely, it evaluated the current hybrid and open-pollinated maize production technologies by describing their major socioeconomic factors, and most importantly identifying the economic difference between hybrid and open-pollinated maize, using the farm survey data collected from 160 maize farming communities in October- December for the cropping year 2009-’10. The result of analysis of resource use efficiency of hybrid and open-pollinated maize showed that all resources were inefficiently utilized because the ratios were not equal to one. The resource use efficiency of hybrid and open pollinated maize production in the study area was computed from Efficiency ratio (r) i.e., the ratio of MVP (Marginal Value Product) and MFC (Marginal Factor Cost). The ratio indicates that sampled farmers underutilized fertilizer and insecticides. The efficiency ratio for seeds, labour and herbicides were less than one showing that the sampled farmers over-utilized seeds, labour and herbicides on the farms. This study suggested the need to bring more area under hybrid maize cultivation. Furthermore, there is need for special training, seminars, field demonstrations and technical support for the maize farmers. As most of the communities had no formal education, the extension program should be intended to the less educated farmers. In addition, the credit facility particularly the procedure for loan should be made simple to improve hybrid and open-pollinated maize production in the study area.
Studies on the effectiveness of some indigenous plant extracts as inhibitors of egg-hatch in root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2) were carried out in the Plant Protection Laboratory of Institute of Agricultural Research & Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Azadirachta indica(Neem); Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed); Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco); Carica papaya (Pawpaw); Cannabis sativa (Hemp); Cassia alata (Asunwon) and Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) were effective inhibitors of egg-hatch of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 2 at concentration of 2.5% w/v (250g/10litres of water) while the rest were good inhibitors of egg-hatch of M. incognita race 2.
This research intends to carry out a comparative study, on the yield of hybrid and open-pollinated maize, with the involvement of farmers in Giwa local government area of Kaduna state. Specifically, it evaluated existing hybrid and open-pollinated maize production technologies by unfolding their most important socio-economic factors, by notably identifying the beneficial distinction between hybrid and open-pollinated maize, with the farm survey data collected from 160 maize farming communities in October-December 2009 for the cropping year 2009-10. Descriptive Statistics; Gross-Margin Analysis were the analytical tools employed for achieving the aim of this study. The average yield per hectare obtained by hybrid maize farmers was 2240.6Kg and 1261.04Kg for open pollinated maize respectively. Hybrid maize and open pollinated maize farmers obtained gross margin US$ 389.29 and US$195.31 per hectare respectively. Z-test was used to test the profitability of hybrid maize versus open-pollinated maize and the result revealed that hybrid maize production was more profitable and the difference was statistically significant at 1% level of significance. As most of the communities had no formal education, the extension program should be targeted to the less educated farmers. This study recommends that credit capability principally the process for obtaining loan ought to be made easy to perk up hybrid and open-pollinated maize production in the study area.
In this study 18 new corn varieties consist of 15 foreign early and mid-mature single cross hybrids and 3 Iranian commercial hybrids (KSC704, KSC647and DC370) were evaluated at two sowing date (5 and 20 June) based on RCBD with 3 replications at Khorasan Razavi Agricultural Research Centre, Mashhad, Iran on 2009. This study showed that among all hybrids, EXP1 (16.03 ton/ha) and OSSK617 (15.51 ton/ha) had the highest yields in early planting (5 June) and EXP1 (16.52 ton/ha) and KDC370 (16.22 ton/ha) produced the highest, yields in late planting (20 June). Results of this experiment also indicated that yield component such as 300 kernel weight, kernel no. per row, kernel depth and ear length were adversely affected in delay planting condition. Delay planting reduced 300- kernel weight, kernel no. per row, kernel depth and ear length. Results of cluster analysis using Wards’ method divided the corn hybrids into 4 different clusters (low intra-group and high extra-group similarities). From the results of cluster analysis it is recommended to make crosses among genotypes in Clus1 (ZP434, BC582 and EXP2 hybrids) and Clus4 (ZP684, SIMON and KSC647) in breeding programmes. Classifying genotypes according to their agronomic traits with sophisticated multivariate techniques could reduce the time period and expenditure for crop improvement.
Precision agriculture (PA) concept was initiated for site specific crop management as a combination of positioning system technology, variable rate technology, remote sensing, yield mapping etc. to optimize the profitability, sustainability with a reduced environmental impact. From centuries Indian farms are experiencing some sort of soft precision agriculture technology. But the challenges of free and globalized market as well as ever-increasing population with huge food grain demand create the scope of adoption of hard precision agriculture technology in Indian farms. So learning the new agricultural technology invented in developed countries and its proper modification and application according to the domestic condition is necessary. Therefore, nearly hundred research papers generated in last three decades have been critically reviewed to find the status of main six components of PA, i.e., Positioning System, Remote Sensing, Variable Rate Technology, Crop & Soil Sensing & Analysis, Yield Mapping and Information Transmission Protocol. Additionally strategies for adoption of PA in Indian agriculture are discussed.