Open Access Case study

Study on the Effects of Fresh Shoot Biomass of Tithonia diversifolia on the Germination, Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

Ademiluyi Benson Oluwafemi, Ajewole Tolulope Olumide

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1005-1011
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4361

 Studies on the effects of fresh shoot biomass of Tithonia diversifolia on the germination, growth performance   and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) were carried out at the experimental site of the Department of plant science of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti in the 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. Fresh shoots of Tithonia diversifolia were collected from the University environment and blended using pestle and mortar to make the fresh shoot biomass (FSB). The FSB was weighed into 50g, 100g, 150g and 200g and thoroughly mixed with collected soils in horticultural pots. The soil sample had already been autoclaved at 100oc for 24hr. The control experiment recorded the highest emergence percentage but similar to the 50g FSB of T. diversifolia recorded. Higher FSB resulted to lower emergence percentage. Growth parameters in terms of plant height stem girth, number of leaves per plant and leave area were highest in the 150g Tithonia diversifolia FSB but lowest in the control. The highest yield of cowpea was obtained in the 150g Tithonia diversifolia FSB applied pots which was similar to those of 100g FSB applied pots. The stimulatory growth factor and yield increase enhanced by FSB of Tithonia diversifolia is an indication that Tithonia diversifolia possesses no negative allelopathic effect on cowpea growth. The poor seedling emergence observed suggests that the land be left for some time to allow proper degrading of the Tithonia diversifolia before planting cowpea. This study further revealed that fallowed land occupied by Tithonia diversifolia could be successfully used to produce optimum cowpea yield

Open Access Original Research Article

The Economic Feasibility of Implementing Irrigation in Small, Limited Resource Farming Systems

Rockiell Woods, Gretchen F. Sassenrath, John Halloran, Wesley Whittaker

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 664-684
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2013/3664

Small farms are particularly important for local food production in the Mississippi Delta, a region identified as having substantial food deserts. In order for small farms to survive, however, management strategies are needed that simultaneously yield high value fruits and vegetables and also enable farmers to remain economically solvent. The research reported here tested the economic and productive feasibility of implementing irrigation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) production in Mississippi US. Historical production records and management expenses were used to determine sweet potato production expenses and returns over a ten-year period from 2002 - 2011. Crop water use over this 10-year period was calculated from historical weather records. Yield improvements resulting from implementing irrigation were then used to determine potential increased return on investment. Irrigation costs increased yearly production expenses 3-4%, depending on pumping fuel costs. Costs associated with harvest and post-harvest processing of the greater yields added an additional 8 – 70% to production expenses, depending on yield increase. However, even very modest (10%) improvements in yield are sufficient to economically justify implementing irrigation, as the net return on investment increased by 5% or more. Irrigation is a relatively simple tool that farmers could use to enhance their management practices and maximize profits. However, access to startup capital and knowledge of irrigation management are still critically needed to assist small, limited resource farmers in adopting tools and skills that will improve the output and economic return of their production systems. The results from this research will be used to develop management tools for farmers to improve access to production information and assist in making crop management and business decisions

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimal Time of Supplemental Irrigation during Fruit Development of Rainfed Olive Tree (Olea europaea, cv. Picholine marocaine) in Morocco

Rachid Razouk, Jamal Ibijbijen, Abdellah Kajji

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 685-697
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2013/3348

Aims: This work was carried out to identify the optimal time of supplemental irrigation on a traditional rainfed olive orchard.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design with three replications where the variable factor was water regime.

Place and Duration of Study: Experimental station AinTaoujdate, Regional Agricultural Research Center, Meknès, Morocco during 2009 and 2010.

Methodology: Seven treatments of supplemental irrigation were tested, individually during one day at, beginning of stage I of fruit development (Ta); beginning of stage II (Tb); beginning of stage III (Tc) and in combination of two irrigations, Ta and Tb (Tab), Ta and Tc (Tac), and Tb and Tc (Tbc) in addition to three irrigations Ta, Tb and Tc (Tabc), and no irrigation used as control (Td). Treatments were applied to thirty years old olive trees (cv. Picholine Marocaine) planted at a distance of 8x6 m, at experimental field of Regional Agricultural Research Center of Meknes in North-center of Morocco. Amount of each watering was equivalent to the easily usable water-reserve on 70 cm of soil depth (0.5 m3/tree).

Results and Discussion: Fruit weight and shoot length were more affected by treatment Ta as compared to the rainfed regime, and hence fruit and oil yields were increased, in average, respectively by 43% and 37%. Water use efficiency for this treatment was 23 kg.m-3.tree-1. Treatments Tb and Tc improved only oil content and shoot growth without significant changes in yield. However, their combination with Ta (Tabc) increased fruit yield by an average of 106%. The effect observed under the tested irrigations was related to the importance of fruit growth kinetics during water application.

Conclusion: The production gain of supplemental irrigation, applied particularly during the first period of fruit development, is promising to promote this technique on several rainfed olive orchards

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Two Cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Application of Organic Fertilizers and Nile Compost in Sandy Soil

Salwa Mohamed Abbas, Hanan Helmy Latif, Nora Magdy

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 698-717
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2013/4212

Aims: The present work aims to stimulate some physiological changes in the plants using organic fertilizer and compost by enhancing some compounds such as total amino acids and phytohormones in two cultivars of bean.

Study Design: The pots of the (Phaseolus vulgaris) L. cv. bronco were divided into 7 sub-groups they will be prepared as in the seven treatments  via1- control , Nile compost ,compost and rice straw , compost and maize stalks , rice straw and maize stalks , rice straw , maize stalks and  were replicate times for Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. paulista from T8-T14. After 45 days (vegetative stage), 90 days for (flowering stage) and 130 days for (fruiting stage) the plants were harvested.

Place and Duration of Study:  Department of Biological and Geological Science, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo-Egypt June 2012.

Methodology: Growth, yield, free amino acids and phytohormones of two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. paulista and cv. bronco was investigated.

