Open Access Original Research Article

Field Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Thermotherapy against Cassava Mosaic Disease in Central African Republic

Innocent Zinga, Frédéric Chiroleu, Emmanuel Kamba, Charlotte Giraud-Carrier, Mireille Harimalala, Ephrem Kosh Komba, Simplice Yandia, Silla Semballa, Bernard Reynaud, Jacques Dintinger, Pierre Lefeuvre, Jean-Michel Lett

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1232-1241
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2014/10275

Aim: The effectiveness of thermotherapy in managing cassava mosaic disease (CMD) was studied on a susceptible local cultivar in the field in the epidemiological conditions.
Study Design: The field was laid out in randomized complete block design
Place and Duration: Field experiment was conducted in forest zone at Kapou located in south west of Central African Republic according to University of Bangui during August 2010 and July 2011.
Methodology: Diseased cassava cuttings were treated in a heated water bath at temperatures ranging from 43ºC to 51ºC for 30 min before being grown for 12 months in the field.
Results: Temperatures from 43ºC to 49ºC were found to have no deleterious effect on either the survival of cuttings or on plant regeneration. One month after planting (MAP), up to 40% of the cuttings treated at 47ºC to 49ºC had regenerated a plant with no CMD symptoms compared to 7% of untreated cuttings. Between two and five MAP, cassava cuttings treated at 49ºC produced plants with a significantly lower incidence of CMD than plants produced from untreated cuttings. All plants grown from treated cuttings developed significantly less severe CMD symptoms than untreated cuttings between 8 and 12 months after planting. The highest tuberous root yield was obtained with diseased cuttings treated at 49ºC (4.7kg/plant), equivalent to the yield from untreated symptomless cuttings (4.6kg/plant).
Conclusion: Our data clearly demonstrate the value of thermotherapy to maintain a high level of production using local cultivars under severe CMD epidemic conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maize Response to Competition from Speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel) Regrowth I: Species Growth Relationship, Yield and Yield Components

Udensi E. Udensi, Ochekwu Edache Benard, David Chikoye

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1242-1255
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2014/9028

Field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of speargrass shoot regrowth from previously planted rhizomes on the growth and yield of subsequent maize crop.
This study was evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The study was conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Ibadan, Nigeria, between September 2005 and September 2006.
In this study maize and speargrass were monitored in eight monoculture densities (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 32, 48 and 64 plants per plot and eight total densities in a mixture of 1:1 ratio of maize and speargrass (2:2-32:32) per plot.
Results suggest that both, maize and speargrass competed for the same resources. However, maize was more competitive than speargrass in 1:1 mixture. Intraspecific competition between maize plants was responsible for maize grain yield loss of about 28.4%, while the overall interspecific competition effect from speargrass regrowth densities was responsible for a yield of about 18%. There was high and significant negative correlation between speargrass parameters and maize grain yield (r≥-0.56≤-0.78) and maize biomass per plant (r≥-0.49≤-0.67). For speargrass, interspecific competition was greater than intraspecific competition causing a speargrass biomass loss of about 35% from maize competition; while intraspecific competition accounted for about 17.9% biomass reduction. Speargrass densities of 8-16 plants m-2, in mixture with maize had enormous rhizome biomass, and hence caused a grain yield reduction of 43% due to vigorous regrowth. Farmers should try to use optimum maize population that will give between 5 and 6 plants m-2; this will reduce the effect of speargrass regrowth from the rhizome, especially where land preparation is by slashing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation and Path Coefficients Analysis between Morphological Characteristics and Conservable Grain Yield of Sweet and Super Sweet Corn (Zea Mays L. var. Saccharata) Varieties

Atena Rahmani, Majid Nasrolah Alhossini, Saeed Khavari Khorasani

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1256-1267
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2014/7031

