Open Access Original Research Article

Lettuce and Celery Responses to Both BAP and PBZ Related to the Plug Cell Volume

M. Coro, A. Araki, J. Rattin, P. Miravé, A. Di Benedetto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1103-1119
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/10096

Aims: Decreasing vegetable transplant costs involves decreasing the plug cell volume, which is known to have negative effects during post-transplant growth. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of different plug cell volume and hormonal regulators on both lettuce and celery yield.
Study Design: Two genotypes of lettuce (‘Dolly’ and ‘Shirley’) and two of celery (‘Golden Boy’ and ‘Green Fox’) were used in the experiments. Plants grown in 288- or 200-cell trays and were sprayed with different solutions of BAP and PBZ.
Place and Duration of Study: Experiments were conducted at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station, Argentina (37º45′S, 58º18′W) during the 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 growing seasons.
Methodology: Three experiments were performed. In the experiment 1, base temperature from lettuce and celery plants grown in 288- or 200-cell trays were determined through the method of temperature summation. Experiment 2 showed the response to 100 mg L-1 BAP of both vegetables grown in two plug cell volume. Experiment 3 showed the combined effect of different BAP and PBZ concentrations related to different plug cell volume.
Results: Results showed that spraying lettuce and celery plants with a single pre-transplant application of BAP or PBZ increased post-transplant fresh weight. On the other hand, the different genotypes of lettuce and celery evaluated showed significant differences in the Tb.
Conclusion: We proposed that the use of larger plug cells and growth regulator sprays may allow plants to overcome the root restriction imposed by the cell volume, with a correlative increase in post-transplant productivity of lettuce and celery. A significant decrease in Tb would partially explain the highest growth rate in the largest cell size volume.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Phosphorus and Bradyrhizobium japonicum on Growth and Chlorophyll Content of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp)

Daniel Nyoki, Patrick A. Ndakidemi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1120-1136
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6736

The field and screen house experiment was conducted at Tanzania Coffee Research Institute and Seliani Agricultural Research Institute respectively in Tanzania, between March-July 2013, to assess the effects of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and phosphorus on growth and total leaf chlorophyll content of cowpea. The experiment was out down in split-plot design whereby the main plots comprised two inoculation treatments (with and without B. japonicum), while the sub-plots contained phosphorus (TSP) application at four different levels (0 kg/ha, 20 kg/ha, 40 kg/ha, 80 kg/ha). Both experiments were replicated four times. We measured plant growth parameters such as plant height; number of leaves per plant at different stages of plant growth, the stem girth was measured by vernier caliper at physiological maturity. The chlorophyll content was determined at 3, 5, and 7 weeks after planting (WAP). The chlorophyll was extracted by using dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and absorbance was determined at 645 and 663nm using UV/Visible spectrophotometer. B. japonicum inoculation significantly increased the plant height, number of leaves per plants, and stem girth above the control. The height was increased by 11.23, 10.43 and 8.99% (screen-house) and by 8.11, 24.05, 9.29% (field) in the measurements taken at 4, 6, and 8 WAP respectively. Number of leaves per plant counted at 6 and 8 WAP increased by 14 and 10.8% (screen-house) and 14 and 11.6% (field) respectively. B. japonicum also significantly increased leaf chlorophyll content of cowpea by 26% (3 WAP) in screen-house and 52, 37.9 and 13.3% (3, 5 and 7 WAP) respectively on the field. Phosphorus also significantly increased different plant growth parameters and leaf chlorophyll content relative to control. B. japonicum inoculation can be as beneficial as inorganic N fertilizers. Therefore, their combined use with phosphorus boosts plant growth and chlorophyll content of the legumes and eventually legume production is increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Nut Weight and Sowing Depth on Emergence and Growth of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Seedlings

S. Konlan, E. Asiedu, M. Esirifi, K. Acheampong, K. Opoku-Ameyaw, G. J. Anim-KwaponG

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1152-1164
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/9656

An experiment was carried out at the nursery of the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Tafo, to determine the influence of nut weight and depth of sowing on the emergence and viguor of cashew seedlings. The factorial experiment was laid out in a split plot with four replications. Nut weight and depth of sowing served as the main and sub-plots respectively. Data collected included percent final emergence, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf chlorophyll fluorescence (fv/fm), rate of photosynthesis, seedling height, stem diameter and dry matter accumulation. The results showed that seedlings generated from nuts weighing over 8 g were more vigorous, ranking high on physiological parameters such as stomatal conductance, photosynthesis at the leaf level and dry matter accumulation, and morphological parameters such as height and stem diameter gain. Cashew nuts sown at the 2 cm depth gave superior emergence although dry matter accumulation after three months was unaffected by sowing depth. It was therefore concluded that nuts weighing 8 g be sown at 2 cm depth for raising cashew seedlings to be used as root stock.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance, Immune Response and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers Fed with Low Crude Protein and Ideal Methionine to Lysine Ratio Diets

