Open Access Original Research Article

Sugars in Whole Sesame Seed: Effects of Cultivars, Planting Dates and Row Spacings

Harbans L. Bhardwaj, Anwar A. Hamama, Mark E. Kraemer, D. Ray Langham

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 978-984
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/8999

Mean contents of fructose, glucose, raffinose, stachyose, sucrose, and total sugars in whole sesame seed, produced during 2011 and 2012 in mid-Atlantic region of the United States of America, were 0.95, 1.28, 2.22, 0.14, 0.82, and 5.39 g/100g meal, respectively.  Planting time effects were significant for contents of fructose, glucose, raffinose, stachyose, sucrose, and total sugars.  Contents of sucrose and total sugars were highest during both plantings in 2011 as compared to those for both planting dates in 2012.  However, differences between two planting dates for total sugar contents during each year were not significant while earlier plantings in both years had significantly higher contents of sucrose.  Raffinose content was significantly greater from late planting during 2011 over early planting whereas planting date effects during 2012 were not different.  Stachyose content was significantly greater from early planting in 2012 over late planting whereas planting date effects during 2011 were not significant. An increase in row spacing from 37.5cm to 75cm increased the content of fructose by 24.7% but resulted in 8.1% decrease in content of glucose.  Cultivar effects were significant only for sucrose.  S26 and S32 cultivars had significantly higher content over that of 22K (0.89, 0.89, and 0.69g/100g meal, respectively). These results indicate that sugar contents in sesame whole seed could be manipulated by using specific growing conditions and cultivars and could be helpful in determination of sugar intake via consumption of whole seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Pollinators and Pollination on Fruit Set and Fruit Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) in the Forest Region of Ghana

M. A. Angbanyere, P. K. Baidoo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 985-995
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/7472

Aims: To determine the effect of pollinators and how they affect the reproductive performance of okra cultivated in the forest region of Ghana.
Study Design: The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three treatment and three replications.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted on an experimental farm of the Department of Horticulture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana during the minor rainy season of 2011 and repeated during the major rainy season of 2012.
Methodology: Nine subplots, each measuring 4 m × 6 m were raised with an alley of 2 m between the plots and blocks. Okra seeds were sown at two seeds per hole at a spacing of 80cm × 60cm and thinned to one plant per stand one week after germination. The three treatments were insecticide application, net-covered plants and a control which was neither sprayed nor covered. Basal NPK fertilizer was applied to all the plots at a rate of 10 g per plant. Data were collected on insects that visited the flowers for pollination, numbers of flower sets and numbers of aborted flowers, fruit set, numbers of fruits and number of seeds per pod in ten randomly selected plants on each plot.
Results: Honeybees were the main pollinators of okra flower. Many of the other insects found on the plant were not involved in pollination of the flowers. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the numbers of flowers per plant and numbers of aborted flowers, but significant differences (P<0.05) were recorded in the numbers of pods per plant, yield per plant and the numbers of seed per pod. Honeybee numbers were significantly different on the different treatments.
Conclusion: It was observed that even though the net-covered plant recorded some yield, insect pollinated flower recorded better yield, therefore conservation of honeybees as pollinators of okra flowers will improve the yield of this crop

Open Access Original Research Article

Selected Bioactive Components in Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) and Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) Leaves

V. N. Enujiugha, T. F. Oluwole, J. Y. Talab, A. I. Okunlola

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 996-1006
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/1082