In order to evaluate the effects of planting methods on morphological traits, yield and yield components of sweet and super sweet corn varieties, an experiment was conducted at Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research center, Mashhad, Iran in 2012. In this research three planting method (one row raised bed, two row raised bed and furrow planting), sweet corn varieties (Chase, Temptation, KSC403su and Challenger), was laid out in factorial design based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The results of this study showed that different planting methods had significant effects on morphological traits such as plant height, ear height, ear leaf area, relative growth rate, 1000-grain weight, ear diameter, number of ear per plant, grain depth, conservable grain yield and plant harvest index at the P<.01 level. Moreover, results showed that different varieties had significant differences among traits such as the number of ear per plant, ear diameter, grain percentage, cob percentage, 1000-grain weight, conservable grain yield and harvest index. The results of correlation coefficient analysis also indicate highly significant correlation between conservable grain yield and all measured traits except for plant height, ear height, relative growth rate, ear diameter, and the number of ear per plant at the P<.01 level. The results of stepwise regression method analysis and path coefficient showed that conservable grain yield was affected by three traits of 1000-grain weight, ear diameter and number of ear per plant. Furthermore, these three traits indicate high and significant regression coefficient on conservable grain yield, respectively. Results of path coefficient analysis indicated that all traits positively affect conservable grain yields. Therefore, the measured traits like 1000-grain weight, ear diameter and the number of ear per plant had the highest direct effect on conservable grain yield. According to this study, selection for 1000-grain weight, ear diameter and number of ear per plant can led to improve conservable grain yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Participatory On-farm Evaluation of Some Storage Methods and Grain Protectants on Quality Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L.)

Issah Sugri, Osei-Agyeman Yeboah, John K. Bidzakin, Cephas Naanwaab, Stephen K. Nutsugah, James M. Kombiok

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1268-1279
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2014/10704

Aim: The study seeks to improve the livelihoods of farm families by deploying appropriate storage and grain protection methods to reduce on-farm storage losses.
Place and Duration of Study: Multi-location experiments were established at 4 communities of the Upper East Region of Ghana from November 2012 to December 2013.
Methodology: For each treatment, 50kg of maize was stored in jute sacs (JS), polypropylene sacs (PS), hermitic triple-layer sacs (HTS) and hermitic poly-tanks (HPT). Both Actellic and phostoxin fumigation were applied at recommended rates. Destructive grain sampling (100g) was done every 2 months for determination of grain characteristics and loss assessment. Scoring for grain quality was done using a 5-point objective scale.
Results: Overall difference was due to the method of storage, influence of the 2 grain protectants was not consistent. Marginal loss of bulk density (9.6 to 14.8%) occurred in HTS and HPT compared to PS and JS (15-17%). Low postharvest losses (2.2-5.8%) was incurred in HTS and HPT compared to PS and JS which showed up to 7.2-31.5% losses. At 12 months after storage, grain stored in the HTS and HPS recorded high quality scores (1.2C to 1.8F), indicating clear grain (C) or few insects (F) which were irregularly distributed and difficult to find by untrained eye.
Conclusion: Although the cost of HPT is high, they are more efficient and can be re-used for several years. Due to differences in varieties and pre-storage operations, storage beyond 6 months in JS or PS will require grain protection and close monitoring.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Phytochemical Properties of Cola acuminata Varieties

O. A. Abiodun, A. M. Oyekanmi, O. J. Oluoti

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1280-1287
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2014/10223

Aims: The aim of this work was to determine the biochemical and phytochemical properties of Cola acuminata varieties.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria, between August 2012 to June 2013.
Methodology: The kolanuts (white and red varieties of Cola acuminata) were oven dried at 80ºC for 16h and pulverized into powder. Proximate, mineral and phytochemical analyses were analyzed using standard methods.
Results: The results showed higher dry matter (91.88%) in the white variety, ash (4.71%) and fat (11.80%) contents were higher in the red varieties. White variety had higher crude fibre (10.08%), protein (10.92%) and carbohydrate (55.65%), sugar (2.29%) and starch (10.80%) contents. Carotenoid contents of red varieties (25.90mg/100g) were higher than that of white variety. The red variety had higher calcium (734.89mg/kg), magnesium (486.93mg/kg) and potassium (360.68 mg/kg) contents while the white variety had higher values in sodium (78.74mg/kg) and phosphorus (112.20mg/kg) contents. Red variety of Cola acuminata had higher phytate (10.67mg/100g), phenol (33.50mg/100g) and flavonoid (12.13mg/100g) contents while the white variety had higher values in alkaloid (8.21mg/100g) and tannin (8.13mg/100g) contents.
Conclusion: The nutrients in Cola acuminata varieties are comparable to other nuts with
high nutritional values. Apart from the potentials in pharmaceutical company, it could be explored in food industry for wine and juice production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Innovative Agricultural Technology Dissemination: Finding a New Use for Motor Tricycles

