Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Planting Sugarcane and Napier Grass on N Leaching from Lysimeters under High Application of Cattle Manure

Shoko Ishikawa, Shotaro Ando, Seiko Yoshikawa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 497-514
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/7117

Aims: Excess manure accumulated in livestock areas has been a concern in Japan where a great amount of nutrients such as nitrogen (N) has been imported from abroad contained in various agricultural commodities especially feeds for livestock animals. Aims of the present study is to look into the effects of planting sugarcane and napier grass on nitrate leaching from fields overdosed with excessive amount of manure application.

Study Design: A lysimeter experiment of 3 treatments with 2 replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: NARO-Shikoku Research Center (Kagawa, Japan), three years.

Methodology: (1) Monitoring of water samples drained from lysimeters during study period, (2) Sampling of planted crops and soils.

Results: The plots planted with either sugarcane or napier grass showed less drainage of water as well as less leaching of mineral N compared to control plots after summer when canopy was fully established. However, leaching of mineral N could not be completely prevented at the events of severe rainfalls except for the plots planted with napier grass.  The reduced amount of drainage water for the plots planted with either sugarcane/napier grass was considered to be attributable to evapotranspiration of these crops. Both sugarcane and napier grass recovered a great amount of N in the above-ground part by the time of harvest. Yet, total N concentration of soil layers did not appear to have been affected by the presence of these crops compared to control plots. 

Conclusion: It was concluded that planting sugarcane/napier grass was effective in the studied area in reducing leaching of mineral N especially by reducing drainage water

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Irrigation Intervals on Growth and Yield of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum) in a Tropical Semi-arid Region

P. A. Adeoye, R. A. Adesiji, A. J. Oloruntade, C. F. Njemanze

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 515-524
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/7788

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different irrigation intervals on growth parameters and yield of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) in Minna, a semi-arid zone city, north central Nigeria. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with single factorial and four replications on 12m by 12m plot of sandy clay loamy soil. A 2m by 2m nursery plot was used and good seedlings were transplanted on 48 days after planting to permanent plot. The plot was divided into main plots and sub-plots with buffer zone provided between the plots. Irrigation intervals used were daily, 3 days, six days and 9 days and a no-irrigation plot to serve as control. Mature bell pepper fruits were harvested on 100 days after transplanting (DAT) and used for yield determination. Growth parameters measured were stem height and diameter, number of leaf, leaf area, leaf area index, number and size of fruits which were used to determine the final yield per hectare. Results showed that the irrigation intervals used has impacts on growth parameters and yield of bell pepper. Statistical analysis with ANOVA and Least Significant Difference (p< 0.05) shows significant influence of irrigation intervals on yield and some growth parameters. For instance, maximum yield of 30.93ton/ha was recorded in plot with 3-day irrigation interval while minimum yield (11.02ton/ha) was recorded from the control plot and 11.91ton/ha from plot with 6-day irrigation interval. The irrigation interval also has remarkable influence on stem diameter but with little effect on stem height and leaf number. The overall results revealed that 3-day irrigation interval appeared to be optimum interval to guarantee good yield from bell pepper plot and 6-day and 9-day intervals appeared to instill much water stress on bell pepper plant. However, this observation is subject to local evapotranspiration which in turn is determined by weather conditions. It is therefore recommended that similar experiment be conducted in Minna under a controlled environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Low Protein Diets Supplemented with High Amino Acids (Methionine or Lysine) on Performance of Broilers

E. A. Iyayi, F. A. Aderemi, O. O. Ladele, A. S. Popoola

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 525-531
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6265

Aims:  to evaluate the effects of high level methionine or  lysine supplementation on the performance and carcass characteristics  of broilers fed low crude protein diets.

Study Design: The experiment employed a complete randomized design; all data generated were subjected to analysis of variance.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out at the Teaching  and Research  Farm of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria  between April and July 2011.

Methodology:  unsexed day old broiler  chicks were used in a six-week feeding trial. For each study four experimental diets were formulated such that they contained methionine at four dietary levels of 0.0 %, 0 .35%, 0 .45% and 0 .55% while the other four set contained lysine at four dietary levels of 0.0 %, 0 .60%, 0 .70% and 0 .80% respectively. The  crude protein (CP) levels of T1-T4 in methionine or lysine diets are 24.25%, 19.70%, 15.15% and 10.60 %.

