Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Indices and Serum Biochemical Profiles of Dwarf Goats Fed Elephant Grass and Varying Levels of Combined Plantain with Mango Peels

M. I. Okoruwa, I. Ikhimioya

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 619-628
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/5976

The experiment was carried out to determine the replacement value of plantain and mango peels combination for elephant grass, using haematological indices and serum biochemical profile by dwarf goats. Eighteen West African dwarf goats with average weight of 6.00±0.57kg and aged between 6 to 7 months old were used for the study in the Department of Animal (sheep and goat unit), Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma between July and October 2012. The dwarf goats were allotted to three dietary treatments (T1, T2 and T3) with six animals per treatment in a complete randomized design. The compared diets were; T1 (elephant grass and concentrate in a ratio of 68:32 which served as control group), T2 and T3 68:32 (Combination of plantain with mango peels and concentrate in ratios of 55:13:32 and 50:18:32 respectively). Results showed that initial haemoglobin (8.08g/dl), white blood cell (8.96x109/l), sodium (119.62mmol/l), phosphorus (4.00mg/dl), potassium (4.59mmol/l) and final white blood cell (11.02x109/l), cholesterol (69.03mg/dl), creatinine (1.02mg/dl), sodium (130.72mmol/l), phosphorus (4.01mg/dl) were significantly (P<0.05) highest with animals on T1. Animals on T2 had the highest (P<0.05) in initial glucose level (76.02mg/dl). Initial cholesterol (70.42mg/dl) and final packed cell volume (25.02%), haemoglobin (11.01g/dl), red blood cell (11.21x1012/l), urea (23.38mg/dl) were significantly (P<0.05) better for animals on T3. No significant (P>0.05) difference was observed in initial packed cell volume, total packed cell volume, albumin, globulin, creatine and final total protein, albumin, globulin, creatine and final total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, calcium with potassium. It can be concluded that plantain with mango peels in a ratio of 50:18 enhance haematological indices and serum biochemical profile for West African dwarf goats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats Fed N-treated Source and Forage Supplemented Cassava Peels in Humid Cross River State, Nigeria

G. A. Kalio, A. A. Ayuk, L. N. Agwunobi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 629-638
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6972

An investigation to ascertain the performance of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats fed N-treated source and forage supplemented cassava peels (CSP) in Cross River State, Nigeria was carried out. Cassava peels were treated and supplemented with materials rich in nitrogen: fertilizer grade urea [U] (T1 – CSP + U), broiler litter (T2 – CSP + BL), sweet potato (T3 – CSP + SPF) and cassava (T4 – CSP + CSF) forages in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) for 90 days of the growth trial. Results revealed that the bucks in the cassava peel forage supplemented groups (T3 and T4) have better performance in terms of feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and dry matter digestibility. This is due to the presence of fermentable and readily degradable proteins in the sweet potato and cassava forages. It is therefore recommended that basal crop by-product supplementation by small holder goat keepers should be geared towards the use of forages which is seen as a cheap and alternative supplement with crop by-products

Open Access Original Research Article

Density-dependent Growth Patterns of Meloidogyne javanica on Hemp Cultivars: Establishing Nematode-sampling Timeframes in Host-status Trials

Kgabo Martha Pofu, Phatu William Mashela

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 639-650
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/4853