Prince Maxwell Etwire, Wilson Dogbe, Edward Martey, Robert Owusu, James Fearon

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1288-1304
DOI: 10.9734/ajea/2014/9959

Aims: Even though screening of videos to create awareness about agricultural technologies may not be a novelty, adaptation of a motor tricycle for that purpose is an innovation. The study therefore, sought to identify the awareness creation technique that is most preferred by farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana, estimate the per unit cost of creating awareness using various techniques and as well, examine the socio-economic factors that are likely to influence farmers’ decision to patronize Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) video shows as an awareness creation technique.
Study Design: Primary data collected through farmer interviews formed the basis for analysis in this study. Qualitative and quantitative data generated from the questionnaire administration included types and quality of awareness creation techniques utilized by farmers, farmers socioeconomic characteristics among others.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in eight districts in the Northern Region of Ghana in September 2013. The eight districts fall naturally (based on culture) into two ethnic groups, which are the Dagombas and Gonjas. The groups (Dagbon and Gonja Land) formed two strata from which respondents were sampled for the study.
Methodology: A multi stage sampling technique was used to select 322 farmers who were interviewed. Data collected and observations made were subjected to descriptive and logit statistical analysis as well as Friedman test in order to generate results for discussion.
Results: The Friedman test indicates that on-farm demonstration (1.49) was unanimously ranked by the respondents as their most preferred method of receiving ISFM information. On-stage drama (3.0) and radio (3.0) were ranked as the least preferred methods of receiving information on ISFM technologies in Dagbon and Gonja Land respectively. Video show (2.81) was ranked by the respondents as the third most preferred method of receiving information on ISFM technologies. Use of video show and on-farm demonstration were respectively found to be the least and most expensive methods of disseminating ISFM technologies to farmers. Whereas it costs about 1 Ghana cedi (GH¢1.09) to screen an ISFM video to a farmer, it costs about thirty times (GH¢31.10) more to expose a farmer to ISFM by establishing and managing an on-farm demonstration. Results of the logit analysis indicates that being male (0.09), belonging to a relatively large household (0.02), not having access to extension (0.20) or being relatively young (0.01) are factors that are likely to positively influence farmers’ decision to patronize ISFM video shows.
Conclusion and Recommendation: The study concludes that agricultural technology interventions should employ either on-farm demonstrations or video shows, especially when constrained to adopt only a single awareness creation technique. Projects that are cash constrained should opt for video shows by specifically relying on motor tricycle video vans in order to reduce cost. For maximum impact, female farmers, members of relatively small households and elderly farmers should be targeted. Future studies should focus on the effectiveness of different awareness creation techniques and their interactive effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Microwave Irradiation on the Postharvest Control of Cowpea Bruchid, (Callosobruchus maculatus) Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Stored Cowpea

Christopher Ogbuji Echereobia, Elechi Franca Asawalam, Kingsley Chidi Emeasor, Ifedioramma Eugene Nwana, Kiethran Sahayaraj

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1305-1313
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/10474

Aim: To investigate the efficacy of microwave irradiation against cowpea bruchid
Study Design: Completely Randomized Design (CRD) replicated five times.
Place and Duration of Study: Crop Protection Research Centre Laboratory, St Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai India between May to November, 2012.
Methodology: Mortality, damage assessment, germination test and proximate composition assays were assessed under laboratory conditions (28±2ºC, 70–75% RH and 11:13h photoperiod). Five pairs of 2 day old C. maculatus collected from stock culture were kept in a Petri-dish containing 50 healthy seeds (Ife brown variety) and exposed to microwave irradiation at 100 power level for 0,4,6,8, and 10 minutes.
Results: The study showed that microwave irradiation significantly (P≤0.05) increased the mortality of C. maculatus when compared with control without adversely affecting the viability and proximate composition of the seeds. The potential use of microwave irradiation as alternative seed protectants against C. maculatus on stored cowpea is recommended.c

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Increase as Influenced by Transplanting of Sweet Maize (Zea mays L. saccharata)

P. Sánchez Andonova, J. Rattin, A. Di Benedetto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1314-1329
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/11077