Results: The results showed that the significant differences in growth in all the stages and percent of free amino acids and phytohormones in shoot in vegetative stage in two cultivars of bean were obtained with mixture of compost or maize stalk and maize stalk decompost.

Conclusion: Generally, the addition of organic fertilizer with compost led to improve the yield of two cultivars as compared to control. Hence, it could be suggested that the treated plants, with these organic residues and Nile compost increased the growth, yield and the above chemical compositions

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Use Efficiency Variation and Its Components in Wheat Cultivars

Alireza Eivazi, Farshad Habibi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 718-730
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2013/3087

Genetic variations of water use efficiency (WUE) in wheat cultivar were studied in different models. These models in addition accumulating WUE; evaluate the contribution of its components. In this study, seven bread wheat cultivars were sown at four separate randomized complete block design with four replications at different moisture regimes in two growing seasons. Combined analysis of variance showed significant differences for total dry matter, WUE, relative water loss (transpiration efficiency), and initial water of flag leaves (uptake efficiency). Sardary, Sabalan and Alamut cultivars had the lowest WUE and total dry matter, but Zarrin and Shahriar were the highest values. Sardary with low uptake efficiency and Zarrin with high grain yield had the minimum and maximum transpiration efficiency. The WUE and evapotranspiration efficiency had a positive significant correlation with total dry matter and grain yield respectively. Results of path analysis showed that WUE (0.6) and total dry matter (0.31) had the highest direct effect on grain yield. Contribution of evapotranspiration efficiency (0.82) on WUE was higher than harvest index (0.30).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Effects of Staking and Planting Dates on the Yields of African Yam Bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa in Nigeria

E. O. Ogah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 731-739
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2013/3767

Aims: To evaluate the effects of staking and planting dates on the seed/tuber yields of African yam bean (AYB).

Study Design: The fields were laid out in split-plots in randomized complete block design

Place and Duration: Field experiments were conducted at Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria during 2009/10 farming seasons.

Methodology: Three different planting dates were used as the main-plot treatments, while staking and non-staking formed the sub-plots. Seven accessions of AYB were planted in the sub-plots. Five plants were randomly selected from each accession/treatment and tagged for data collection. Each seedling was staked independent after germination, while the non-staked plants were allowed to trail on the ground guided. Collected data were subjected to analyses of variance. Mean separation was carried out by Fisher’s protected LSD test. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationship between yields, planting dates and staking.

Results: The results indicated that all the AYB accessions performed better when they were staked and planted earlier in May of each season with greater seed/tuber yields, which differed significantly (P < 0.028) from those that were not staked and planted later in each of the season. Of all the accessions assessed, TSs86 was the most productive with the highest seed yield and differed significantly (P < 0.015) from the rest except TSs48 that even gave better seed yield during 2010, while TSs84 had the least seed yields. Results on the tuber yields showed the same trend in relation to the treatments. The tuber yield showed that some accessions could produce above 2 Mg ha-1 of tubers per hectare; however tuber yield showed inverse relationship to that of the seed yield across the accessions with the highest tuber yield recorded in TSs93 and least in TSs86.

Conclusion: For increased seed/tuber yields of AYB in Nigeria, it has to be staked and planted early in May of each season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Performance of Selected Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.)

V. G. P. Chimonyo, A. T. Modi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 740-766
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2013/4114

Aims: Bottle gourd is a useful crop to include in climate change adaption strategies for agronomy. However, diversity in plant and seed forms makes it difficult to predict performance under field management. There is a dearth of knowledge on the relationship between seed morphology and seed performance, namely, germination and early establishment of seedlings. This led to a need to evaluate seed morphology of different bottle gourd landraces and its effect on seed quality as defined by germination and vigour.

Methodology: Six mature fruits of different bottle gourd landraces were collected from subsistence farmers and seeds from each fruit were morphologically characterized. Standard germination test, root: shoot ratio, seedling fresh mass, seedling dry mass, germination velocity index (GVI) and electrical conductivity were used to establish seed quality and vigour.

Results: Although all traits were significantly different, most of them were not good indicators of seed quality. Seed coat thickness isolated varieties by provenance and was inversely proportional to root: shoot ratio as a measure of seedling establishment.

Conclusion: It is concluded that Lagenaria siceraria seed morphology could be a useful trait for selection of planting material in the context of seed germination as a trait

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Pre-Emergence Herbicides for Weed Control in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in a Forest - Savanna Transition Zone

Omovbude Sunday, Udensi Ekea Udensi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 767-779
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2013/3902

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and economic benefits of selected pre-emergence herbicides for weed control in cowpea.

Study Design:  Randomized complete block design with four replications was used.

Place and Duration of Study:  Research and Teaching Farm of Ambrose Alli University in Ekpoma (Lat. 6º 45’N, Long. 6º 8’E), in a forest-savanna transition zone of Nigeria, between August and December 2005 and August and December 2006.

Methodology: Five weed control treatments evaluated against unweeded control were; Codal gold(R) (250g prometryne + 162.5 g metolachlor per litre) at a rate of 1.65 kg a.i ha-1, Galex(R) (Metolachlor 250g + metobromuron 250g per litre) at the rate of 3.0 kg a.1.ha-1; Pendilin(R)  (Pendimethalin 500g per litre) at a rate of 2.0 kg a.i ha-1, one hoe – weeding at 3 weeks after planting (WAP) and two hoe weeding at 3 and 7 WAP.

Results: Herbicides treatments and hoe weeded twice gave an acceptable (³70%) weed control in both years. Cowpea yield was best under Codal gold at 1.65 kg a.i ha-1 (with an average yield of ≥ 1600kg ha-1) while the unweeded control had the poorest yield (between 800 and 900 kg ha-1) in both years. The highest profit was obtained under Codal gold at 1.65 kg a.i ha-1 and the lowest in plot hoe weeded twice. The highest cost benefit ratio (CBR) of 24.61 in 2005 and 28.21 in 2006 were recorded with Codal goldR treated plot while the lowest of 1.25 and 1.22 were obtained in 2005 and 2006 respectively under plot hoe weeded twice.

