Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Type and Method of Fertilization on Marrows (Cucurbita pepo L.) Yield and Fruit Quality

Denka Kostova, Dimka Haytova, Dimitar Mechandjiev

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 376-383
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/3649

Aims: The main aim of this study is to determine the influence of foliar and soil fertilization upon the nutritious value of fruit of marrows and to clarify the opportunity for using Blue tetrazolium chloride (BTC) as a reagent for determination of micro quantities of manganese in plant samples.

Study Design: The investigation was conducted in the period 2007–2009 in an open field condition with the marrows (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivar Izobilna F1 on the experimental field of the Agricultural University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Methodology: Treatments of the experiment: 1. Control - non fertilized; 2. Foliar fertilization with 0.3% Fitona; 3. Foliar fertilization with 0.3% Hortigrow; 4. Foliar fertilization with 0.3% Humustim; 5. Soil fertilization with N160P160K160; 6. Soil fertilization with N160P160K160 + 0.3% Fitona; 7. Soil fertilization with N160P160K160 + 0.3% Hortigrow; 8. Soil fertilization with N160P160K160 + 0.3% Humustim. Total carbohydrates, dry matter, content of nitrates and manganese were determined in the fruits of marrows. Materials were collected in the phase of mass fruit production.

Results: The results show that application of foliar fertilizers Fitona, Hortigrow and Humustim increased yields of marrows in preserved and improved product quality. The effect occurred more strongly when foliar fertilizers were applied on a background of soil fertilization. The BTC method can be successfully applied to the determination of manganese in plant samples.

Conclusion: The use of foliar fertilizers containing different macro- and micronutrients in the period of growing marrows influenced on the content of mn in their fruit. The highest content of mn in the fruits of marrows was found after combined soil and foliar fertilization with 0.3% hortigrow the decrease in yield induces a concentration in manganese in the fruit of marrows. The trend is more clearly expressed in the mixed application

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Tillage Systems on Soil Physical Properties

Asim Osman Elzubeir

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 384-390
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6706

The study was conducted during two summer seasons (2005/06 and 2006/07) under Dongola area conditions (Northern State- Sudan) to investigate the effect of three tillage practices (disc ploughing (20 cm depth) followed by disc harrowing and levelling, chisel ploughing (30 cm depth) followed by disc harrowing and levelling, and no tillage) on the soil physical properties in the area. The soil of the experimental site was classified as loamy. The results obtained revealed that tillage practices induced significant variations (P = .01) on soil dry bulk density at soil depth of 0-25 cm. Also, tillage practices had highly significant effects (P=.01) on water content of soil at the different soil depths checked in the both seasons. Tillage practices had no significant difference (P=.05) on soil mechanical resistance to penetration at depth of 0-50 cm. Disc ploughing is more superior to other treatments examined referenced to those physical parameters of the soil

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Gender Dimensions in Food Unsecured Farm Households in Orsu Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

C. O. Emerole, O. B. Ihedioha, C. O. Anyiro, A. N. Nwachukwu, K. C. Osondu, G. M. C. Ibezim

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 391-404
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/7366

This Study was conducted to compare gender dimensions in farm households with challenges of food insecurity in Orsu local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Cross sectional data from forty male-headed and forty female-headed farm households selected purposively from a random sample of ten out of 21 communities of Orsu Local Government Area of the state was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Male-headed farm households posted food insecurity line of N9, 278.78 as against N5, 243.67 shown by female-headed farm households. These household groups had head count food insecurity incidence (ratios) of 0.375 and 0.250 for male-headed and female-headed farm households respectively. The female-headed farm households were relatively more food secured than their male counter-parts. Food insecurity in male-headed farm households was determined by dependency ratio, education level, monthly expenditure, frequency of contact with agricultural extension agency, and status of farming. In the female-headed farm households, food insecurity was determined by household size, level of education, monthly expenditure, age of household head, and frequency of contact with agricultural extension agency. The most sensitive variables that needed to be increased to alleviate food insecurity in farm households were farm size, and frequency of contact with extension agents Farm households should enhance productivity of their food crops and livestock by adopting technologies recommended by agricultural extension outfits to help cushion devastating effects of food insecurity amongst them

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Characterization of Alternative Oil-in-Water Emulsion Formulation of Deltamethrin

Walaa El-Sayed, Tahany G. M. Mohammad

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 405-414
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6372

The purpose of this study was to prepare a stable oil-in-water emulsion formulation of deltamethrin. Oil-in-water emulsion was prepared by using a two-step procedure. Stability studies were performed at different accelerated conditions (0°C and 54°C) to predict the stability of the formulation. Different parameters, namely, active ingredient content, mean particle size distribution, pH, viscosity, flash point, effect of centrifugation, persistent foaming and emulsion stability were determined during stability studies. The formulation exhibited good stability after preparation at different temperatures. No phase separation was observed during stability testing

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre Tuber Application of Fluridone: Effect on Vegetative Growth and Seed Tuber Dormancy in Yam (D. alata)

Elsie I. Hamadina, Godstime O. Eze

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 415-426
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/4788

Aims: This paper seeks to determine the effect of pre tuber application of fluridone (FLU) on vegetative growth, seed tuber production and dormancy in yam (D. alata).