Aims: Little is known about the response of sweet maize to particular short- and long-term stresses such as the root restriction imposed by small plug cell trays when a transplant routine is used. The aim of this work was to describe the effect of a transplant routine on the physiological components of yield in two sweet maize mutants by means of experiments conducted in a marginal maize production area.
Study Design: Two maize mutant hybrids: ‘Canner’ (su1) and ‘Butter Sweet’ (sh2) were sown in plastic plug trays (128 cells tray-1) and transplanted 15 days after emergence or direct seed.
Place and Duration of Study: Experiment was conducted at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station, Argentina (37º45′ S, 58º 18′ W) during the 2009-2010 and repeated twice during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 growing seasons.
Methodology: Plants from direct-seeded or transplant were grown under a field environment. A randomized complete factorial design with three blocks was used.
Results: Results showed that transplanted plants showed increased light interception, harvest index, and yield per unit area than direct-seeded ones. These responses were related to a change in leaf area development, crop architecture and anatomical traits such as the phloem/xylem ratio and vascular bundle/mesophyll ratio.
Conclusion: A change in leaf area development and crop architecture when using transplanted plants allow increasing sweet maize yield on an area basis. To understand the mechanisms associated to the morphological changes related to transplant and their importance on population architecture would be a key matter for a future breeding program.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effect of Pig Manure and NPK Fertilizer on Agronomic Performance of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)

O. E. Awosika, M. A. Awodun, S. O. Ojeniyi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1330-1338
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/3959

Field experiments were performed to investigate the effectiveness of pig manure (PG) used alone and combined with NPK fertilizer on nutrients composition, growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Treatments were replicated three times in a randomized complete block design and applied to tomato seedlings grown on beds at Oba-Ile and Iju in the rainforest zone of Southwest Nigeria Six treatments compared were: (a) the control, (b) 25t/ha pig manure, (c) 250kg/ha NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer, (d) 187kg/ha NPK + 6t/ha PG (75:25), (e) 125kg/ha NPK + 12t/ha PG (50:50) and (f) 62kg/ha NPK + 18t/ha PG (25:75) Soil and plant nutrients composition, growth parameters and fruit weight were determined. The test soils were sandy loam, low in organic matter and marginal in Nitrogen. Pig manure, NPK, used alone or combined at reduced rates significantly increased soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, number of leaves, plant height, stem girth and fruit weight significantly. The 187kg.ha NPK + 6t/ha PG gave highest soil N, leaf N and fruit weight. Combinations of NPK and PG gave relatively high soil N, Ca and Mg and adequate concentrations of leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Mean fruit weight per plant given by the control and 187kg/ha NPK + 6t/ha were 91 and 1016 gm respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation in Growth and Linear Body Measurements of Rabbits Due to Generation Differences, Housing Systems, Sex and Season

O. Y. Ayo-Ajasa, A. B. J. Aina, B. O. Agaviezor, M. O. Ozoje, O. S. Sowande

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1339-1347
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/6745

The aim of the study is to determine the effect of generational differences, housing systems, sex and seasonal variations and their interactions on the growth and linear body parameters of rabbits. A total of ninety-six (96) weaner rabbits (Chinchilla and New Zealand White crossbred) were used for this study and were divided into forty-eight (48) per generation. These forty-eight weaner rabbits were further divided into four males in three replicates (12) as well as four females in three replicates (12) for cage (24) and also repeated in deep litter system (24). This experiment was carried out in four seasons with seasonal divisions being made according to the climatic conditions prevalent in southwest Nigeria namely early dry season (EDS) from September to November, late dry season (LDS) from December to February, early rainy season (ERS) from March to May and late rainy season (LRS) from June to August. This experiment was carried out for two generations and data obtained were analysed using Analysis of Variance in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 4 factorial arrangement. The study showed that most of the body linear measurements investigated increased significantly in the first than the second generation and during the ERS and LRS than the EDS and LDS; a significantly higher body weight was recorded in LDS. The linear body measurements and body weight were significantly higher in the cage than the deep litter system in the first generation while animal reared in cage were significantly lower than deep litter system in second generation with respect to these characters. Sex showed no significant effect (p>0.05) on the linear body measurements. Production of rabbits during the early dry season is recommended for breeding purpose and the use of the cage system for enhanced slaughter results and carcass quality. Deep litter system is recommended for profit maximization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Flow Properties of Cassava Mash in Handling