Conclusion: Codal gold(R) at 1.65 kg a.i ha-1 was better than the other herbicides tried, in reducing weed infestation in cowpea as evidenced on the performance, yield of cowpea and higher economic returns. With the range of herbicides tried in this study, Codal gold(R) at 1.65 kg a.i ha-1 appears to be the best herbicide for weed control in cowpea under the present study

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Pesticides and Fertilizers on Soil, Tail Water and Groundwater in Three Vegetable Producing Areas in the Cordillera Region, Northern Philippines

Robert T. Ngidlo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 780-793
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2013/4696

The study focused on the impacts of pesticides and fertilizers on soil and water in three vegetable producing areas in the Cordillera region in the northern central part of the Philippines. Three major vegetable producing communities were selected as study sites with seventy five (75) key informants interviewed. Soil and water samples were obtained to determine the extent of soil and water contamination with pesticides and fertilizers. There was a high level of awareness on the negative impacts of commercial pesticides and fertilizers on soil, water and human health but awareness did not influence the way farmers utilize pesticides and dispose of empty bottles/containers of pesticides after use. Soil samples from Balili, Mankayan, Benguet and Sadsadan, Mt. Province contain variable amounts of pesticide residues in the top 15 centimeter soil surface. The residues detected were: chlorpyrifos, profenofos, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate. Chlorpyrifos was found in one soil sample in Sadsadan above the Limit of Determination. Similarly, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and fenvalerate were found in two soil samples in Balili higher than the limit of determination.  No pesticide residue was found in all soil samples obtained from the inner 200 centimeter soil depth.  Soils in the garden sites of Tinoc, Ifugao were still pesticide free. Water samples in all the sites contain no pesticide residues but found to contain high levels of coliform bacteria. Pesticide contamination of soil and water was not as severe as anticipated but rather it is the presence of coliform bacteria severely contaminating water bodies in the area. Natural springs unspoiled by human population are still clean and potable. Nitrate levels in soil and water is low but showed some signs of building up due to the continuous application of fertilizers. Hospital records showed no reported cases of pesticide poisoning due to improper handling. However, there were cases of intentional ingestion of pesticides for purposes of committing suicides. Respiratory diseases top the list of the ten leading causes of morbidity in all three study sites. The study site in Tinoc was affected by frequent cases of diarrhea especially during the rainy months.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Nematicidal Activities of Bacillus Species Against Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)

Yap Chin Ann

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 794-805
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/3690

Aims: The aim of this study is to screen for nematicidal activities of Bacillus species against root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita).

Study Design: Randomized complete block design was used for this study

Place and Duration of Study: This work was done in Research and Development Division, Malaysian Pepper Board in January 2011 to December 2012.

Methodology: In this study, bacteria were isolated from pepper farm, the use of these strains was evaluated to control root knot nematode in vitro and the effectiveness of the antagonistic strains in greenhouse condition was investigated.

Results: Four rhizobacteria with nematicidal activity were isolated. Among these strains, nematotoxicities of Bacillus strains were intensively analyzed. Bacillus spp strains MPB04 and MPB93 showed remarkable nematicidal activity of 76.4 and 50.6%, killed tested nematodes within 2 h and completely destroyed tested nematode within 12 h. The results also showed that nematicidal activity displayed by Bacillus strains is related with their proteolytic activity. The pot trial also revealed that the application of Bacillus strain MPB04 and MPB93 reduced the root population of M. incognita by 60.95 and 35.28%, respectively over control. This indicated that these bacterial isolates could reduce the ability of M. incognita to reproduce in soil.

Conclusion: The coherence of results by chemical, genetic and greenhouse analysis has further strengthened the hypothesis that nematicidal activity displayed by Bacillus strains is related with their proteolytic activity responsible for nematode penetration by bacteria strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Agricultural Lime on Soil Properties and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yield on Acidic Soils of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

M. A. Osundwa, J. R. Okalebo, W. K. Ngetich, J. O. Ochuodho, C. O. Othieno, B. Langat, V. S. Omenyo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 806-823
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/3446

A study was carried out to investigate the influence of agricultural lime (21% CaO) from Koru, Kisumu on soil properties and wheat yield on acidic soils of Uasin Gishu county. Field trials were conducted at Chepkoilel University College farm and in Kipsangui area of Uasin Gishu county. Soils were analyzed to determine their pH, available P and other nutrient levels before treatment application. The experiment was a split plot arrangement with two wheat varieties as the main plots and the lime treatments as the subplots. The two varieties compared were ‘Njoro BW 2’ and ‘KS Mwamba’ characterized as tolerant and moderate tolerant to soil acidity, respectively. Phosphorus and nitrogen were applied as a blanket treatment at the rates of 40 kg P205 /ha and 46 kg N/ha respectively. Lime was applied at the rates of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 t/ha. Soils from the two sites were acidic with low to moderate available P for Chepkoilel and Kipsangui sites respectively. Soil pH and soil available P increased with the increase in the rate of lime addition. Wheat grain yield increased significantly (p=0.05) due to soil acidity amendment above the control. There was a high positive correlation between wheat yields and soil available P at both sites at harvest. High cost of inorganic inputs, low wheat grain prices and the effects of the erratic rains made the majority of the treatments economically unviable for adaptation by farmers. However, the most profitable treatment was 2 t/ha of lime in Njoro BW 2 at Kipsangui site. There was no viable treatment at Chepkoilel site. Higher wheat yields may probably be achieved from rates of lime above 2 t/ha

Open Access Original Research Article

Production Constraints and Measures to Enhance the Competitiveness of the Tomato Industry in Wenchi Municipal District of Ghana

Benjamin Tetteh Anang, Zakaria Ahmed Zulkarnain, Suleiman Yusif

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 824-838
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4373

Aims: To find ways of making the tomato industry in Wenchi competitive in the face of myriad constraints confronting production.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: Wenchi Municipal District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana in the 2010 cropping season.