Results: Results indicated that broilers fed diet 1  with normal protein level without methionine and lysine had higher (P<0 .05) body weight gain compared with others. Feed conversion also had the same statistical trend. It was observed that level of crude protein, lysine and methionine significantly reduced feed intake of the broilers. It was reported that reduction of CP levels in the diets of the broilers with methionine or lysine supplementation did not give desirable result. This supplementation resulted in reduced feed intake, poor feed conversion and reduced body weight gain of the experimental broilers.

Conclusion: The aim of the poultry farmer is to achieve optimum production with least inputs. From this study, it was concluded that reduction of crude protein content supplemented with lysine or methionine in broiler diets resulted in reduced feed intake and suboptimal body weight gain of the broilers.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Importance of Rice as Food and Income Security Crop in Puti-puti Sub-county, Pallisa District, Uganda

B. Bua, M. Ojirot

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 532-540
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6701

Aims: This study was conducted to assess the importance of rice to household food and income security.

Study Design: This was a cross sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Puti-Puti sub-county, Pallisa district, eastern Uganda during the period June-July 2011.

Methodology: Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to identify the target location and the respondents. Semi-structured questionnaires and interview guides were used to collect information from 50 respondents comprising (40 farmers, 4 political and 6 technical staff) on the importance of rice to household food and income security.

Results: The findings showed that rice is an important food staple and source of cash income in the sub-county contributing 34 % and 36 % of the food and income source, respectively. Nearly 50% of the respondents earned at least UGX 400,000/= per annum from sale of rice of which 32% is spend on household needs. The other reasons for growing rice included easy storage, pests and disease tolerance among others. The findings also showed that the major types of rice grown were mainly paddy as opposed to the upland. However, the majority (76%) of the rice growers owned between 0-5-1 acres only. Similarly, lack of capital, pests and diseases infestation and use of poor varieties were the other constraints in rice growing.

Conclusion: Overall, rice contributed 12% of the household returns after sweet potato and groundnuts, respectively. Therefore, this study has concluded that rice is an important household food and income security crop in the sub-county. However, to improve the popularity of rice as an household food and income security, there is need for better varieties that are high yielding, early maturing, tasty, pest and disease resistant as well as easy to grow and market

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability in Reactions of Groundnuts Varieties to Groundnut Rosette Virus Isolates from Uganda

B. Bua, M. Opio

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 541-549
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/7190

Aims: The study was conducted to assess the variability in reactions of groundnut varieties to groundnut rosette virus isolates from Uganda (Please correct the yellow highlighted sentence).

Study Design: The experimental design was randomized complete block design arranged as a split plot with three replications. The main plots were the groundnut varieties while the sub-plot were the groundnut rosette virus isolates collected from central, western and eastern Uganda.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the screen house, Kyambogo University, Kampala during 2011 and 2012, respectively

Materials and Methods: Non-viliferous aphids obtained from Mukono zonal agricultural research and development institute (MUZARDI) fed on infected groundnut plants collected from central, western and eastern Uganda were used to infect 3 week old groundnut seedlings in a screen house.

Results: There were significant variation in reactions (P<0.05) among the groundnut varieties to groundnut rosette virus isolates. Similarly, significant variety x isolate interactions were observed for incidence, leaf area index and plant height.

Conclusion: This study has shown that there were significant variations in reactions of groundnut varieties to groundnut rosette virus isolates. In general, two groundnut rosette pathotypes exist in Uganda. Therefore, this is important in management of the disease

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Water Losses and Maintenance of Canal Irrigation System on Agriculture (Case Study: Urmar Minor of Warsak Gravity Canal Pakistan)

Tariq Usman Saeed, Taj Ali Khan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 550-562
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6352

A study was conducted in May-August 2005 to assess the conveyance losses, seepage losses, maintenance status and impact of water losses and maintenance on the agricultural yield in case of irrigation channels. In this regard, a case study was conducted on three watercourses, at Urmar Minor of Warsak Gravity Canal irrigation system in Pakistan. The Inflow-outflow and ponding methods were used to determine conveyance and seepage losses respectively. Local farmers were interviewed to inquire about the maintenance condition of the selected water courses. A considerable decrease i.e. more than 50% in the yield of wheat and maize was observed while moving along the channels from head to tail. The irrigation system of Urmar Minor is evaluated as a guiding study and remedial measures are suggested to handle widely spread reduction in agricultural production due to these losses

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Genetically Tolerant Maize (Zea mays L.) in the Control of Striga hermonthica in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

Charles Konan Kouakou, Louise Akanvou, Irié Arsène Zoro Bi, Huges Annicet N’ Da, René Akanvou

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 563-574
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/7269

Aim: To use host plant tolerant maize (Zea mays L.) to control Striga hermonthica in northern Côte d’Ivoire and to test the infectivity of seeds of S. hermonthica populations on maize.