Peter Kolawole, Adebayo Abass, Leo Agbetoye, Simon Ogunlowo, Emmanuel Ozigbo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1348-1354
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/8596

Harvested cassava root cannot be stored for too long, it perishes soon after harvesting, and mass processing into storable products is the best way to extend the shelf life of the root. Arching, caking and segregation are commonly encountered flow problems in the processing. Cassava root processing steps involve peeling, washing, grating, dewatering, pulverizing and sieving. Mash conveying and temporary storage in hoppers were considered for improvement, and these require some basic engineering parameters. The flowability of cassava mash was quantified based on the angle of repose and the mash density at given moisture content of mash. The results indicated that freshly grated mash from TMS 4(2)1425 variety of cassava had angle of repose of 28° at a moisture content of 73% wet basis while the pulverised mash with moisture content 45% wet basis had an angle of repose of 49º. The angle of repose of cassava mash is moisture dependent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gibberellic Acid (GA3), an Influential Growth Regulator for Physiological Disorder Control and Protracting the Harvesting Season of Sweet Orange

Rizwan Ullah, Muhammad Sajid, Ghulam Nabi, Husain Ahmad, Abdur Rab, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Shahab, Hizar Subthain, Shah Fahad, Aziz Khan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1355-1366
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/10839

Citrus particularly sweet orange occupies an exalted position in fruit industry. Quality sweet orange production is affected by various factors including fruit physiological disorders and harvesting season which contribute towards consumer preference. This study was designed to find out an economically feasible solution to these problems. Three different GA3 treatments (10, 20 and 30ppm) were applied as a foliar spray to three different sweet orange cultivars (Blood Red, Mosambi and Succari) at full bloom stage to investigate its influence on Physiological disorder in fruits as well as in shoots, fruit growth and fruit maturity delay. The obtained results revealed that all GA3 treatments specially 30ppm significantly controlled fruit as well as shoots physiological disorders and was also found efficient in case of fruit maturity delay as compared to untreated trees. Finally we were able to conclude that; 30ppm GA3 should be applied as a foliar spray to control fruit and shoot physiological disorders and to protract the harvesting season of sweet orange.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Price Transmission and Market Integration of Pawpaw and Leafy Telfairia in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Glory E. Edet, Sunday B. Akpan, Ini-Mfon V. Patrick

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1367-1384
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2014/v4i111401

The study investigated the dynamics of price transmission and market integration of pawpaw and leafy fluted pumpkin in the rural and urban markets of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Monthly market prices (measured in naira per kilogram) of pawpaw and leafy fluted pumpkin in the rural and urban markets were used in the analysis. The data covered the period from January 2005 to September 2013. The data was obtained from the quarterly publications of the Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP). The trend analysis showed that, prices of pawpaw and leafy fluted pumpkin in the rural and urban markets have positive significant relationships with time and positive exponential growth rate. The Pearson correlation coefficient of each of the respective pair of rural and urban price of pawpaw and leafy fluted pumpkin revealed significant positive and symmetric relationships. The result implies the existence of symmetric price information flows on pawpaw and leafy fluted pumpkin in the rural and urban markets of the state. The bivariate Granger causality test revealed bi-directional relationships between the rural and urban price of pawpaw and leafy fluted pumpkin in the State. This further substantiates the strong co-movement of prices of pawpaw and leafy fluted pumpkin in the rural and urban markets and strong evidence of market integration. The equation for the law of one price revealed the presence of significant long run market integration between the rural and urban price of pawpaw and leafy fluted pumpkin in the study area. Based on the findings, it is recommended that, the Akwa Ibom State government should continue to provide marketing infrastructures in the rural areas to improve the symmetric nature of information among pawpaw and leafy fluted pumpkin markets in the state. The government of Akwa Ibom State should established market information centers and awareness programmes on mass media to facilitate efficient communication and flow of information among pawpaw and leafy fluted pumpkin producers and consumers in the state.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Crystalline DL-Methionine Supplementation of Oilseed Meal-Based Diets: Effects on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

N. W. Agbo, N. Madalla, K. Jauncey

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1385-1396
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/10260

