Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Growth Analysis and Acclimatization of Tissue Culture Derived Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium L. Schott) Plantlets

Anne E. Sama, Mohamed A. Shahba, Harrison G. Hughes, Mohamed S. Abbas

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 94-108
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/10379

The current study was carried out to compare the external leaf structure of tissue culture-derived and conventionally-propagated Cocoyam [Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L) Schott] plantlets and to develop an efficient acclimatization protocol for these plantlets. Acclimatization studies were carried out during winter and summer to ascertain seasonal influence relative to plant survival upon transfer from in vitro to natural conditions. Results indicated that, cocoyam leaves have few stomates on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces with fewer on the adaxial surface. High levels of epicuticular wax (EW) found in vitro may have contributed to reduced transpiration rates. The reduced amounts of EW on acclimatized plants could be attributed to the rapid cell enlargement in expanding leaves, more rapid than the rate of wax formation. Acclimatization using humidity tent decreased leaf wilting and damage compared with the control treatment or with the mist treatment. Mist-acclimatized plantlets produced about 50% fewer leaves than those acclimatized in a humidity tent. Similar results were obtained during winter acclimatization with a lower rate of leaf formation compared to summer acclimatization. A relatively high humidity (60-80%) for approximately two weeks reduced leaf injury from wilting and desiccation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Flutted Pumpkin (Telferia occidentalis) Production and Profitability in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Bassey Nsikan Edet, Akpaeti Aniekan Jim, E. Okon Uwemedimo, Nyong Eteyen Edet

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 109-117
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/10738

The study examined the determinants of fluted pumpkin production and profitability in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data collected through a multi-stage sampling technique from a sample of 60 respondents in the 2013 planting season were analyzed using the profit function, gross margin analysis as well as Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression technique. Results of the descriptive statistics revealed aged farmers with average of five years experience with high literacy level (83.3%) dominated the study area. Majority were women (61.7%) whose sources of finance were personal savings. Pumpkin farmers had a Gross Margin and Net Income of N251, 953 and N228, 413 respectively. The price parameter for labor, land value, pesticide and output price impacted significantly on the profitability of farmers. Result further revealed that farming experience; household size, age of farmers, land size, capital and organic manure were the major determinants of pumpkin output in the study area. Hence, effort should be directed towards encouraging people to venture into pumpkin production, ensuring credit availability through the provision of soft and low interest free loans as well as intensifying campaign on organic agriculture as a way out.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changing Agro-Climate: Tropical Tubers and Roots as a Challenge for Sustainable Livelihood in India

Suvashree R. Prusty, S. K. Tripathy

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 118-123
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/10224

The present study was undertaken for adaptability and sustainability of sweet potato with respect to climate change in Odisha, India. Climate change contributed to erratic rainfall pattern, shift of sowing and harvesting period of crops, incidence of diseases/pests in crops. So, there is a need to develop a comprehensive master plan for strategically planning conservation and food security in the wake of climate change impacts. It was identified the primary challenges of farmers which ensured them to grow adaptive and sustainable tuber crops in changing agro-climate. Tropical root and tuber crops contribute 6% of the average daily requirement and considered as third important crop. It is considered as a cheap source of food and energy particularly suitable for the poor section population which also capable enough to withstand biotic and a biotic stresses. Experiments were conducted with short season variety of sweet potato in fluctuating agro-climate like change in temperature and humidity in order to find its sustainability. Different treatments which comprises of (80%, 100% and 150%) moisture on dry basis (field capacity) and temperature like low as 20-25ºC and high as 45-50ºC. The result showed that different agro-climatic parameter treatments led to no significant yield loss in sweet potato.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Youth Roles in Agricultural Innovation Management System among Arable Crop Farmers in Farming Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

O. T. Alao, D. O. Torimiro, J. O. Ayinde

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 124-133
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/11608

This paper investigated the arable crop farmers’ perception of youth roles in agricultural innovation management system in farming communities of Osun State. Specifically, problems militating against the effective participation of youths in innovation management system among the arable crop farmers were empirically investigated. Quantitative data were collected through a multi-stage sampling procedure, using structured interview schedule to elicit information from one hundred and twenty six respondents. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean age of respondents was about 53 years, while majority (96.0%) were married with about 5 people as mean household size. Also, the identification of youth roles in agricultural innovation management system (r=0.721, P≤0.01) had a positive and significant relationship with the perception of youth roles in agricultural innovation management. Among others, the study concluded that arable farmers have access to few innovations while non-lucrativeness of farming accounts for the major problems militating against effective youth participation in arable farming. In order to forestall this occurrence and enhance food security in the country, agricultural development stakeholders should make agriculture attractive and develop programmes which will ensure adequate dissemination and adoption of innovation by the farmers using youths as target disseminator.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cutting Type and IBA on Rooting and Growth of Citron (Citrus medica L)

Sulaiman M. Kako Al-Zebari, Abdul-Alrahman Ali M. Al-Brifkany

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 134-138
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/10973

This study was conducted during 2012 and 2013 season to investigate the effect of IBA on rooting of citron stem cuttings (Citrus medica Linnaeus) Corsian cultivar.