Study Design: The pot experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 3 replicates, and  24 plants per treatment. In the anatomical study, each young seed tuber portion per treatment represented a replicate. In storage, the experiment was laid out as CRD with 4 treatments and each mature seed tuber as a replicate.

Place and Duration of Study: Field and storage studies were conducted in the Department of Crop and Soil Science, university of Port, Harcourt while the anatomical work was carried out in the yam pathology laboratory, IITA, Ibadan Nigerian. The study covered the period from April 2011 to April 2012.

Methodology: Treatments were: water (control), 10 µM FLU, 5 µM abscisic acid (ABA), and 10 µM FLU + 5 µM ABA. 1 ml of the treatment was injected into the primary nodal complex (i.e., the organ from which tubers originate) of the yam plants prior to tuber formation. Data collected include plant height, leaf number, leaf length and width, tuber number and dry matter content. At least 24 small tuber portions per treatment were sectioned and examined for internal signs of sprouting. At the end of the growth study, tubers were harvested, stored and observed for date of external sprouting.

Results: Fluridone absorption resulted in the appearance of whitish patches on leaves but this effect wore out by 3 week after treatment. Root dry weight increased (P=0.05) by 29% in FLU compared to control (10.9g). In contrast, ABA reduced root dry weight by 17% compared to control whereas; the application of ABA two days after FLU (FLU+ABA treatment) led to 13% increase in root dry weight compared to ABA alone. Number of nodes per plant reduced (P=0.05) in ABA. All tissues sections observed at 75 days after vine emergence did not show any clear internal signs of sprouting.

Conclusion: Single pre tuber application of I ml fluridone, led to patchy bleaching of leaves, a characteristic effect of fluridone, as well as increased root development. However, prolonged exposure to fluridone may be required to significantly prevent seed tuber dormancy in yam

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction of Glufosinate with 2,4-D, Dicamba, and Tembotrione on Glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri

George McMillan Botha, Nilda Roma Burgos, Edward E. Gbur, Ed Allan Alcober, Reiofeli Algodon Salas, Robert C. Scott

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 427-442
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/5322

Aims: Glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. (Palmer amaranth) is a major threat to crops in the southern USA. Experiments were conducted to evaluate differential tolerance to 2,4-D, dicamba, and tembotrione and interaction with glufosinate for glyphosate-resistant (GR) A. palmeri control.

Study Design: The differential tolerance experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with a split-plot arrangement of treatments with herbicide as mainplot and A. palmeri population as subplot. The herbicide interaction experiment was conducted in RCBD with factorial arrangement of treatments.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Arkansas-Fayetteville, USA. Tolerance experiments were conducted in October–November 2010 and in July–August 2011. Herbicide interaction experiments were conducted in the greenhouse in June–July 2011 and August–September 2011 and in the field in April–August 2012.

Methodology: Differential tolerance to alternative herbicides was evaluated using 12 GR-A. palmeri populations. Herbicide treatments were 1.06 kg ae/ha 2,4-D, 0.56 kg ae/ha dicamba, and 0.094 kg ai/ha tembotrione. In the herbicide interaction study, glufosinate at 0.18, 0.36, and 0.73 kg ai/ha were mixed with either 0.024, 0.047, and 0.094 kg ai/ha tembotrione; 0.28, 0.56, and 1.12 kg ae/ha 2,4-D; or 0.28 and 0.56 kg ae/ha dicamba. The population used was PRA-C.

Results:  In the tolerance experiment, 2,4-D at 1x (1.06 kg ae/ha) killed 96-100% of plants per population. Dicamba at 1x (0.56 kg ae/ha) killed 36-94% of plants per population, with survivors sustaining 80-99% injury. Tembotrione at 1x (0.094 kg ai/ha) caused 49-98% mortality per population with survivors incurring 80-99% injury. In the herbicide interaction experiment, mixing half doses of glufosinate and 2,4-D resulted in 100% control of PRA-C in the greenhouse and field. At 1x, glufosinate controlled PRA-C 91% in the field; the addition of 0.5x or 1x of 2,4-D or 1x of dicamba resulted in 100% control.

Conclusion: In the field, 2,4-D was most effective on GR-A. palmeri, relative to dicamba and tembotrione. Some populations have a high risk of being selected for resistance to dicamba, glufosinate, and tembotrione. Glufosinate + 2,4-D mixtures were additive and at sublethal doses, synergistic. Most combinations of glufosinate and tembotrione were antagonistic

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Agricultural Public Capital Expenditure and Agricultural Economic Growth in Nigeria 1961–2010

Ideba E. Ele, Iniobong E. Okon, Otu W. Ibok, Itoro N. Brown

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 443-456
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6472

Aims: This study investigated the impact of agricultural public capital expenditure on agricultural economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1961 to 2010.