Aim: This study evaluated the effect of dietary DL-methionine supplementation of diets containing mixtures of oilseed meals (i.e. soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed meal, CSM and groundnut cake, GNC) on the growth and feed utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) of mean initial weight 5.48±0.20g.
Study Design and Methodology: Five isonitrogenous (320g kg-1), isolipidic (100g kg-1) and isoenergetic (18KJ g-1) test diets were formulated in which different mixture combinations of oilseed meal (i.e. EQ50, SBM50, CSM50 and GNC50) proteins enriched with crystalline DL-Methionine (0.5%) replaced fish meal (FM) protein at 50%. The control diet had FM as the major protein source. Fish were fed to satiation from the beginning and later fixed at 4% body weight per day and the study lasted for 56 days. The growth experiment was conducted in plastic tanks in a recirculation system with each dietary treatment in triplicate.
Results: Growth and feed utilization of fish fed the control diet were significantly higher (P<0.05) than for all the oilseed meal-based diets (supplemented with methionine). There were no significant differences in whole-body protein, moisture, lipid and energy contents among diets, with the exception of Diet 4 which had lower protein content. The cost analysis also showed that the control diet was the most cost effective.
Conclusion: Results in the present study demonstrated that utilization of crystalline DL-methionine (0.5%) by Nile tilapia was not effective in improving the growth, feed utilization and cost effectiveness of the diets containing oilseed meal mixtures compared with the fish meal based diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Host Suitability of Cut-Flowers to Meloidogyne spp. and Population Dynamics of M. hapla on the rootstock Rosa corymbifera ˈLaxa

Beira-Hailu Meressa, Heinz-Wilhelm Dehne, Johannes Hallmann

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1397-1409
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/10884

The host suitability of cut-flowers to Meloidogyne spp. was tested under greenhouse conditions. In an experiment, the reaction of seven cut-flower species viz. Dianthus plumarius, Dianthus caryophyllus, Gypsophila paniculata, Limonium sinuatum (Fortress Dunkelblau), Limonium sinuatum (Petite Bouquet Mix), Rosa corymbifera ËˆLaxaˈ and Freesia laxa against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla and M. incognita was evaluated. There were significant (P<0.001) differences in plant species as host for either M. hapla or M. incognita. Freesia laxa appeared to be a poor host for M. hapla and M. incognita with a reproductive factor of 0.5 and 1.1, respectively. Gypsophila paniculata and Rosa corymbifera were not suitable hosts for M. incognita resulting in a reproductive factor below one. On the other hand Mhapla reproduced significantly (P<0.05) higher on R. corymbifera ËˆLaxaˈ than on the other plant species assessed. In all plant species, nematode infected plants were less vigorous than their uninfected controls. In the second test, the pathogenicity and population dynamics of M. hapla on the rootstock R. corymbiferaˈLaxaˈ were demonstrated. Within 24 hours after inoculation, about 2% of the juveniles had penetrated the root system. A week later, nematode penetration reached 14%. First eggs appeared 43 days after root infection. At final termination of the experiment 78 days after inoculation the reproduction factor of M. hapla was 58.9. In infected plants number of leaves per plant was lower than in the respective controls. In conclusion, the tested flower plants were hosts for M. hapla and M. incognita; however, the host status varied between plant and nematode species. R. corymbifera ˈLaxaˈ turned out to be a very good host for M. hapla allowing high nematode reproduction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Soyabean Oil and Garlic-in-Water Supplementation on Performance, Carcass Trait, Organs Weight, Haematology, and Serum Cholesterol Content of Finisher Broiler Chickens

O. B. Jegede, G. E. Onibi, O. A. Ogunwole

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1410-1419
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/10542