The timeframe host plants should be exposed to Meloidogyne species prior to nematode sampling for host-status and/or host-sensitivity is indispensable in interpretation of results and the subsequent management decisions. The aim of this study was to use density-dependent growth patterns of population density of M. javanica infecting hemp (Cannabis sativa) cultivars to determine the timeframe from inoculation to nematode-sampling in host-status trials. Seedlings of four hemp cultivars ‘Kompolti’, ‘Futura-75’, ‘Ferimon’ and ‘Felina-34’ were each inoculated with 1000 second-stage juveniles of M. javanica under greenhouse conditions, with four cultivars (main-plots) and five biweekly nematode-sampling times (sub-plots) arranged in a split-plot design, with five replications (n = 100). Interaction and cultivar type had no significant (P = .05) effects on population density of M. javanica, while increasing sampling time had highly significant (P<.001) effects on variables, contributing 63%, 54% and 59% to total treatment variation on population density of female, male and juvenile, respectively. Nematode population density (y-axis) and increasing sampling time (x-axis) had strong density-dependent growth relations as depicted by the coefficients of determination of the quadratic equations on females (R2 = 0.50-0.82), males (R2 = 0.47-0.89) and juveniles (R2 = 0.64-0.93). Female population densities of M. javanica were optimized at 56 days on cultivars ‘Kompolti’, ‘Futura-75’ and ‘Ferimon’, while on cv. ‘Felina-34’ optimization occurred at 151 days. Generally, there was a time-lag in optimization of males and juveniles, suggesting that they were not suitable determinants of the nematode sampling time. In conclusion, the derived empirically-based nematode sampling timeframes would facilitate comparisons of results and also resolve an assortment of challenges in host-status and/or host-sensitivity trials. The procedure could also be used to develop timeframes of Meloidogyne species in other crops or in other nematode-plant relations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Radiation Process Followed by Fermentation and/or Cooking on Nutritional Quality of High Tannin Sorghum Cultivar

Ismat G. Abdalla, Khogali E. Ahmed, Elfadil E. Babiker

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 651-664
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/7978

Aims: To study the effect of radiation process on nutritional quality of raw and processed flour of a high tannin sorghum cultivar (Karamaka). 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan between December 2012 and March 2013

Methodology: The flour of the cultivar was radiated using gamma radiation at doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy and thereafter the radiated flour was fermented and/or cooked. Antinutrients, protein digestibility, amino acid contents and score, total and extractable minerals were determined.

Results: Radiation of raw flour decreased the level of antinutrients with a concomitant increase in protein digestibility and minerals extractability. Moreover, radiation increased the level of some amino acids and decreased others. Among amino acids the most limiting ones are lysine, methionine plus cysteine and threonine.  Fermentation and/or cooking of radiated and non-radiated flour improved the protein digestibility and minerals extractability as well as the level of some amino acids.  Most of the amino acids were slightly stable against all treatments with few exceptions.

Conclusion: Radiation of the flour followed by traditional processing greatly improved the nutritional quality of sorghum flour

Open Access Original Research Article

Vegetative Growth and Yield Response of Amaranthus cruenthus to Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF), Poultry Manure (PM), Combination of AMF-PM and Inorganic Fertilizer

C. Nwangburuka Cyril, O. Oyekale Kehinde, A. Denton Olanrewaju, S. Daramola David, Aderemi-Williams Olugbenga

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 665-673
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/5439

The vegetative growth and yield response of five accessions of Amaranthus cruenthus to treatments of poultry manure (PM), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consisting of a mixture of Glomus and Acaulospora species, combination of AMF-PM, and NPK, was evaluated at the teaching and research farm of School of Agriculture and Industrial Technology, Babcock University, between January and March 2013. The experiment was a randomized complete block design, with three replications. Data was collected on five vegetative and yield related characters. The combined analysis of variance showed significant treatment, accession and accession X treatment interaction effect, on all the characters evaluated at 0.01 and 0.05 probabilities. PM gave significantly highest total leaf weight per plant (2.483g), total root weight per plant (5.68g) and plant weight at six weeks (16.22g), while AMF-PM gave significantly highest plant height at six weeks (29.48cm) and produced leaf size that had no significant difference with NPK, Suggesting that AMF-PM could be an alternative to NPK. Furthermore accession BUAM 004 performed best in the entire yield characters evaluated and can be considered for yield improvement in Amaranthus while accession BUAM 005 was the poorest of the accessions evaluated

Open Access Original Research Article

Phosphorus Application and Rhizobia Inoculation on Growth and Yield of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill)

M. M. Akpalu, H. Siewobr, D. Oppong-Sekyere, S. E. Akpalu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 674-685
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/7110