Methodology: Fifty (50) randomly selected tomato farmers took part in the study and were interviewed using a semi-structural questionnaire. Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance was used to rank the constraints to tomato production. The Porter’s Diamond of National Advantage was used to assess the competitive position of the tomato industry in the area as well as the strategies needed to improve competitiveness.

Results: The study found that small scale tomato producers in the district face a myriad of production constraints which limit their ability to increase production. The constraints include lack of capital, high cost of inputs and low produce price. The tomato industry in the area can however, become competitive and enhance economic growth.

Conclusion: The tomato industry in the study area has the capacity to become competitive and enhance economic growth through the creation of agribusiness clusters. For this to happen, there is the need for prudent government policies which create incentive and an enabling environment for agribusinesses to flourish

Open Access Original Research Article

Scaling Up of Stocking Density of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under Improved Farming System in Khulna Region of Bangladesh

M. I. Hossain, A. M. Shahabuddin, M. A. B. Bhuyain, M. A. Mannan, M. N. D. Khan, R. Ahmed

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 839-848
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4609

Aims: Scaling up of stocking density of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under improved shrimp farming system in the Khulna region of Bangladesh.

Study Design: Completely randomized design (CRD) with three treatments each with three replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: In the farm station of Gazi fish culture ltd. at Koilashgong, Khulna, Bangladesh between March to June 2011.

Methodology: Nine ponds were selected and all ponds were prepared according to the general pond preparation system. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tested post larvae (PL15) were stocked at three different stocking densities i.e. 8 pcs/m2 (T1), 15 pcs/m2 (T2) and 22 pcs/m2 (T3). Commercial shrimp feed were supplied to all the treatments. Feed were adjusted according to the body weight gain of shrimp. Probiotics were applied in all the treatments to prevent diseases and maintain water quality parameters. Monthly water samples were collected for analysis and growth parameters were measured.

Results: Results showed that all the water quality parameters were within the optimum range. Highest survival was found in T2 (82±4) and lowest was recorded in T3 (68±2) (P<0.05). Harvesting size of shrimp varied from 29.0±1.53 g to 38.5±0.5 g. Harvesting size was smaller in T3 than in T1 and T2 (P<0.05). Stocking density of 15 and 22 pcs/m2 exhibited the highest production of 4635.1±128 kg/ha/crop and 4328.7±138.2 kg/ha/crop respectively whereas, T1 showed lowest (2431.3±35.2 kg/ha/crop). It was observed that two crops can be found from each pond/year. Net profit calculation showed that highest net profit was found in T2 compared to other treatments (P>0.05).

Conclusion: The research showed that stocking density of tiger shrimp 15 pcs/m2 is the optimum density for improved shrimp farming system in Khulna region of Bangladesh

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effectiveness of Antibiotics in the Prevention of Salmonella Typhimurium in Growing Chickens

Suzette Curtello, Angel Alberto Justiz Vaillant, Helen Asemota, Patrick E. Akpaka, Monica P. Smikle

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 849-856
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4109

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of medication in the prevention of Salmonella in growing chickens.

Material and Methods: All specimens were placed in an igloo with ice packs and transported to the laboratory for analysis. Bacteriological media obtained from Difco Laboratories Detroit MI U.S.A were used for the isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. Salmonella Serological typing was performed to determine the Salmonella serovar by standard procedures. Chickens were given a single dose of a wild-type multiresistant strain of Salmonella Typhimurium (resistant to many antibiotics including cloramphenicol and bactrim) by oral route (3x109 cfu/bird) as a challenge. 

Results: The effectiveness of some medications in the reduction of Salmonella infections in growing chicken revealed that none of the groups including the control group showed any clinical signs of salmonellosis. However, post-mortem specimens including caeca showed the presence of Salmonella in 1.6 % (1/60) each of chickens treated with Menorox and Neochlore, compared to 23% (14/60) among the control group.

Conclusions: Antibiotics including Trisulvitrim, Menorox and Neochlore reduced significantly Salmonella Typhimurium infection in growing chickens. There was a very little information in the literature about the use of antibiotics to treat Salmonella infections in chickens that is one of the most prevalence zoonosis

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed and Seedling Performance of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as Influenced by Rate and In-Season Nitrogen Application

Haile Deressa, R. Nigussie-Dechassa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 857-870
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/3650

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in the wheat growing belt of south-eastern Ethiopia to assess effects of rate and in-season N application on seed and seedling performance of local and improved bread wheat varieties. For the field experiments, a factorial combination of four N levels, two bread wheat varieties, and three times of N application were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Laboratory tests were conducted in a Completely Randomized Design with four replicates to evaluate seed germination capacity and seedling vigor. The rate and timing of N application had significant (P = .01) effects on seed hectolitre weight, seed germination capacity and seedling vigor index. 1000-kernels weight was not affected by the rate of N application but significantly influenced by time of N application. Three times split application of N at 120 kg ha-1 resulted in significantly (P = .01) higher hectolitre weight, percentage of normal seedlings, seed germination speed, seedling dry weight and vigor index compared to the other treatments. The results revealed that application of 120 kg N ha-1 in three-split doses with ¼ dose at planting, ½ dose at mid-tillering and ¼ dose at anthesis led to enhanced seed quality and seedling performance of the crop

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Content in Acacia saligna and Acacia polyacantha on Slime Dams: Implications for Phytoremediation

D. R. Masvodza, P Dzomba, F. Mhandu, B. Masamha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 871-883
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/3899

Aims: To determine heavy metal content in A. saligna and A. polyacantha so as to ascertain their possible use in phytoremediation

Place and Duration of Study: Bindura University of Science Education, Chemistry and Biological Sciences Dept, P. Bag 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe. The study was carried out between December 2011 and January 2013.