The cutting referred to the location from which it was taken (tip, medial and bottom).

Cuttings were taken and exposed to different IBA doses (0, 500, 1000, 2000 ppm).They were planted in greenhouse in mixed media (1 part peat moss + 2 parts sand) to increase rooting success percentage in the stem cuttings of (Citrus medica Linnaeus) Corsian cultivar , improving their vegetative growth, and  investigate the response of stem cuttings of citron to Auxin IBA concentrations.                                                                                                                                   

The results indicated that the type of cuttings were different in rooting capacity, shoot length  content. Also increase the concentrations of IBA increased rooting percentage, shoot diameter, number of leaves, length of roots and leaves relative chlorophyll content, significantly form compared with control treatment under level 5%. The result indicated that the medial cutting parts with 500 and 1000 ppm perform better in terms of root percentage(100%),and medial type cutting with500 IBA ppm in length of shoots(23.08 cm), shoot diameter(16.33 mm) , number of leaves (16.44 leaves plant), length of roots(17.92cm).

Open Access Original Research Article

Resource Use and Technical Efficiency in Value Addition to Cassava: A Case Study on Gari and Fufu Processing in Ogun State, Nigeria

O. R. Adeniyi, Olufunmilola T. Akande

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 139-147
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/12018

Aim: The analysis of efficiency of resources used in value addition to cassava and enterprise economic efficiency for the two products obtained from cassava processing: gari and fufu.

Study Design: Structured questionnaires were used to obtain the required information from the major processors of cassava tubers in Nigeria and the consumers of the products.

Place and Duration: The study was carried out in the two major areas of production of cassava processing in Ogun state of Nigeria. It covered the period from January to December 2013.

Methodology: Primary data were collected from cassava tuber processors, retailers, merchants and final consumers of the two major foods (Gari and Fufu) obtained from cassava tubers. Descriptive statistics, Budgeting and Stochastic production frontier were used to analyze the data.

Results: The ratio of marginal value product of inputs (MVP) to input prices (Px) lower than one indicates that the variables (quantity of cassava tuber, cost of transportation and labour) were highly over utilized. Since none of the inputs used had this ratio equal to one, it indicates that these resources were not optimally allocated in the study areas .The enterprise economic efficiency is 1.10 and 1.33 for gari and fufu respectively. The mean technical efficiency index for the entire fufu and gari respondents are 0.59 and 0.45 respectively.  

Conclusion: The technical efficiency of fufu and gari can potentially be increased through a more judicious use and better management of available resources to increase productivity of both fufu and gari.

 * Naira (₦) is the Nigeria Currency; ₦158 is equivalent to $1.00 as at the time of this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nitrogen Use and Assimilate Partitioning Ability for Grain Yield in Some Selected Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines Genotypes

Akinlolu O. Ohunakin, Saheed. O. Adebisi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 148-155
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/12699

Breeding for high grain yield in maize under natural soil Nitrogen condition is of high importance to reduce the heavy usage of nitrogen base fertilizer to enhance productivity and encourage safety of the environment and consumer health. Nine maize inbred lines viz; 1393, KU1414, 5057, 5012, 9030, 9450, SW1, SW6 and SW4, were characterized in a field experiment under natural soil nitrogen 1.81 g/kg. Data were collected on plant growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and stem girth); phenology (percentage emergence, day to anthesis, day to silking and days to grain harvest); total nitrogen uptake and yield (plant wet weight, plant dry matter, cob weight and total seed weight). Parameters were paired and correlated to determine their relationships patterns. Positive relationships were obtained from all paired intra-parameter correlations from plant growth, phenology and yield, and from paired inter-parameter correlations between plant growth and yield. Negative relationships were obtained for paired inter-parameter correlations between phenology and growth and between phenology and yield. Total nitrogen uptake gave positive correlations with all parameters. Relative performance grouping analysis revealed that maize genotype 1393 had high n-uptake, high assimilate partitioning and high performance in Plant wet weight, cob weight and plant dry matter at grain harvest. KU1414, 5057 and 9030 had high n-uptake, low assimilate partitioning and low performance in plant wet weight, cob weight and plant dry matter at grain harvest . 5012 had low n-uptake, low partitioning and high performance. 9450 had low n-uptake, low assimilate partitioning and low performance; and SW1, SW6 and SW4 had low n-uptake, high assimilate partitioning and high performance. Hence, 5012 and SW genotypes expressed efficient Nitrogen-use for high grain yield and better growth and phenological performances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dietary Replacement of Soyabean Meal with Toasted Sesame Seed on Performance, Tibia Bone Mineralisation and Gut Morphology of Broilers Chicken

O. A. Adebiyi, A. Famakinwa, O. A. Adeniji, A. B. Omojola

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 156-163
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/12922

Aims: This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of dietary replacement of soybean meal with toasted Sesame seed on performance, tibia bone mineralization and gut morphology of broiler chicken.

Study Design:  The design of the study was a completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out at Poultry Unit, Teaching and Research Farm of University of Ibadan, Nigeria and lasted for 8 weeks.