Aims: This study was carried out to assess the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins, saponins and alkaloids in Telfairia occidentalis and Amaranthus caudatus leaves.
Study Design: The experiment employed a 2×2×5 factorial design.
Place and Duration of Study: Food Chemistry/Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, between November 2010 and June 2011.
Methodology: The leaves were sun dried and milled into flour using a laboratory blender. The flour samples were separately soaked in ethanol and distilled water, filtered and rotary evaporated to obtain the respective aqueous (AECT) and ethanolic (EECT) concentrates. The concentrates were used for the determination of the above-mentioned phytochemicals and also for the assessment of free radical scavenging capacity using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).
Results: The results obtained clearly showed that using ethanol as a solvent to extract the bioactive components was more efficient than using distilled water, especially for total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the leaf extracts. The contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were higher in Amaranthus caudatus leaf extract than in Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract; whereas the content of condensed tannins was higher in T. occidentalis leaf extract than in A. caudatus leaf extract. The free radical scavenging capacity of Telfairia occidentalis leaf extract was higher than that of Amaranthus caudatus leaf extract at both 0.3 and 0.6µl concentration of the extract. At 0.3µl concentration of the extract, the free radical scavenging capacity of T. occidentalis leaf extract ranged from 81% to 89% while that of A. caudatusleaf extract ranged from 67% to 74%.
Conclusion: The leaves contain substantial concentrations of the assayed phytochemicals. T. occidentalisleaves had higher free radical scavenging capacity than A. caudatus leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fungicide Selection and Application Timing for Management of Peanut Pod Rot

L. D. Thiessen, J. E. Woodward, K. L. Ong

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1007-1015
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/8769

Aims: To evaluate the effect of fungicide regimes and application timing on pod rot incidence, peanut yield, grades, and diseased kernels.
Study Design: Randomized complete block design with nine treatments and four replicates.
Place and Duration of Study: Studies were conducted during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons on producers farms located west of Seminole, Texas in Gaines County.
Methodology: Rows were spaced 101.6 cm apart on raised beds. Plot size was four rows wide by 304.8 m in length. Fungicide regimes comprised of azoxystrobin and/or mefenoxam, or flutolanil were evaluated. Initial applications were made 68 or 82 days after planting (DAP) with subsequent applications occurring 30 days later. All fungicides were applied in a 50.8 cm band.
Results: In 2010, the percentage of pods affected and percent damaged kernels were reduced by early applications of mefenoxam and azoxystrobin. The flutolanil treatment in 2010 showed the greatest improvement in yield compared to the control. The 2011 trial was greatly affected by drought, and no appreciable differences were seen for any of the parameters evaluated. Despite pod set in this region not occurring later than 82 DAP, early fungicide applications at 68 DAP provided better control of pod rot in peanuts in this region than later applications beginning at 82 DAP in 2010, and no appreciable differences were seen in 2011.
Conclusion: Trends were not consistent between the two years, thus conclusions or recommendations on fungicide selection and application timing are lacking.Further studies are needed to better identify when applications should be initiated to minimize losses due to pod rot. Identifying the ideal application timing of fungicides for the High Plains production region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Watering Regimes on Agro-morphology of Selected Coffee Genotypes

M. W. King’oro, D. Mushimiyamana, J. J. Cheserek, B. M. Gichimu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1016-1026
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/9187

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different watering regimes on selected coffee genotypes and to evaluate drought tolerance among selected coffee genotypes. The study also aimed at determining the optimum watering interval for these genotypes under high temperature conditions.
Study Design: Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replications.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Coffee Research Station in Ruiru, Kenya between October and December 2012.
Methodology: A total of 11 coffee genotypes were used in this study. These comprised of Coffea canephora(Robusta), one wild accession and nine Coffea arabica genotypes. Six months old seedlings of the test genotypes pre-germinated and transplanted in black polythene bags were obtained from the Coffee Research Station experimental nursery. The seedlings were placed on raised benches in the green house and each potted seedling represented a plot. The seedlings were watered with 0.3 liters of water per pot at six watering regimes applied as follows: watering after every 2 days, 4 days, 7days, 14 days, 21 days and no watering at all. Morphological data on leaf number, number of nodes and plant height were recorded at the start of the experiment and after every 7 days until termination of the experiment. Root to shoot biomass ratio was also computed as percentage at the end of experiment. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of significance. Least Significance Difference (LSD5%) was used to separate the means.
Results: Significant difference on change in leaf number, number of nodes, plant height and percent root: shoot biomass was observed among the genotypes. Growth was found to decrease as water stress increased.
Conclusion: It was concluded that there is a potential for selection for drought tolerance from a diverse population of coffee genotypes. The most promising genotypes were West Pokot accession and tall Arabica genotypes such as SL34.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sensory and Nutritional Characteristics of Kununzaki Enriched with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Seed Flour

O. O. Olosunde, O. A. Abiodun, A. A. Amanyunose, A. B. Adepeju

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1027-1035
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/9841