S. M. Ogunbode, A. A. Owoade, E. A. Iyayi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1165-1177
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/9112

The study was carried out to study the effect of supplementing low crude protein (CP) diet with ideal methionine to lysine ratio (IMLR) on the performance, carcass characteristics and immune response against Infectious Bursa Disease (IBD) and Newcastle Disease (ND) viruses in broilers.
Ten Diets Were Formulated: Diet 1 (control diet) contained 23% CP and IMLR of 47%. The remaining 9 test diets were formulated to contain 20, 17 and 14% CP each with 47, 52 and 57% IMLR in a 3x3 factorial arrangement.
The experiment was carried out at the pullet unit of the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Animal Science, Department of Veterinary Medicine, all at University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria, between February and March 2011.
Day-old broiler chicks (160) were wing branded, weighed and randomly allocated into the 10 diets with four replicates of four birds each. The chicks were vaccinated against IBD virus on d 10 and against ND virus on d 16 posthatch via drinking water.
Results revealed that the feed intake (FI) in the control and in the 20% CP/47% IMLR (60.27g/b, 57.81g/b) diets were similar. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) in the control and in the 20% CP/47% IMLR (2.65, 2.70) diets were also similar. Breast’s weights in the control and in the 20% CP/52% IMLR diets (148.75, 150.75) were similar. Birds on 17% CP with 52% IMLR (19,637 antibody titre) had the best immune response against IBD virus, while birds on 20% CP with 47% IMLR (1442 antibody titre) diet had the best immune response against ND virus.
Results suggest that diets of CP less than 23% with 47 and 52% IMLR for broilers resulted in similar performance as control diet and the bird’s immune response against IBD and ND virus were not compromised.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Response, Meat Yield and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers Fed Beniseed (Sesamum indicum) and Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) Leaves as Sources of Lysine

E. Z. Jiya, B. A. Ayanwale, A. B. Ibrahim, H. Ahmed

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1178-1185
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/8489

Aims: One hundred and thirty five day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks with an average weight of 40g were fed beniseed and drumstick leaves as sources of lysine during eight weeks in order to evaluate growth response, meat yield and carcass characteristics.
Study Design: The trial design was completely randomized (CRD).
Place and Duration of Study: The trial was conducted between June-July 2010 in the Poultry unit at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Animal Production, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigera State.
Methodology: The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental groups with forty five birds per treatment. Each treatment had three replicates with fifteen birds per replicate. The dietary treatments contained 0.2% lysine (T1), 6% beniseed powder (T2), and 15% drumstick leave powder (T3). The amount of beniseed powder and drumstick leave powder was calculated to supply the same lysine level that the control diet (0.2% lysine).
Results: At the end of the feeding trial body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not significantly among experimental groups (P>0.05). The crude fiber digestibility was significantly different (P<0.05). The average live weight of the birds, breast, back and wing were significantly different among groups (P<0.05).
Conclusion: It was concluded that 6% beniseed powder and 15% drumstick leave powder can substitute 0.20% industrial lysine in broilers diets for optimum performance of broilers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Hematological Markers Suitable for Improving Productivity of Helmeted Guinea Fowl Numida meleagris

I. I. Adedibu, K. L. Ayorinde, A. A. Musa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1186-1196
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/10066

The research was designed to estimate variations in hematological variables between sex and varieties of extensively reared helmeted guinea fowl with the objective of recommending parameters that are suitable as markers during selection. The study was carried out in the Teaching and Research farm of Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria between May and July 2012. Five varieties of helmeted guinea fowl (45 males and 45 females) that were clinically healthy were sampled for white blood cells (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, platelets, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV). The results showed that there were no significant (P>.05) effect of sex on WBC, MCHC, RBC, hemoglobin, PCV and MCH, but it influenced MCV (P=.05) and platelets (P=.05). On the other hand, there were significant (P=.05) effects of varieties on all the hematological parameters determined in this study. Therefore, the study of variations in hematological parameters, as well as their association with economic traits, could be used to develop marker assisted technology which can be incorporated into the traditional animal breeding methodology to fast track improvement to aid selection, improve efficiency and speed of selection in breeding programs

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Coverings and Storage at Different Temperatures on Dragon Fruits (Hylocereus undatus)

Juliana Cristina Castro, Valdeci Aparecido Mota, Laura Paulino Mardigan, Rosimari Molina, Edmar Clemente

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1197-1208
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/10602