A four weeks feeding trial was conducted using 160 four-week old Arbor acre chickens to assess the effects of soyabean oil and garlic (Allium sativum) in-water on performance, carcass characteristics, organs weight, haematological variables and serum cholesterol content of broiler birds. They were allotted to 4 treatments of 10 birds (5 males and 5 females) per replicate in a 2×2 factorial arrangement in which there were two diets (non-soyabean oil and soyabean oil diets) with or without garlic supplementation in drinking water. The final live weight of birds were significantly (P<0.01) increased by the dietary treatments with broilers fed soyabean oil-based diet having significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain than those fed the non-soyabean oil diet. Also, birds without garlic supplementation consistently had higher weight (P<0.01) than those offered garlic in drinking water. The water intake of birds given water supplemented with garlic (5.54; 5.64 L/bird) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than those without garlic supplementation (5.95; 5.83 L/bird). The haematological variables, serum cholesterol content, carcass characteristics and relative organs weight of the chickens were not significant different (P>0.05). The interactions of dietary oil supplementation and garlic-in-water was not significant (P>0.05) for all measured indices. Conclusively, supplementation of diet with soyabean oil led to better broiler performance and garlic-in-water failed to neither lower abdominal fat deposition nor reduce serum cholesterol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Phosphorus Fertilizer on Soybean [(Glycine max L. (Merril)] Inoculated with Rhizobium and its Economic Implication to Farmers

B. D. K. Ahiabor, S. Lamptey, S. Yeboah, V. Bahari

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1420-1434
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/10400

The experiment was conducted during the 2012 farming season on the agricultural experimental field of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala in the Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of Rhizobium inoculants and phosphorus (P) at different application rates on yield and yield components of soybean and also to determine the economically optimal application rate of phosphorus for soybean production in the Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zone. Two levels of inoculation regimes {un-inoculated (-In) and inoculated (+In)} were combined with three application rates of phosphorus (as Yaralegume) and a control (0kg P/ha, 15kg P/ha, 30 kg P/ha and 45 kg P/ha). The experiment was laid in a 2 x 4 factorial arranged in a Randomized Complete Block design with three replications. Parameters measured were crop emergence, plant height, canopy spread, number and weight of nodules, number of pods and total grain yield. The results obtained indicated significant differences in all the parameters measured. Phosphorus application at 45kg P/ha plus Rhizobium inoculants recorded significantly higher grain yield than the rest of the treatments. The economic analysis of the treatments also showed that combination of inoculation of soybean seeds with 45 kg P/ha was more profitable than the application of 45kg P/ha without inoculation. The study recommends inoculation of soybean seeds with Rhizobium inoculants and the application of phosphorus fertilizer at 45kg P/ha.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Seeds Germination, Plantlets Growth and In vitro Antimalarial Activities of Phyllanthus odontadenius Müll Arg

Rufin Kikakedimau Nakweti, Sébastien Luyindula Ndiku, Véronique Sinou, Félicien Lukoki Luyeye, Théophile Mbemba Fundu, Déogratias Mutambel Hity, Richard Cimanga Kanianga, Aimé Diamuini Ndofunsu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1435-1457
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/8631

Aims: To increase the production of secondary metabolites of P. odontadenius using gamma radiation in order to amplify those with In vitro antimalarial activity.
Study Design: Laboratory experiment tests; Identification of plant material, Irradiation of seeds, In vitroculture of seeds, In situ culturing plantlets, Extraction of Phyllanthus odontadenius aerial parts, Phytochemical screening, In vitro antiplasmodial tests to determine the inhibition of concentration killing 50% of parasite population (IC50).
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry: General Atomic Energy Commission, Regional Center of Nuclear Studies, P.O. Box. 868 Kin XI (DRC), National Institute of Biomedical Research (INRB) à Kinshasa/Gombe (RDC), UMR-MD3 Laboratory (Institute of the Biomedical Research of Army, Marseille/France. The experiments were conducted during January 2010 to June 2011.
Methodology: Seeds of P. odontadenius were obtained after oven drying at 45°C and they were irradiated by gamma-irradiation (137Cs) at dose ranging between 0 to 300 Grays (Gy). Seeds were germinated on Murashig and Skoog medium and plantlets were transferred in the tubes or in situ. In addition some parameters such as height, collar diameter, number of branches and biomass from first and second generations were analyzed. Phytochemical screening was released. The In vitro antiplasmodial activities assays on clinical isolates of P. falciparum or on resistant P. falciparum K1 to chloroquine was determined.
Results: Results showed that gamma irradiation had negative effects on growth parameters of P. odontadenius in the M1 and M2 generations with greater effects observed with treatment exceeding 100 Gy. For the In vitro antimalarial activities from to extracts obtained with aerial materials part from directly irradiated seeds (M1), the effects observed with extracts from M1 were higher than those from M2. For M1 extracts plants, IC50 values were ranged between 1.0±0.22µg/ml to 6.95±0.64µg/ml and between 1±0.05µg/ml to 10.45±1.18 µg/ml for M2 extracts plants on P. falciparum from to clinical isolates. With P. falciparum K1 strain, the IC50 values were ranged between 0.92±0.91–4.08±1.49 µg/ml for M1 and between 3.91±0.2.69–14.11±1.31µg/ml for M2 extracts. The best activities were observed with gamma-radiation doses exceeding 150 Grays (Gy).
Conclusion: Gamma-irradiation of P. odontadenius seeds induced reduction of parameters which decrease linearly with increasing irradiation doses. Synthesis of secondary metabolites increase in the second generation compared to the first one with a more important synthesis in phenolic compounds. The In vitroantiplasmodial activity on the clinical isolates P. falciparum or P. falciparum K1 showed low antimalarial activities from M1 and M2 controls (0Gy) than that of extracts from treated plants. The high inhibitory effects of crude extracts plants from treated seeds have justified the usefulness of gamma-irradiation in the increasing production of secondary metabolite against malaria in the Word particularly in DRC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance, Hematology and Serum Biochemical Indices of Broiler Chickens Fed Toasted Sesame Seed (Sesamum indicum, Linn) Meal Based-Diets