Methodology: Annual data was used for this study and was obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria 2010 statistical bulletin and annual report. The data was analyzed using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test, Johansen maximum likelihood test and Granger Causality test.

Results: The result of the Johansen cointegration test showed that there exist a long run relationship between all the explanatory variables and explained variable. The result of parsimonious error correction model showed that agricultural capital expenditure had a positive impact on agricultural economic growth. Also, granger causality test showed a unidirectional relationship between agricultural capital expenditure and agricultural economic growth. This means that agricultural economic growth does not cause expansion of agricultural public capital expenditure rather; it indicates that agricultural public capital expenditure raises the nation's agricultural economic growth. The Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) indicated that if the economy is out of equilibrium, 5.2% of disequilibrium will be corrected for annually. 

Conclusion: The study therefore recommends that the proportion of government capital expenditure that goes into agricultural expenditure financing should be increased

Open Access Original Research Article

Wheat Culture Water Needs Diagnosis Carried Out in the Sidi Bel Abbes Semi Arid Valley

Baroudi Meterfi, Noureddine Letreuch Belaroussi, Sara Lebid, Youcef Amar, Kada Moueddene, Macho Anani

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 457-468
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/3460

The Useful Agricultural Area Management Mode in the region of Sidi Bel Abbes reveals prima facie an underutilization of the region’s agricultural potential cause of low rainfall level and particularly random distribution often results in a situation of cruel water stress throughout the phenological stages of cereals.

Some daily, monthly and decadal climate parameters, as rainfalls, Potential Evapotranspiration, Maximal Evapotranspiration and temperature and their evolution studies, related to the different stages of development of this culture, helps to identify the phases during which water consumption is really urging. Knowledge of this plant high water demand allows us to target the best moment to palliate those needs to enhance the final productivity of this crop in the plain of Sidi Bel Abbes northwestern Algeria at the Mediterranean Sea. Works during the 2007 - 2011 campaign on “Waha” durum variety showed that the wheat water needs are bound to variations in the intensity of the climatic demand. This one, taken over from planting to heading stage reached an amount of 396 mm while durum wheat evoluting in terms of maximum irrigation consumes an equivalent of 351.5 mm average of water. This sentence implies the importance of the water problem facing the cereal, especially those of short cycle in the semi arid areas. Durum wheat consumes an average 74% of its needs, worth of 268.60 mm of water over a period from the third decade of March to the first half of May when the rainfall recorded during the same period with an average of 34.46 mm, covers only 13% of total crops water requirements. The large amount of this deficit clearly accused justifies the very pronounced low grain yields recorded in the region. Hence, the productivity of this crop depends crucially on the choice of a tolerant genotype to semi arid conditions on one hand and the use of supplemental irrigation on the other hand taking into account the requirements of the culture. Wheat crop coefficients determined for the region permit an efficient irrigation application

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Analysis of Fish Consumption in Rivers State, Nigeria

S. O. Anyanwu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 469-475
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6428

The determinants of demand for fish in Rivers State were isolated in this study. Structured questionnaire was used in eliciting information from the respondents. Cross sectional data were randomly collected from 210 respondents from the three senatorial zones. Multiple regression analysis was used in analyzing the data. Results showed that age, household size, income, price of beef and sex of the consumers were the major determinants of fish consumption in the State. The demand for fish was relatively income inelastic. Beef was a close substitute to fish therefore an increase in the price of beef leads to a corresponding increase in the quantity of fish demanded. Fish was a normal good. Policies and programmes aimed at raising the income of households such as credit liberalization should be implemented by the government. In addition the level of education of the citizens should be raised through compulsory secondary education so as to increase the level of their nutritional enlightenment which is expected to boost their levels of protein intake

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Magnetic Water Irrigation for Improve the Growth, Chemical Composition and Yield Production of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Plant

Hameda El Sayed Ahmed El Sayed

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 476-496
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/7468

Magnetic water is considered one of several physical factors affects plant growth and development. Magnetic water fields are known to induce biochemical changes and could be used as a stimulator for growth related reactions. The seeds of broad bean (Vicia faba, L. cv. Giza 3) were irrigated with water passed through magnetic device (Magnetic Funnel - MAGNETIC TECHNOLOGIES DUBAI, UAE, LLC. PATENT No. 1826921). Two pot experiments were conducted during season 2010-2011 at greenhouse to study the impact of magnetized water on growth, some chemical constituents and yield productivity of broad bean plants. The stimulatory impact of magnetic water may be ascribed to the increasing of plant growth (plant height, leaf area, leaves, stems, roots fresh and dry weights) and yield production, which increase absorption and assimilation of nutrients. It appears that irrigation with magnetic water may be considered a promising technique to improving the growth and water content of broad bean plant. Magnetic water treatment could be used to enhance growth, chemical constituents (chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, total available carbohydrates, protein, total amino acids, proline contents, total indole, total phenol, GA3, kinetin, RNA, DNA,) and inorganic minerals (K+, Na+, Ca+2 and P+3) contents in all parts of broad bean plant under greenhouse condition. Results indicated that, irrigation with magnetic water induced positive significant effect on all studied parameters