Aims: The aim of this work was to determine the nutritional quality of kununzaki enriched with moringa seed flour.
Study Design: Analyses of variance (ANOVA).
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria, between July 2013 to January 2014.
Methodology: Sorghum grains were soaked, washed and then mixed with the spices and wet milled. Moringa seed flour (5,10,15%) was added to the kunun slurry. The slurry was divided into two; one portion was cooked and allowed to cool to 45°C and then the uncooked portion was added and mixed thoroughly. The mixture was allowed to ferment for 12h and sieved. Proximate, mineral, physicochemical, anti-nutritional and sensory evaluation was determined on the enriched kununzaki.
Results: There were reductions in the moisture and carbohydrate contents of kununzaki with increase in moringa seed flour incorporation while the protein, fat, ash and crude fibre contents increased. Kununzaki with 15% moringa seed flour had higher values in all the mineral contents determined. pH and total soluble solid increased as the percentage of moringa seed flour increased. Kununzaki with 15% moringa seed flour had higher anti-nutritional contents than other samples. Sensory analysis conducted on the kununzaki revealed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the taste, appearance and overall acceptability of control and 5 to 10% level of moringa seed substitution.
Conclusion: The proximate and mineral contents of the substituted kunuzaki were increased with the incorporation of moringa seed flour. The anti-nutrients in the beverage were low and within the range permissible for food. Addition of up to 10% moringa seed flour to kununzaki is desirable as higher concentrations (15%) of moringa seed flour impact undesirable effect on the taste of the product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Upland Rice and Dry Season Sorghum Production under Double Cropping Systems in a Tropical Semi-Arid Region

J. P. Mvondo-Awono, A. Boukong, H. Beyegue-Djonko

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1036-1046
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/9564

Aims: To investigate the influence of upland rice cultivar and dry season sorghum planting date on crop yield under rainfed double cropping systems as an option to increase cereal production for food security and income generation to farmers.
Study Design: The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with 20 replicates for rice cultivars evaluation the first year (2009). Part of the experimental set up was subsequently used the following year (2010) to evaluate dry season sorghum production as second crop in the system. Treatments were the nine combinations of previous rice cultivars and sorghum transplanting dates replicated four times.
Place and Duration of Study: Experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 in a tropical semi-arid area, at Salak in the outskirts of Maroua, the main city of the Far-Northern Region of Cameroon.
Methodology: The three rice cultivars of Brazilian origin tested in this experiment were B22, Primavera and SEBOTA 281.2. They were followed by the local sorghum variety called "Guelendeng’’, sown at three different dates at the onset of dry seasons. Factors evaluated were the paddy yields of rice cultivars and grain yield of dry season sorghum.
Results: The rice cultivars were able to grow and score paddy yields ranging between 2.6 and 5.2tha-1, with a highly significant interaction between years and cultivars (P<0.001). Upland rice grown in the rainy season was followed by the production of 832 to 1819 kg ha-1 of dry season grain sorghum depending on year or preceding rice cultivar. Planting date did not reveal a significant effect on dry season sorghum yield but the latter was significantly determined by preceding rice cultivar P<0.001). Dry season sorghum yield was significantly higher, when the preceding rice cultivar was Primavera the rainiest year (2010), or significantly lower the driest year (2009).
Conclusion: The choice of an upland rice cultivar to be included in double cropping systems with dry season sorghum is important but questions remain concerning the sustainability of the system in relation to moisture and nutrient management. Designing adequate fertilization schemes for cereals in double cropping systems and the availability of relevant short cycle upland rice cultivars to be included as dry season sorghum preceding crop are main challenges to be addressed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biomass Production in the Short Rains and Its Influence on Crops in the Long Rains: A Systems Approach in Organic Farming

J. R. Birech, B. Freyer, J. K. Friedel, P. Leonhartsberger, J. K. Macharia, C. O. Obiero

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1047-1071
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/8309

