Open Access Original Research Article

Mycoflora Analysis of Hybrid Sorghum Grain Collected from Different Locations in South Texas

Louis K. Prom, Ramasamy Perumal, Zheyu Jin, Ghada Radwan, Thomas Isakeit, Clint Magill

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/14590

Mycoflora characterization of sorghum grain collected from different locations in Texas during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons revealed Alternaria spp. as the dominant genus. At the beginning of grain development to soft dough stage, Alternaria spp. accounted for 66% of the recovered fungal species in 2008 and 55.8% in 2009.  At grain maturity in 2009, Alternaria spp. represented 66.8% of the recovered fungal species across locations, followed by Bipolaris spp. (12.8%), C. lunata (6.8%) and other Fusarium spp. (6.8%). Other fungal taxa recovered from sorghum grain included F. semitectum, F. thapsinum, Aspergillus spp. Phoma spp. Colletotrichum spp. and Rhizopus spp. In conclusion, Alternaria spp. was the most dominant fungal genus recovered from sorghum grain collected from different locations in southern Texas. However, there is little or no information on the reaction of sorghum hybrids in the region against Alternaria spp.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Plant Spacing on the Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Botswana

Mogapi E. Madisa, Thembinkosi Mathowa, Christopher Mpofu, Thato A. Oganne

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 7-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/14199

Okra is a newly cultivated crop in Botswana. Plant population has been identified as one of the factors that contribute to poor plant development and lower yields. The effects of various intra-row spacing on yield and yield components of okra variety; Clemson Spineless was evaluated at Botswana College of Agriculture in Sebele. The treatments consisted of five intra-row spacings of 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 cm for treatments 1-5 respectively, each of the treatment was replicated three times in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Yield and yield components were determined on five pre-determined plants from each plot and the raw data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Generally, a significant treatment effect was revealed for plant height with narrower plant spacing of 30 cm significantly increasing the plant height. Wider plant spacing of 90 cm significantly increased the plant weight, number of branches and leaves. A non-significant treatment effect was observed for stem diameter, fruit length and diameter, number of flowers and fruits. Based on the results wider intra-row spacing of 90 cm is recommended for okra production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between Intake and Ingestive Behaviour of Confined Holstein-Zebu Crossbred Heifers

R. R. Silva, A. C. Oliveira, G. G. P. Carvalho, F. F. Silva, B. L. Mendes, V. V. S. de. Almeida, L. B. O. Rodrigues Rodrigues, A. A. Pinheiro, A. P. G. Silva, R. M. do Prado

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 15-21
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/13824

The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between variables referring to feed intake and behaviour of confined Holstein-Zebu crossbred heifers. The experiment was conducted at the dairy unit of the Southwest Bahia State University, campus Itapetinga, Brazil. Sixteen ¾ Holstein x ¼ Zebu heifers with average of 12 months old and initial weight of 150 kg were randomly distributed into four treatments, with four repetitions. A moderate positive correlation was observed between feeding time and NDF and NFC intake variables. The feeding efficiency of NDF was highly correlated with DMI. The variables referring to time of feeding, rumination and boluses per day were observed to be highly correlated with the intake variables, thus showing great potential to draw up predictive equations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) Fertilizer Application on Maize (Zea mays L.) Growth and Yield at Ado-Ekiti, South-West, Nigeria

Omotoso Solomon Olusegun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/12254

Nutrient depletion as a result of continuous cultivation without supplementary addition of external inputs is a major challenge to agricultural productivity in South-west Nigeria. An experiment was set up to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer application rates on the performance of maize (Zea mays L.) in field trials at the Teaching and Research Farm, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, south-west Nigeria. The treatments consisted of 2 factors (i) N at 0, 30, 60, 90kg N.ha-1 (ii) P at 0, 15, 30, 45kg P∙ha-1in all possible combinations and laid out in a randomized complete block design arranged with three replicates. Data of plant height, leaf area, stem girth and cob length, cob diameter, 100 grain weight and grain yield were collected. The result showed that plant height, stem girth and leaf area∙ plant-1increased with N and P fertilizer rates. Cob length, cob diameter, 100 grain weight and grain yield, significantly (P=.05) increased with N and P application such that 90kg N∙ha-1 and 30kg N∙ha-1 gave the highest values. It may be concluded that application of the combination of N at 90kg∙ha-1 and P at 30kg∙ha-1 which produced the highest grain yield of maize could be regarded as the optimum for N and P in the study area. Therefore, further work should be carried out to ascertain the validity of this rate for maximum productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization of Solanum Species Using EST-SSRs and Analysis of Their Zinc and Iron Contents

L. A. Oppong, M. D. Quain, A. Oppong, H. A. Doku, A. Agyemang, K. Offei Bonsu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 30-44
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/6337

Aims: The objectives of study were to establish genetic diversity among the populations of three Solanum sp: Solanum torvum, Solanum aethiopicum and Solanum anguivi and identify species with the highest concentration of iron and zinc which can be recommended for improved maternal and child nutrition. It also aimed to identify polymorphic markers useful in Solanum species diversity studies or screening in Ghana.