Methodology: Two sites which are the slime dams at a local gold mine in Bindura and a control site 10km outside the slimes were used in the study.  A total of four sampling points each in the form of 5x5m quadrants were established after every 100m in transects, 700m long separately established on the control and slime dams. Soil samples at 5-10cm and 10-15cm levels as well as roots, leaves and bark from five sampled plants were collected at each sampling point. The metals content was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma. The bioaccumulation factor and the shoot/root quotient were computed in Microsoft excel. Analysis of Variance was carried out using SPSS and Genstat Version 16.

Results: The present study shows that A. saligna and A. polyacantha accumulate heavy metals with biological accumulation factor (BAF) value results indicating significant differences between the slimes and control sites. Both species had BAF values for nickel, copper and iron greater than one except for zinc, lead and arsenic. The shoot/root quotients showed that nickel, copper and iron are translocated to the shoots in the species as compared to zinc, lead and arsenic.

Conclusion: A. saligna and A. polyacantha showed evidence of accumulation of nickel, copper and iron and therefore may be used for phytoremediation and restoration purposes at mine slime dams

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Organic Inputs in Management of Alfisols and Ultisols for Sustainable Maize Production in Western Kenya

J. Achieng, G. Ouma, G. Odhiambo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 884-895
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4733

Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important food crop in western Kenya, mostly grown by smallholder farmers in complex and risky cropping systems. Trends in population growth in the country indicate that the demand for maize is projected to increase 3-4% annually. Production is however hampered by the predominance of fragile ecosystems (acidic soils), low soil fertility and low use of chemical inputs. The average grain yield is less than 1.0 t ha-1 instead of a reachable 5.0 t ha-1, leading to vicious cycle of food insecurity. An on-farm experiment was conducted in two soil types (Alfisols and Ultisols) in Kakamega, western Kenya, between February and September 2007 to test effects of various organic inputs (Farmyard manure, Tithonia biomass and Desmodium cover crop) in combination with inorganic fertilizers (N, P, K, Mg, B and Zn) on yield of maize. The design was Randomized Complete Block Design, replicated 5 times and the data was subjected to ANOVA and DMRT tests. Soil analysis before planting indicated that pH was 5.0 and 5.4 in Alfisols and Ultisols, respectively. Both soils were deficient in N and P but adequate in exchangeable bases (K, Ca and Mg). Maize grain yield was higher in Ultisols compared to Alfisols. In Alfisols, organic inputs in combination with 30 kg N ha-1 gave maize grain yield improvement of nearly 100% over farmer’s practice (non improved maize variety, wider plant spacing, inorganic fertilizer applied at the rate of 20 N + 20 P ha-1, one weeding). When inorganic fertilizer (60 kg N + 60 kg P ha-1) was applied to maize/banana intercrop, maize yield increased by about 40%. In contrast, in Ultisols, organic inputs increased maize grain yield by between 85% and 115%, while maize/banana intercrop (plus 60 kg N + 60 kg P ha-1) increased maize grain yield by only 4% over the farmer’s practice. Banana intercrop reduced maize population resulting in low maize grain and stover yield. Use of either farmyard manure, tithonia biomass or desmonium cover crop in combination with 30 kg of N ha-1 (from inorganic source) can enhance maize production among smallholder farmers in acidic soils who ordinarily cannot afford to purchase adequate quantities of inorganic fertilizers

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Spatial Variations of Some Soil Properties under Different Land Uses in South-Western Nigeria

B. A. Senjobi, S. J. Akinsete, O. T. Ande, C. T. Senjobi, M. Aluku, O. A. Ogunkunle

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 896-903
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/3572

Land use and soil management affect the distribution of soil properties thereby resulting in changes in the fertility status. Soil physical and chemical properties on the surface (0-30 cm) of five land uses (cassava/maize, oil palm, cowpea, secondary forest and building site) on a sandy loam Alfisol (Typic paleudalf) were assessed for spatial variations. All the land uses differed significantly (P<0.01) from each other in at least three properties. Cassava/maize intercrop and secondary forest differed in thirteen properties; cassava/maize and oil palm in seven and cassava/maize and cowpea in five indicating differential removal variability among land use types.  In terms of number of soil properties with high variability (CV > 35%), the order was cassava/maize (1), oil palm (2), building site (5) > secondary forest (4) > cowpea (3).  The study established that different land uses influence the soil differently within the same soil class. Therefore, this must be taken into consideration in order to reduce soil fertility decline and enhance proper soil management. There must therefore, be a careful choice of appropriate use of land if we are to optimise production since loss of soil and fertility status may be difficult to replace in one’s lifetime

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Supplemental Irrigation and Nitrogen Applied on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat at the Saïs Region of Morocco

Bendidi Abderrazzak, K. Daoui, A. Kajji, M. Ibriz, R. Dahan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 904-913
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4419

The objective of this study is to determinate the optimal growth stage for applying supplemental irrigation and nitrogen to enhance bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity and water use efficiency under rainfed condition in Morocco. Field trial was conducted during two years (2007-2008 and 2008-2009). Three genotypes (G) of Moroccan bread wheat; Achtar, Arrehane and an Advanced Line II were combined with five nitrogen doses (N); 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N ha–1 and three water treatments (I); rainfed (I0), irrigated (60 mm) at 21 according to the Zadoks scale (I1) and irrigated (60 mm) at 59 according to the Zadoks scale (I2). Results in the drought year (2007-2008) show that I2 improves water use efficiency, grain yield and its components by 91 and 60% respectively, compared to I0 and I1 treatments. I2 has limited the effects of the Chergui –hot and dry wind coming from the Sahara- which has a negative impact on growth mainly at the end of the cycle of the crop. Grain yield and other yield components increased simultaneously with the increase in nitrogen inputs during the second 2008-2009 crop year which was rainy. The 120 kg N ha–1 dose allowed the highest results, with no significant difference with the yield obtained after a 160 kg N ha–1 input. Genotype appeared to have no significant effect neither on grain yield nor on water use efficiency in both the years

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Oil Spillage on Cassava Production in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

J. Ahmadu, J. Egbodion

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 914-926
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4374

Aims: To examine the effect of oil spillage on cassava farm land, yield and land productivity.