Production of legumes for purposes of obtaining biomass is often restricted to seasons that are less optimum for economic crops, thus limiting the possibility of accumulating substantial biomass. A three and half-year study was conducted at Egerton University, Kenya, with the aim of determining the biomass and grain yield production of lablab (Dolichos lablab) during the short rains and the effects of lablab biomass incorporation (LAB) or replacement with farm yard manure (FYM) (2.5 t ha-1 or 5 t ha-1) on subsequent organic maize, potatoes and legume intercrops grown during the long rains. Results shown that the rainfall in the short rains season was highly variable and ranged from 164 mm (in 2005/06) to 744 mm (in 2006/07) and so did lablab biomass (0.04 - 2.41 t ha-1). Lablab biomass and grain yield were closely related to the total amount of rainfall received. Moreover, it was showed that a minimum of 2 t ha-1 lablab biomass could provide sufficient N (60 kg ha-1) removed by subsequent maize grains; yet to generate this amount of biomass; about 637 mm of rainfall is required under the trial conditions. Maize grain yields following LAB and FYM were 4.5 t ha-1 and 4.9 t ha-1 respectively (= .05 in 2005), while potato tuber yields were 18.8 t ha-1 and 21.2 t ha-1 respectively (P = .05 in 2005) about 10% less yield in LAB compared to FYM. Both LAB and FYM increased the available N soon after incorporation, but reduced the soil pH over the trial period. Lablab grain yield and biomass were less by 17% and 14% respectively when planted after maize than after potatoes. The study concluded that rainfall largely affects the amount of green manure biomass which in turn affects the amount of N recycled, N availability and yield response of subsequent crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Financial Sector Reforms on the Nigerian Agricultural Export Performance

Aniekan Jim Akpaeti, Nsikan Edet Bassey, Otu Williams Ibok

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1072-1085
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/9554

The performance of the export subsector is one of the vital indices in measuring the impact and successes of several financial reform programmes carried out in Nigeria. Accordingly, the study estimated the effect of financial sector reforms on major agricultural exports in Nigeria from 1970-2009. Secondary data used for the study were analyzed using cointegration and error correction model (ECM). The empirical results disclosed that financial sector reforms significantly affect major agricultural export commodities such as cocoa, palm kernel and palm oil in Nigeria both in the long and short-run. Chow test result showed significant difference between agricultural exports (cocoa and palm oil except palm kernel) function in the pre-financial sector reforms and during the financial sector reforms period. The study advocated for the provision of appropriate promotion incentive and production such as abolishing of export prohibition, establishment of export development funds and researches into producing disease resistance, early maturing and high yielding varieties that will enhance the production of high agricultural yielding crops meant for export. Also, institutional framework that will boost disbursement of funds to cash crops sub-sector in the country needs to be strengthened. Lastly, policies that would reduce interest rate should be formulated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long-Term Fertilization Effect on Agronomic Yield and Soil Organic Carbon under Semi-Arid Mediterranean Region

Ibrahim Ortas, Rattan Lal

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1086-1102
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/8670

Management practices, including use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, significantly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and agronomic yield. Crop yields in semi-arid regions of Turkey are declining because of depletion of SOC pool and the attendant decline in soil quality. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the effects of inorganic and organic fertilizer treatments (control, chemical fertilizer, animal manure, compost and compost + mycorrhizal inoculation) on SOC pool and agronomic yield in a long-term field experiment initiated in 1996 on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
The SOC pool under different soil fertilizer management treatments was related to agronomic yield of pepper, wheat and maize. Biomass production increased as the SOC concentration increased with the application of organic and mineral (inorganic) fertilizers compared with the control. Between 1996 and 2010, the SOC concentration in 0-15 cm depth of the unfertilized control decreased from 0.96% to 0.87%. In comparison, SOC concentration increased in treatments amended with organic fertilizers such as manure, compost and compost+mycorrhzae. Agronomic yield was also significantly affected by organic and inorganic fertilizer treatments, which declined over time in the control but increased in treatments receiving compost, manure and compost + mycorrhizae. The negative regression was obtained in control treatments between SOC and the wheat yield (Y = -1.18x + 3.84, R2=0.205) and maize yield (Y = -1.28x + 7.56, R2=0.016).
Additional research is needed to assess the role of fertilizers on SOC concentration and its effects on agronomic yields under long-term soil and crop management systems especially with mycorrhizal inoculation.