Place and Duration of Study: CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Molecular Biology Lab, Kumasi. The study was carried between March 2011 and June, 2012.

Methodology: Investigations were carried out on 30 accessions of three Solanum species assembled from five geographical regions of Ghana. EST-SSR and AAS were employed for the estimation of genetic diversity and assessment of mineral concentrations respectively. Data generated were analysed using POPGENE version 1_32, Genstat software version 9 and Microsoft excel software (Windows 2007).

Results: All the markers showed allelic polymorphism in all the accessions studied. Overall genetic diversity was considerably high (I =1.0032, He = 0.4942, Nei’s He = 0.4859) and fixation index statistics (Fst) shows that 10% of the variation exists among the population. Clustering of the accessions did not exactly coincide to the populations of the different Solanum sp under study. Outcrossing rate (t = 0.8154) and Gene flow (Nm = 2.2071) of populations of the accessions were extremely high. Assessment of their mineral contents suggests that S. torvum and S. aethiopicum species are rich in Fe and Zn respectively.

Conclusion: EST-SSR markers and mineral analysis revealed genetic diversity among the different accessions. However the population studies suggest gradual homogeneity of these accessions due the high gene flow and outcrossing rate over time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Milk Production and Supply Chain in Peri Urban Areas of Jhang Pakistan

Nadeem Abbas Shah, Nowshad Khan, Raees Abbas, Muhammad Hammad Raza, Babar Shahbaz, Badar Naseem Siddiqui, Farhat Ullah Khan, Shafique Qadir Memon

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 45-50
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/12592

The peri urban areas are facing the challenge of poverty, hunger, unemployment, pollution and ineffective utilization of natural resources. Present paper focuses on milk production and its supply chain in the peri urban areas of Jhang district, Punjab province, Pakistan. Quantitative and qualitative data obtained through structured interview schedule, focus group discussion and personal observation are analyzed through statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and content analysis technique. Results of the milk supply chain revealed that an overwhelming majority of the respondents have no proper place for animals keeping. It was observed that in the peri urban areas most of the milk producers sell milk directly to their neighbors and also they sell to the gawalas Fellow farmers are the main source of information for about 32% of the respondents. Cows and buffaloes are major milk producing animals in the study area and milk is mostly sold through Gawalas as a middlemen. Therefore, interventions are required which focus on the control of diseases and marketing aspects of milk production in the peri urban areas of Jhang district, Pakistan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dry Bean Response to Fertilization Using Minjingu Phosphate Rock and Composted Tughutu (Vernonia subligera O. Hoffn)

Patrick A. Ndakidemi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 51-59
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/7426

Aims: The objectives of the study were toevaluate the effects of organic materials from Tughutu (Vernonia subligera O. Hoffn) and locally available Minjingu phosphate rock or commercial Triple super phosphate fertilizer on the plant growth and amount of phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) content in bean shoots (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and their residual effects in the soil after harvest.

Study Design: The experiments were set up as a randomized complete block design

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were conducted in famers’ fields in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania.

Methodology: Each farmer’s field was assigned as a replicate. The experimental treatments consisted of six plots as follows: control, Minjingu Phosphate Rock (MPR) or Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) each at 26 kg P ha-1, Tughutu at 2.5 t dry matter ha-1 and Tughutu at 2.5 t dry matter ha-1 combined with Minjingu Phosphate Rock or Triple Super Phosphate at 26 kg P ha-1.

Results: The dry matter yield and amount of P and Ca in bean shoots significantly increased by supplying the organic and inorganic fertilizers above the control treatment. Addition of P fertilizers alone or in combination with Tughutu also modified the soil pH and significantly increased the concentration of P and Ca in the soil at harvest.

Conclusion: Overall, combination of Minjingu phosphate rock or Triple super phosphate with Tughutu enhanced the effectiveness of these fertilizers and resultedin better growth and greater P and Ca amount in the shoots as well as their concentration in the soil at harvest.