Study Design: Two-way factorial experiment on a randomized complete block design with three replications.

Place and Duration: Ferkessédougou research station of the National Center of Agricultural Research (CNRA), one year in 2011.

Methodology: The first factor was maize variety with two levels (IWD STR and GMRP-18). The second factor was S. hermonthica populations with six levels (StMi1, StMi2, StMa1, StSo, StMa2 and StMa3). A plot consisted of 2 rows, 5 m long, spaced 0.80 m apart with 0.50 m spacing between plants within the row. Data were collected on 18-maize competitive plants per plot.

Results: The Striga-tolerant IWD STR produced up to 51% more grain (P<.001) than the susceptible variety. Three out of the six populations tested were able to significantly reduce grain yield (P=.005) by 38.5 to 58.7%. The difference in virulence of S. hermonthica populations followed a north-south gradient, with the highly virulent populations coming from the Northern Sudan Savanna zone. There was no strain specialization in the S. hermonthica populations tested.

Conclusions: Host plant tolerance is a useful control measure to combat the menace of S. hermonthica infestation in Côte d’Ivoire. The genetic development of Striga tolerant maize can be done without developing tolerant varieties to a particular strain of the parasite. Further studies should be carried out to determine the genetic diversity of S. hermonthica in Côte d’Ivoire and to understand the difference in virulence among populations

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Rice Husk Supplemented with Commercial Enzymes on Performance, Nutrient Retention and Gastro-intestinal Tract Characteristics of Arbor Acres Broilers

O. O. Alabi, J. O. Atteh, P. T. Ogunniyi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 575-583
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/7254

Aims: This experiment was carried out to assess the effect of dietary inclusion of rice husk supplemented with commercial enzyme on performance, nutrient retention and gastro-intestinal tract characteristics of chicken broilers. The experimental design was a 2×4 factorial combination of two dietary level of rice husk (0 or 25%) with four levels of different commercial enzymes 0E (without enzyme 0ppm), 100E (100ppm of Phytase), 150E (150 ppm of Nutrase xyla), or 350E (350ppm of Grindazyme). Rice husk was added at the expense of maize in the control diet, and each experimental diet was tested during a 56-day feeding trial in triplicate. One hundred and ninety-two (192) one-day old unsexed Arbor acres chicks were used in the trial. Experimental diets and water were supplied ad-libitum to the birds from day the first day to day 56 and chicks were subjected to the recommended routine vaccination programmed. A nutrient digestibility trial was undertaken when the birds were 3 weeks old. At the end of the feeding trial, 3 birds per replicate were randomly selected, euthanatized by neck decapitation, then eviscerated, and the crop, proventriculus, gizzard, liver and pancreas weights were determined. The results showed that an increase in the dietary level of rice husk without commercial enzyme supplementation significantly decreased (P<0.05) weight gain, feed conversion ratio and nutrient digestibility. There were significant (P<0.05) interactions between dietary levels of rice husk and the inclusion of commercial enzymes on performance, nutrient digestibility and gastro-intestinal tract characteristics of chicks. Hypertrophy of the digestive organs was observed in birds fed rice husk without enzyme supplementation. However, this effect was attenuated with the inclusion of commercial enzymes. Results obtained showed that birds fed rice husk diets supplemented with commercial enzymes performed better in all parameters tested than those fed rice husk diets without commercial enzyme. The use of commercial enzyme is advantageous in the utilization of high-fibre diets for chicks. The dietary supplementation with commercial enzymes increased the weight gain, feed conversion ratio and improved nutrient digestibility in broilers, which supposes a beneficial reduction in the production costs

Open Access Original Research Article

Selected Soil Chemical Properties and Fertility Assessment in Some Traditional Irrigation Schemes of the Mpwapwa District, Tanzania

H. J. R. Joachim Makoi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 584-600
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/5787

Aims: To find out the status of the major plant nutrients important for plant growth and development in selected areas in Tanzania.

Place and Duration of Study: The soil physicochemical properties survey was conducted in Msagali and Chipogolo proposed irrigation schemes, Mpwapwa District, Dodoma Region, in Tanzania during the dry season of 2003.