An experiment was conducted in the major and minor cropping seasons of 2012 and 2013 under field conditions at Bolgatanga Polytechnic, to study the effect of phosphorus fertilizer and Rhizobia inoculation on growth and yield of soybean using randomized complete block design and three replications. The treatments studied were:  Soybean + phosphorus fertilizer + Rhizobia inoculation (+P/+I), Soybean + phosphorus fertilizer only (+P/-I), Soybean inoculated with Rhizobia (-P/+I) and the control-Soybean only (-P/-I). Results indicated that Phosphorus fertilizer application is required for shoot growth, pod and seed yield. Nodulation and root growth were significantly increased by Phosphorus + Rhizobia inoculation (+P/+I) but P fertilizer only did not enhance root growth. Dry matter accumulation was highest between onset of flowering and Podding. Grain yield was again highest for Rhizobia inoculation plus Phosphorus fertilizer (+P/+I) and Phosphorus fertilizer only (+P/-I) recording 7.61 t/ha and 7.30 t/ha respectively whiles Rhizobia inoculation only (-P/+I) and the control (-P/-I) produced the lowest grain yield (4.41 t/ha) and (3.80 t/ha) respectively

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotype x Environment Interaction Effect on Farmer Preferred Traits of Cassava Varieties Adapted to the Tropical Climatic Conditions of Western Kenya

Woyengo Vincent Were, Odongo M. Omari

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 686-702
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6271

Presence of farmer preferred traits and understanding their sensitivity to heterogeneous environments is important and critical to variety adoption. The study aimed at determining genotype x environment interaction (GEI) effect and heritability of farmers preferred cassava traits. A 5 x 2 α-lattice design with two replicates was used. Ten cassava varieties were evaluated at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute farms in Kakamega and Alupe and on-farm in Mumias, Busia and Teso between 2009 and 2011. Data were collected on; plant height (PT), height of first branching (HB), internode length (IL), Branching level (BL) per plot, total number of storage roots per plant (NR) and Fresh storage roots yield (RY) converted to yield per hectare. Four stability analyses parameters; Finlay and Wilkinson’s regression coefficient (β1), mean squares deviations from the regression (S2di), Wricke’s ecovalence (Wi) and Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction stability value (ASV) were used. Heritability was estimated as the proportion of phenotypic variances that is due to genetic differences among varieties. GEI effects were significant (p=0.05) for all traits evaluated except PT and NR. Traits related to plant architecture had fairly high heritability as compared to RY and NR with heritability of 6.9% and 13.6%, respectively. Wi, Sdi2, and ASV significantly (p=0.05) correlated for all the traits evaluated. However, βi did not significantly (p=0.05) correlate with all the other procedures except with Sdi2 for height of first branching with Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient of 0.74. For effective cassava evaluation, traits related to plant type which has high heritability should be evaluated early when planting materials is still a hindrance to carry out multi-location replicated trials. Later, with enough planting materials, evaluation should focus on yield and yield related traits with low heritability in multi-location replicated trials. The presence of GEI implies cassava variety selection should be based on both mean performance and stability. Any one of the Wi, Sdi2 or ASV stability analysis methods can be used

Open Access Original Research Article

Behavioral Responses of Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Honey-Based Diets

O. J. Soyelu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 703-712
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/8865

Perception of odors and orientation of parasitoids in the direction of food sources are essential for good performance. I investigated the olfactory and behavioral responses of naïve female Cotesia vestalis (Haliday), a larval parasitoid of the diamondback moth, Plutellaxylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae),to honey and honey-beebread using Y-tube olfactometer. Moistened air was blown over the food sources to carry odor in choice tests and behavior of each tested parasitoid was observed inside the olfactometer for 10 min. The diet chosen was also documented in each case. The newly emerged (i.e., <24h old) parasitoids responded to odor sources by antennating and making a series of movements. Tested females chose honey-beebread more quickly and more often than honey, which itself was chosen significantly faster and more often than moistened air (Control). The homing behavior of the parasitoids (i.e., entrance into the odor chamber) occurred more quickly with honey-beebread compared to honey, and no female wasp entered the chamber containing air alone. The results obtained in this study suggest that honey-beebread is more attractive to C. vestalis. This is an indication that if incorporated into the rearing program of C. vestalis, beebread would not have an adverse effect on the detection and movement of parasitoids towards available diet