O. A. Ogunwole, A. B. Omojola, A. P. Sajo, B. C. Majekodunmi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1458-1470
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/10502

Soyabean, one of the main ingredients commonly employed as a source of vegetable protein in broiler diets is expensive and may sometimes be unavailable. Thus, there is the need to assess the utilization of other legumes in broiler diets. Therefore, effects of dietary toasted sesame seed meal (TSSM) on growth, hematological and selected serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens was evaluated in a feeding experiment lasting 56 days. One hundred and eighty 1-day old Arbor acre chicks (39.2±0.15g/chicken) were randomly divided into five treatments. Each treatment was in triplicate of twelve birds per replicate. Graded TSSM was included at the expense of full fat soybean meal in the basal starter and finishers broiler rations viz; 0 (T1), 25 (T2), 50 (T3), 75 (T4) and 100% (T5). The diets and water were offered to respective birds ad libitum. The design of the experiment was a completely randomized design. Feed intake, weight gain and final weights of birds were significantly reduced (p<0.05) across treatments by increased dietary inclusion of TSSM while feed conversion ratio of birds increased significantly with increasing dietary TSSM (P < 0.05). Also, the packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) and white blood cell (WBC) varied significantly (P < 0.05) with TSSM inclusion. However, the red blood cell (RBC), heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not affected (P > 0.05) by the graded TSSM in the diets. Serum total protein, alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were also significantly different (P < 0.05) among treatments with no trial effect (P > 0.05) on serum albumin, creatinine, high density lipoprotein and aspartate amino transferase (AST). Conclusively, beneficial effects of dietary toasted sesame seed based diets on performance, haematology and biochemical indices of broiler chickens were obvious up to 25% levels of inclusion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Some Plant Methanol Extracts on Egg Hatching and Juvenile Mortality of Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

Faruk Akyazi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1471-1479
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2014/10525

This research was conducted to find out the effect of four plant methanol extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood in laboratory at the University of Gaziosmanpasa, Turkey. For this purpose, bead tree (Melia azedarach), hops (Humulus lupulus), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) were collected from different zones of the Turkey. Methanol extracts from four plant parts were screened for egg hatchability and nematicidal activity against second stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita. The nematode eggs and juveniles were exposed to different concentrations of extracts during 24, 48 and 72 hrs. The concentrations as 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% were prepared by diluting stock solution with 10% acetone containing distilled water.
As a result, M. azedarach’s 10% (v/v) concentration significantly reduced the egg hatchability (97%) and it was followed by S. nigra (92.9%). At the end of 24 hrs incubation, 5% and 10% (v/v) concentration of M. azedarach extract and 2.5%, 5.0% and 10% (v/v) concentration of S. nigra produced 100% mortality in juvenile stage of the nematode.
The results of our investigation show that four plants contain nematicidal compounds. it seems that the use of plant extracts might have increasing popularity in future as a component or ingredient of biopesticides. Therefore, further research is necessary to found out toxic compounds released by species and carried out experiments in vivo for the control of root-knot nematode M. incognita.