Place and Duration of Study: Niger Delta region of Nigeria between January and October, 2012.

Methodology: Delta State was purposively chosen from the Niger Delta region for the study. A random sampling technique was employed to select 17 cassava farmers each from three (3) oil spillage communities (Otor-Udu, Olomoro and Uzere) and three (3) non-oil spillage communities (Egini, Aradhe and Ellu), giving a total sample size of 102 respondents for the study. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, Likert scale, t-statistic and regression analysis.

Results: The results showed that the major significant effects of oil spillage on cassava production perceived by the farmers included crop failure, poor yield, rotting tubers, and stunted crop growth with mean scores of 4.80, 4.78, 4.75 and 4.75 respectively. Others included increased soil temperature and toxicity (mean: 4.73), reduction of soil fertility (mean: 4.70), degradation of farm land (mean: 4.70) and low land productivity (mean: 4.70). The results further indicated that the cassava farm size, yield and land productivity in oil spillage affected communities were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than those of the non-oil spillage communities by 0.61 ha, 6119 metric tonnes (MT) and 1447 MT/ha respectively. These represent significant reduction of 36, 48 and 20% of these variables in the oil spillage affected communities respectively. About 45% of the variation in land productivity in cassava production was influenced by oil spillage and the farmers’ farming experience. The productivity increased with increase in farming experience but decreased with increase in oil spills.

Conclusion: Constant maintenance of the oil pipelines and tankers to prevent corrosion and checking of the activities of saboteurs which often destroy oil pipelines will reduce the incidence of oil spillage, hence increasing cassava production in the Niger Delta region. There is need for further study to know the adaptation measures the farmers employed to minimize the adverse effects of oil spillage on their production; and the mitigating measures by government and the oil companies to deal with oil spillage

Open Access Original Research Article

Technical and Economic Efficiencies in Poultry Production in Imo State, Nigeria

D. O. Ohajianya, J. U. Mgbada, P. N. Onu, C. O. Enyia, A. Henri-Ukoha, N. G. Ben-Chendo, C. C. Godson-Ibeji

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 927-938
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4089

This study was carried out to estimate the technical and economic efficiencies of poultry farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. The data was collected with semi-structured questionnaire from 140 randomly selected poultry farmers. A stochastic frontier production function was estimated by using the maximum likelihood estimation technique to obtain the technical and economic efficiencies of poultry farmers. The mean technical efficiency of poultry farmers was 75 percent, while their mean economic efficiency was 21 percent. The generalized likelihood test indicated that, the poultry farmers are not fully technically and economically efficient in resource use. There is 79% allowance to increase economic efficiency of poultry farmers by improvement in technical efficiency

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effects of Soil Amendments on Phosphorus Use and Agronomic Efficiencies of Two Maize Hybrids in Acidic Soils of Molo County, Kenya

Richard N. Onwonga, Joyce J. Lelei, Joseph K. Macharia

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 939-958
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4380

 The deficiency of P and the shortened growing seasons due to climate change are identified constraints in the production of commonly grown long maturing maize hybrid (H614) in the acid soils of Molo County, Kenya. The current study therefore investigated (i) the effect of soil amendments; lime (L), minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) and manure (FYM) on soil available P and its uptake, phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) and maize grain yield of long (H614) and short (H513) maturing maize hybrids and (ii) the relative agronomic efficiency (RAE) of MPR. Field experiments were set up at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Molo during the long rain seasons of 2009 and 2010. A randomized complete block design with a 23 factorial arrangement was used for the first objective. The factors, each at two levels, were L (0 and 3 t ha-1), MPR (0 and 60 kg P ha-1) and FYM (0 and 5 t ha-1) giving a total of eight treatments; C (control), L, MPR, FYM, L+MPR, L+FYM, FYM+MPR and L+FYM+MPR. The relative agronomic efficiency (RAE) of MPR was determined in a parallel experiment laid out in randomized complete block design with a split plot arrangement and replicated thrice. Maize hybrid H513 and H614 were the test crops in both experiments and constituted the main plots. The split plots were control (0 kg P ha-1), triple super phosphate (60 kg P ha-1) and MPR (60 kg P ha-1). Soil available P and its uptake, PUE, RAE and maize yields were the parameters measured. The application of soil amendments increased soil available P and its uptake, PUE and maize yields over the control for both maize hybrids. Highest values of the measured parameters were recorded in the L+FYM+MPR treatment and for maize hybrid H614. The two year mean values of relative agronomic efficiency RAE (%) of MPR were 60 (H513) and 66.7 (H614), and significantly higher for the maize hybrid H614. The combined application of soil amendments could thus improve maize productivity and is recommended for the acid soils of Molo County. The maize hybrid H513 though with lower yields, matured faster than H614 and would thus come in handy as an adaptation strategy in the face of climate change and variability. Moreover, it has a low P requirement and a short growth cycle thus making it an ideal variety, economically, for smallholder farmers

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Spatial Arrangement on the Performance of Cowpea /Maize Intercrop in Derived Savannah of Nigeria

S. O. Adigbo, E. Iyasere, V. I. O. Olowe, C. O. Adejuyigbe, T. O. Fabunmi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 959-970
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4055