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Maize to Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrients in Acid Soils of Kenya

P. A. Opala, R. O. Nyambati, P. O. Kisinyo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 713-723
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6415

Maize yield in Kericho County, Kenya is limited by infertile acidic soils. The effect of inorganic sources of nutrients and amendments; triple superphosphate (TSP), calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) and lime, were compared to a range of organic nutrient sources; Farmyard manure (FYM) of low and high quality, dried cow dung, goat manure, tithonia applied as green manure or dried, in a greenhouse and field experiment. Two soils collected from two farmers’ fields in Sigowet and Litein locations (Hereafter referred to as Sigowet and Litein) were used in the greenhouse where maize was grown for six weeks and its biomass yield determined. The treatments that showed promise were used in a subsequent field experiment where maize was grown to maturity and grain yield determined. In the greenhouse, maize responded to application of all the sources of nutrients and amendments, except lime when applied without TSP, on Sigowet’s soil. On Litein’s soil, maize did not respond to application of lime alone or with TSP, TSP and dried tithonia. High quality FYM gave the highest increase (136%) in dry matter yields on Litein’s soil. In the field experiment, goat manure gave the highest grain yield. Maize failed to significantly respond to either CAN or TSP when applied alone but the application of the two in combination (TSP + CAN) effected a significant response indicating that both N and P were deficient in this soil. All the manures, except low quality FYM, gave yields that were higher or comparable to the standard recommended fertilizer practice (TSP + CAN) and could be economically attractive substitutes as they are locally available. There was a poor correlation between dry matter biomass yield in the greenhouse and grain yield in the field. Extrapolation of greenhouse findings to different fields should therefore be treated with caution

Open Access Original Research Article

Rooting Response of Rosa canina and Cotoneaster acuminatus to Different in vitro Factors

Rafail S. Toma, Layla S. M. Al-Mizory, Hadar S. Faizy

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 724-731
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/8542

The current study aimed to test the direct rooting response of rose and cotoneaster explants collected in winter and spring and grown on different culture media including WPM, B5 and MS supplemented with different concentrations of IBA and NAA. The experiments were arranged according to Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and were conducted at the plant tissue culture laboratories of the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok, Iraq during the period between December 2012 and August 2013. The results showed that explants collected in winter and spring failed to root in both genotypes tested except cotoneaster explants collected in spring. The best rooting performance was found on those grown on WPM medium containing 0.1 mgl-1 IBA by giving 5.62 roots per explant and the longest roots reached to 4.42 cm. This root formation required 22 days from culture date. Concerning shoot multiplication parameters recorded for both plants during this study, rose explants taken in winter and grown on WPM medium containing 0.1 mgl-1 IBA gave the maximum number of shoot per explant reached to 2.62. The maximum number of shoots per explant for cotoneaster (3.0 shoots/ explant) was recorded when the explants were collected in spring and grown on WPM medium supplemented with 0.5mgl-1 IBA. WPM medium gave the longest shoots (6.98 cm) on rose explants collected in spring and supplemented with 0.5mgl-1IBA. MS medium supplemented with 0.5mgl-1IBA gave the longest cotoneaster shoots estimated at 3.37 cm which also recorded the highest number of leaves (13.87 leaves). The highest of leaves per explant of rose reached 21.75 leaves/ explant which were obtained on explants grown on WPM medium supplemented with 0.1mgl-1 IBA. It can be concluded that cotoneaster plant can be rooted directly from explants collected in spring season, whereas rose plant need to undergo the developmental stages of usual micropropagation protocols