Aims: This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical characteristics of dragon fruits with application of different types of covering and submitted to two different refrigeration temperatures.
Study Design: The dragon fruits were taken, selected, washed, cleaned with a solution of Sodium hypochlorite 1%, dried and then, treated with coverings based on manioc starch at 2%, a jelly solution at 2% and a conservative solution (1% of ascorbic acid, 0.5% of citric acid, 0.7% of sodium chloride and 0.25% of calcium chloride) by immersion during 2 minutes. There was also a control treatment, that is, without treatment. After applying the coverings and drying the fruits, they were stored under refrigeration (8ºC±1ºC and 13ºC±1ºC) and evaluated every 5 days, during 25 days of storage. The analyses carried out during the storage time were: pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio (SS/TA), coloration of pulp (parameters L*, C* and ºHue) and mass loss.
Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Food Biochemistry/State University of Maringá, in February 2013.
Methodology and Results: The fruits treated with jelly coverings and conservative solutions had the best appearance during storage under refrigeration at 8ºC. The parameters we evaluated showed oscillations in the average values, according to the period of time; however, there was not influence among the treatments.
Conclusion: It was possible to maintain the quality of fruits for longer periods with the application of coverings together with refrigeration temperatures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Migrant Remittances on the Output of Arable Crop of Farm Households in South Eastern Nigeria

O. R. Iheke

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1209-1218
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6502

This study investigated the impact of remittances on the output of arable of remittance and non receiving farm households in South Eastern Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the sample. The cost route technique was used in data collection. Data collected using structured questionnaire and interview schedules were analyzed using such statistical tools as Z test, regression analysis and Chow’s test statistic. The result of data analyses revealed that there were significant differences in age, farm size, output and income between the remittance receiving and non-receiving households. The remittance receiving households were relatively older, cultivated more farm land, produced greater output and had higher income than the non-remittance receiving households. The significant factors influencing the output of the remittance receiving households were farm size, labour, other variable inputs like fertilzer and agrochemicals, planting materials, etc and capital which were all positively related to output and significant at 1 percent significance level except for capital that was significant at 5 percent; while for the non reemittance receivng households, the significant factors influencing their output were farm size, labour and capital which were all positively related to output. Farm size was significant at 1 percent while labour and capital were respectively significant at 5 perccent level of significance. The dummy representing household type was significant at 1 percent and positively related to output, implying that remittance receiving households obtained higher output than the non receiving households. The results of the statistical tests for structural shift in production function and differences in output revealed that significant difference between the production functions of the remittance receiving and non-remittance receiving farm households and output advantage for the remittance receiving households derivable from the use of remittance income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maize Response to Competition from Speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel) Regrowth II: Competitive Relationship-Relative Yield Total

Udensi E. Udensi, Ochekwu Edache Benard, David Chikoye

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1219-1231
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/9029

Field study was conducted to evaluate the competitive effect of speargrass regrowth on subsequent maize crop. The competitive relationship study was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The study was conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Ibadan, Nigeria, between September 2005 and September 2006. In this study maize and speargrass were monitored in eight monoculture densities (10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, 50,000, 80,000, 120,000 and 160,000 plants per hectare and eight total densities in a mixture of 1:1 ratio of maize and speargrass (5,000:5,000-80,000:80,000) per hectare. Relative yields total (RYT) indicated that maize and speargrass were competing for the same resources especially at 8:8 plants of both species in mixture, and there was mutual antagonism from severe competition for light, especially at high densities of both species (10:10-32:32 plants) in mixture. RYT of speargrass regrowth competition with maize was neither significantly higher nor lower than 2.0 for shoot competition (P=0.522); and was not significantly different (P=0.475) for rhizome competition among the various speargrass densities and proportions in competition with maize. Speargrass regrowth and maize interaction captured three resource competition scenarios of their association as follows: avoidance of competition, whereby individual species exploited the limiting resources separately (where, RYT>2.0); both species competed fully or partial, possibly at all densities in mixture since RYT values were not significantly higher or lower than 2.0; and both species may also have antagonized each other during their growth association (where, RYT<2.0).

Open Access Review Article

Review of Aquaculture Production and Management in Nigeria

Ozigbo Emmanuel, Anyadike Chinenye, Adegbite Oluwatobi, Kolawole Peter

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1137-1151
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/8082

Fish is an important source of food, income, employment, and recreation for people around the world and it is a very important source of animal protein for both man and livestock in developed and developing countries. In Nigeria, the current demand for fish is about four times the level of local production. Humans consume approximately 80 percent of the catch as food. The remaining 20 percent goes into the manufacturing of products such as fish oil, fertilizers, and animal food. Fisheries and aquaculture are integral parts of agriculture which were found to have the capacity to increase the country’s GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and can solve the unemployment problem for our teeming youths if adequately managed. Therefore, this paper reviewed the status of Aquaculture in Nigeria, its problems and development prospects, different fish species that can adequately thrive in Nigerian pond and its preparation, and finally showed some first-rate management practices that can boost aquaculture production in Nigeria.