Promising varieties of cowpea were found to be adaptable in the derived savannah; however, their performances in intercropping systems have not been investigated. Therefore, there is the need to investigate the effect of spatial arrangement of maize/cowpea on the performance of maize and cowpea. The experiment was a 2 x 5 factorial in randomized complete block design. A field experiment was conducted at Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta, Nigeria during the late cropping seasons of 2009 and 2010. The intercrop proportion mixture and population adopted in this study were additive and replacement series while Oloyin and Sokoto cowpea varieties were combined with TZESR-W maize variety as follows: Oloyin + maize in alternate row, Oloyin + maize in alternate row, Oloyin + maize in alternate stand, Oloyin + maize in strip cropping, Sokoto + maize in alternate row, Sokoto + maize in alternate row, Sokoto + maize in alternate stand, Sokoto + maize in strip cropping, sole maize, Sole cowpea. Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) was used to determine the productivity of the intercrop. The grain yield of cowpea obtained from alternate row intercrop and sole cowpea for 2009 and 2010 were similar. However, the grain yield of cowpea obtained from alternate row was 33, 37 and 59% higher than alternated stand, alternate row replacement and strip crop, respectively. Oloyin variety had significantly higher grain yield than Sokoto. Interaction of cowpea variety x spatial arrangement x cropping season was significant on 1000-seed weight. The two additive series had higher land equivalent ratio compared to replacement series. Maize yield was not affected in two additive series. In conclusion, intercrop was more productive than sole. The two additives arrangement enhances the performance grain yield of maize, Oloyin and Sokoto cowpea varieties

Open Access Original Research Article

TNAU PDB - Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Proteome DataBase - Black Gram Proteome

S. Swathi, N. Senthil, V. Vinod Kumar, S. Sathish, N. Jagadeesh Selvam, M. Raveendran

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 971-976
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4748

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Proteome DataBase (TNAU PDB) – Black gram proteome is an open accessible database that focuses on proteome of Black gram (Vigna mungo L.). Currently, the database contains reference maps of Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) of proteins obtained from artificially aged black gram seeds of variety TNAU blackgram CO 6, which is compared to that of fresh seeds. The database provides information about experimentally identified properties, such as molecular weight, pI value, of the differentially expressed protein due to accelerated ageing and protein sequences obtained using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. This database runs on WAMP server with HTML as the front end and MySQL as the backend using PHP as interface and it is hosted in TNAU genomics domain. The basic intention of this database is to provide the detailed information about proteome of black gram. This will help us to understand adaptive and general protective mechanism related to seed aging and effect of ageing on germination

Open Access Original Research Article

Soybean (Glycine max L) Genotype and Environment Interaction Effect on Yield and Other Related Traits

Tony Ngalamu, Muhammad Ashraf, Silvestro Meseka

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 977-987
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/5069

Aims: To evaluate genetic variability of five soybean genotypes, and assess genotype × environment effect on seed yield and yield related traits.

Study Design: Split-plot, replicated three times. Genotypes were fixed effect while plots (main 60 m² and subplot 12 m²) were random effects. The sub-plot consists of 4 rows 5 m long with 60 cm and 10 cm inter and intra-row spacing.

Place and Duration: El Gantra, Range and Pasture Farm in Sennar State of the Sudan during 2009 and 2010 cropping season.

Methodology: Five soybean genotypes NA 5009 RG; TGx 1904-6F, TGx 1740-2F, TGx 1937-1F and Soja were evaluated. A strain of Rhizobium japonicum was used for inoculation at a rate of 10 g per kg of soybean seed using a sugary solution in 2009. Inoculation was not carried out due to the assumption that the field had the remnant of inoculum effect in 2010. All the recommended soybean agronomic practices were equally applied. Number of days to 50% flowering was recorded on plot basis when almost half of the sub-plot flowers. Ten plants were randomly selected on plot basis to quantify these traits: Plant height was measured as from ground surface to the base of meri-stem of the mother plant. Number of branches was computed as an average count of branches per plant. Leaf area was computed using Iamauti [12] empirical relationship. The first pod height was measured at full bloom. Number of seeds per pod was counted at physiological maturity of the crop. 100-seed weight was determined randomly from a seed bulk using a digital weighing machine. Seed yield was quantified after harvest and converted into kg/hectare.

Results: The effect of genotype (G), environment (E) and G × E interactions on pod number per plant; plant height, first pod height, number of branches per plant, leaf area, number of days to 50% flowering and seed yield were found significant at P=0.05. The highest mean seed yield was obtained from TGx 1937-1F (0.98 t/ha). Beside TGx 1740-2F, TGx 1904-6F and Soja were significantly higher than NA 5009 RG in all environments for seed yield. TGx 1937-1F was an intermediate maturing and best in terms of number of pods per plant, number of branches per plant, and leaf area. Correlation coefficient for seed yield showed significant association with days to 50% flowering and leaf area.

Conclusion: The best genotype for seed yield across the environments was TGx 1937-1F and TGx 1740-2F, TGx1904-6F and Soja were intermediate and NA 5009 RG was the least. Thus, partitioning G × E into adaptability and phenotypic stability will positively address the information gap on association of traits to yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematology and Serum Characteristics of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell) Fed Graded Levels of Tigernut Based Diet

L. A. Agbabiaka, F. N. Madubuike, B. U. Ekenyem

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 988-995
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/2979

The chronic effect of feeding tigernut based diets was investigated on African catfish (Clarias garerpinus). 225 African catfish were randomly allotted to five experimental diets (CP=40%) in which tiger nut replaced maize at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively and fed at 3% body weight daily for a period of 20 weeks. Other water quality parameters were maintained throughout the duration of the study. Blood samples were collected from fish in replicates and analyzed for haematological and serum parameters. Results of the haematology showed no significant differences among the parameters except haemoglobin and Packed cell volume (p<0.05). Similar observation was recorded for the serum biochemistry (p>0.05). This trial indicated that tigernut meal can replace maize wholly in diets of African catfish without any deleterious effect on the physiology and/or health status of the fish

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L) Meal on Growth of Broiler Chicks

L. A. Agbabiaka, F. N. Madubuike, B. U. Ekenyem, B. O. Esonu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 996-1004
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/2980