Methodology: Before sampling, the study areas were divided into twenty two (22) pedogeomorphic units or soil types using pedogeomorphic approach. Thirty soil samples were collected from each pedogeomorphic unit at a depth of 0 – 20 cm in a zigzag manner, bulked, homogeneously mixed, and sub-sampled to obtain a representative composite sample. The composite soil samples were sent to Selian Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), Arusha, Tanzania, for analysis of physicochemical characteristics leading to the determination of the soil fertility status by means of these major mineral elements.

Results: The results showed variations in fertility status in the selected sites of each scheme. Based on guidelines of soil mineral elements contents established elsewhere, the soils in Msagali had high pH (8.1) and excessive Na+ (6.1 cmol (+).kg-1 soil) in 30.9% of the total surveyed area (263.5 ha). Crop production in Chipogolo was slightly constrained by sodicity (ESP=9.6%) in 73.1% of the total area (130.3 ha) surveyed and very strongly (ESP =27.9%) in 55.8% of the total surveyed area in Msagali. Total N and Organic Matter (OM) were low, ranging from 0.2 to and 2.3 to respectively. Available P was rated as low to medium and ranged from 1.01 to 5.13 mg in all sites (i.e. Msagali and Chipogolo). Mg were rated as low (1.0 to 3.2 cmol (+).kg-1 soil.) in 26.9% of the area surveyed in Chipogolo and low in 18.4% of the surveyed area in Msagali ranging from 0.6 to 6.5 cmol (+).kg-1 soil. Of the total surveyed area, 63.7% in Chipogolo and 18.4% in Msagali have low Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) with values <12 C:N ratio in 63.2% the total area surveyed in Chipogolo was of good quality (i.e. C:N between 8–12) suggesting ideal conditions for plant growth compared with 36.8% of the total study area in Chipogolo and all the studied sites in Msagali. The data have indicated Ca: Mg ratios to be less than the suggested guidelines in 36.8% of the total surveyed area in Chipogolo suggesting that plants would probably respond to the addition of Ca or Mg in such areas.

Conclusion: The fertility status and overall information from this study could be used in soil and fertiliser management studies to establish nutrient requirements for different crops grown in these areas

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Market Integration and Price Variation in Rice Marketing in Osun State, Nigeria

C. O. Emokaro, A. A. Ayantoyinbo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 601-618
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/7639

Aims: The aim of the study was to examine market integration and price variation in local rice marketing in Osun State, Nigeria. Specific issues addressed in the study were the determination of existence of co-integration between the rural and urban markets and the leading market between the rural and urban markets for rice.

Study Design: Secondary data were used in this study. The data were sourced from Osun State Agricultural Development Programme. The average monthly retail price (/Kg) of local rice covering the period, January, 2000 to December, 2010 (11years) for Osogbo (urban market), Telemu (rural market) and Erin Ijesa (rural market) were used.



Place and Duration of Study: Osun State, South-West Nigeria, between March and July 2011.

Methodology: Coefficient of variation and price correlation coefficient were used to examine the behavior of local rice market price in urban and rural areas of Osun State.  The Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test was used to investigate stationarity in the pairs of prices while the Johansen co-integration technique was used to determine the existence of co-integration between the markets.

Results: Augmented Dicker Fuller procedure (ADF) indicated that all the variables (the individual price series for rice) were not stationary at their respective levels, but stationary at their first difference. Both the trace and maximum eigen value statistics indicated the existence of co-integration relation at 5% significant level for the pairs of product prices, implying that rice markets during the study period were linked together and therefore the long-run equilibrium was stable. The results also indicated that urban rice markets did not granger-cause rural rice markets while rural rice markets granger caused urban rice markets at 5% level of significance respectively. The error correction model showed significant causality link between the rural and urban markets, suggesting a clear trend in price leadership. It follows that there could be efficiency in transmission of price information among operators if relative stability is attained in the rural markets of local rice in Nigeria. 

Conclusion: The study concluded that rice markets in both urban and rural areas of Osun were co-integrated and had short-run and long-run relationships, with rural rice markets occupying the leadership position in price formation and transmission. The design of appropriate agricultural price policies aimed at efficient and cost effective government market interventions such as price stabilization and food distribution policies must henceforth, take into cognizance, the high degree of co-integration among rice markets in the study area, as established in this study. It was therefore recommended that rice farmers (who are located in these rural areas) be placed at the center of marketing policies so they can determine the direction of price movements.