Methodology: A total of 150 one-day old broiler birds were randomly allotted into 5 experimental treatments with 3 replicates each (10 birds per replicate) in a completely randomized design. Toasted sesame seed supplemented with 600 ppm microbial phytase was replaced in the dietary treatments at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% for Soyabean meal both at the starter and finisher phases.

Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured and calculated weekly throughout the experimental period. Six birds per treatment were selected at the end of the experiment, the birds were then slaughtered by cervical dislocation and the two tibia bones were removed and cleaned of all adhering muscle and cartilaginous caps for tibia bone mineralization, section of ileum and jejunum tissues were also collected for gut morphological parameters. All data obtained were analyzed with one way ANOVA using SAS 1990 software at 5% probability level while means were compared using Duncan Multiple Range Test.

Results: There were significant (P<0.05) differences in the performance characteristics across the treatments with birds fed 10% TSS having the highest weight gain of 54.36g/bird/day compared to the control of 38.71g/bird/day (0%TSS). The FCR in birds fed 10% TSS (1.62) and 20% TSS (1.72) revealed a better feed utilisation compared to birds fed diet 5 which recorded the highest FCR value of 3.72.The concentration of Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe and PO4 in the tibia were significantly (P<0.05) different across the treatments. The villus height was highest in treatment 4(5930.2 µm) and the least in the control (2456.5 µm) in the ileum but in the jejunum, the control was the highest (4292.6 µm) and least in treatment 2 (2859.5 µm). Crypt depth were significantly (P<0.05) different across the treatments in both the ileum (1736.36 – 836.34 µm) and jejunum (1269 – 605.5 µm).

Conclusion: It can therefore be concluded that replacement of Soybean meal with toasted Sesame seed up to 20% inclusion level in broiler ration results in better performance and improved health condition of broiler birds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Induction of Resistance in Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) to Pythium myriotylum by Corm Treatments with Benzothiadiazole and its Effect on Vegetative Growth

Doungous Oumar, Bih Evelyn Akumah, Nehemie Donfagsiteli Tchinda

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 164-171
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/13411

Root rot disease of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) caused by Pythium myriotylum (Oomycete) is a major constraint in cocoyam production in many countries in the world. Benzothiadiazole (BTH), a systemic acquired resistance inducer, was used in two concentrations (15 and 50 mg/L) as corm soaking treatment for 24 h duration to test for its effect on root rot disease resistance and vegetative growth of cocoyam under greenhouse conditions. The fungicide Metalm 72 WP (metalaxyl + cuprous oxide) was used as standard chemical control. Corm treatment with BTH significantly reduced cocoyam root rot disease (CRRD) severity compared with the pathogen-inoculated control. This was expressed by a disease index percentage of 37 and 20 for 15 and 50 mg/L BTH respectively after 28 days post-inoculation as opposed to the control with a disease index of 60. BTH at 50 mg/L was found to be more effective than the fungicide in inducing significant levels of resistance against P. myriotylum. In the absence of the pathogen, BTH and the fungicide applied as corm soaking treatment did not significantly influence the chlorophyll content. BTH significantly reduced shoot and corm/root dry weights compared to the control and fungicide respectively. However no visible phytotoxic effect was observed. BTH was tested for possible effects on             P. myriotylum in vitro. There was no inhibition of mycelial growth with 15mg/L of BTH in the growth media in comparison with the control. No remarkable antifungal activity was observed with 50 mg/L. The promising effect of BTH against CRRD indicates that this compound may be future alternatives to traditional chemicals for disease control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gut Morphology and Internal Organs of Broiler Birds Fed Graded Levels of Bio-Detheobrominized Cocoa Bean Shell (CBS) Based Diets

G. O. Adeyemo, A. O. Ajayi, O. G. Longe, O. Olubamiwa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 172-177
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/10582

The effects of feeding graded levels of bio-detheobrominized cocoa bean shell (CBS) based diets were studied in broilers. Detheobromination by fungi fermentation (bio-detheobromination) reduces the methylxanthine contents cocoa by-products when fermented with Aspergillus niger. 196 day old broiler chicks were used for the experiment in an eight week feeding trial. There were seven dietary treatments containing graded levels of CBS from 0 to 30% at the expense of maize and soyabean meal. The control group had no CBS in its diet. Parameters measured include feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics and gut morphology.

The results showed that total feed intake, average body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, weight of internal organs and gut morphology were significantly (p˂0.05) different across dietary treatments while the carcass characteristics did not show any significant (p>0.05) difference. The result of the study revealed that there was a significant reduction in the weight gain and feed efficiency of the broilers fed CBS based diets as the level of dietary CBS increased beyond 10%. However, the duodenum villous height and crypt depths increased significantly as the level of CBS increased in the diets. It therefore suggested that the amount/quantity of anti-nutrients such as theobromine and tannins in the CBS based diets beyond 10% inclusion locked up essential nutrients thereby impairing their bio-availability and overall growth of the birds. Thus, additional research is needed to find further techniques of processing CBS so that its anti-nutrients could be further reduced for optimium use in broiler nutrition.