An investigation into the replacement value of tigernut meal as substitute for maize in diets of broiler starter was studied. Tigernut tubers were sundried for 5 days and milled to produce tigernut meal. This was used to replace maize at dietary levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% represented by T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively in five isonitrogenous diets containing 22% crude protein; the diet containing no tigernut meal was used as control (T1). Three hundred day-old (Anak strain) chicks were randomly assigned to the five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to determine the effect of the test ingredient on feed intake, body weight changes and feed conversation ratio. Result indicated that feed intake reduced as dietary level of tigernut increased in the diets (p<0.05), similar trend was observed for body weight changes. There was no significant difference among treatment groups for feed conversion ratio (p>0.05).The findings from this experiment suggested that tiger nut meal can replace maize up to 75% dietary level in diets of broiler starter chicks without compromising growth

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Noodle Waste as Replacement for Maize in the Diet of Broiler Starter Chickens

A. J. Omole, C. N. Okpeze, R. A. Salako, O. O. Obi, J. O. Fayenuwo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1012-1019
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4617

Noodle waste (NW) is an alternative source of energy and less expensive compared to maize which is one of the main conventional source of energy in the diet of poultry. This study was designed to determine the effect of replacing maize fraction of the diet with NW on growth characteristics, cost benefits and blood indices of broiler starter chicken. One hundred and twenty day old Anak, 2000 broilers chicks of mean weight  of 40.78±1.7g were randomly selected and allotted to 4 dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated thrice with ten chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Four diets were formulated to contain 0% (T1), 50% (T2), 75% (T3), 100% (T4) of NW as replacement for maize fraction of the entire diet.  Parameters taken were weight gain, feed intake.  Feed conversion ratio, total feed cost, and cost per weight gain were calculated. The feeding lasted for 28 days.

Blood indices such as packed cell volume (PCV), Red blood cell count (RBC)and White blood cell(WBC) and total protein etc. were measured or calculated. Significant differences (P=.05) were observed in the mean total feed intake of the chicks fed diet containing varied levels of NW. There were significant differences in the mean total weight gain of chicks fed diet containing 100% NW and the control diet (P=.05), however, the least weight gain was recorded in the diet containing 100% NW. The feed conversion ratio was significantly different from one another (P=.05) in diet containing 0% and 100% NW as replacement for maize.  The dietary treatments had no significant effect on the PCV, RBC and WBC and blood total protein (P>0.05). The lowest cost/weight gain was recorded in the diet containing 75% NW as replacement for maize while the highest cost/weight gain was recorded in the diet containing 100%NW. It was concluded that NW could replace maize fraction of the diet of broiler starter chickens up to 75% without any adverse effect on performance characteristics but at reduced cost

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seed Storage Periods, Conditions and Materials on Germination of Some Soybean Seed Cultivars

A. A. Kandil, A. E. Sharief, M. S. Sheteiwy

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1020-1043
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/3590

Aims: This investigation aimed to study response of some soybean CVS, i.e.  Giza 21, Giza 22, Giza 35, Giza 111 and Crawford to storage periods, i.e. 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, storage conditions, i.e. ambient conditions and refrigerator conditions at 10 ± 1ºC as well as storage materials, on germination characters.

Study Design: Treatments were arranged in factorial experimental in completely randomize design, consisted of  totally 160  treatments  combinations  involving tow storage conditions, i.e. ambient and refrigerator conditions at 10 ± 1ºC, four different package materials, i.e. seed with cloth bags, seed with plastic bags, pods with cloth bags and pods with plastic bags. Four storage periods, i.e. 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and five of soybean CVS, i.e. Giza 21, Giza 22, Giza 35, Giza 111 and Crawford.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory experiment was conducted in Agronomy Department, Fac. of Agric. Mansoura Univ., Egypt during 2011 and 2012.

Methodology: Soybean CVS were harvested in October 2011, cleaned, then dried and processed for storage. Every three months, from a total 12 months of storage, germination characters were evaluated.

Results: Seed germination characters were decreased with increasing period of ageing. Giza 111 exceeded other CVS in energy of germination, emergence rate. Giza 21 cultivar exceeded other CVS in germination index. Giza 35 cultivar exceeded other CVS in final germination percentage. Storage under refrigerator conditions at 10 ± 1ºC surpassed under ambient conditions in final germination percentage, germination index, energy of germination, emergence rate. Energy of germination significantly affected by storage materials. Final germination percentage, germination index, energy of germination and emergence rate significantly affected by the varies interactions.

Conclusion: It could be concluded that storage Giza 111 cultivar under refrigerator conditions (10 ± 1ºC) of soybean seed with cloth bags for 3 months enhanced germination properties

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Characteristics and Economy of Using Noodle Waste as Replacement in the Diets of Cockerel Finisher Chickens

A. J. Omole, O. O. Obi, O. O. Adejinmi, F. O. Ajasin, J. A. Fayenuwo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1044-1051
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2013/4636

Noodle Waste (NW) is a by-product of food processing industry and it is cheaper in price compared to maize. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing maize fraction of the diet of cockerel finisher chickens with NW on performance, cost benefits, blood haematology and serum biochemicals. One hundred and twenty cockerel finisher chickens of mean weight of 689.01± 2.4g were randomly selected and allotted to 4 dietary treatments.  Each treatment was replicated thrice with ten birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Four diets were formulated to contain 0% (T1), 50% (T2), 75% (T3) and100% (T4) of NW as replacement for maize fraction of the entire diet. Parameters measured or calculated were weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, total feed cost, and cost per weight gain, dressing percentages and blood indices such as Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC)count and White Blood Cell(WBC) and total protein etc. Significant differences were observed in the mean total feed intake of the birds fed diet containing 0% and 100% NW as replacement for maize (P=.05). The mean total weight gain of birds fed diet containing 100% NW and the control diet were significantly influenced by the dietary treatments (P=.05). The feed conversion ratios were relatively similar (P>.05) in diet containing 0% and 100% NW as replacement for maize. The mean dressing percentage in all the treatments were relatively the same (P>.05). The dietary treatments had no significant effect on the PCV, RBC and WBC and blood total protein (P>.05). The lowest cost/weight gain was recorded in the diet containing 100% NW as replacement for maize. Based on the present results NW could replace maize fraction of the diet partially or wholly without any adverse effect on performance and health status but at reduced cost